Margaret Newman: Health as Expanding Consciousness


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Margaret Newman: Health as Expanding Consciousness

  1. 1. Jessica Passick, RN, BSN Kaplan University Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  2. 2. <ul><li>Why nursing?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caring for her mother </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ALS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep relationship </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Bachelor’s degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Tennessee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1962 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master’s degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of California </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1964 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctorate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New York University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1971 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Tennessee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New York University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania State University </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Minnesota </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University of Minnesota </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick Career
  4. 4. <ul><li>Martha Rogers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newman stated that Martha Roger’s theory of Unitary Human Beings was the main basis of the development of her theory, Health as Expanding Consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Itzhak Bentov </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept of evolution of consciousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arthur Young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pattern recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>David Bohm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of implicate order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Newman became “interested in nursing theory when asked to speak at a nursing conference in 1978” (McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>2 theories published by Margaret Newman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness (1986) </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ The theory of health as expanding consciousness (HEC) was stimulated by concern for those for whom health as the absence of disease or disability is not possible. Nurses often relate to such people: people facing the uncertainty, debilitation, loss and eventual death associated with chronic illness. The theory has progressed to include the health of all persons regardless of the presence or absence of disease. The theory asserts that every person in every situation, no matter how disordered and hopeless it may seem, is part of the universal process of expanding consciousness – a process of becoming more of oneself, of finding greater meaning in life, and of reaching new dimensions of connectedness with other people and the world” (Newman, 2009). </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  6. 6. <ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The human is unitary, that is cannot be divided into parts, and is inseparable from the larger unitary field” (Newman, as cited in McEwen, & Willis, 2007). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Persons as individuals, and human beings as a species are identified by their patterns of consciousness”…and that “the person does not possess consciousness-the person is consciousness” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment is described as a “universe of open systems” (McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  7. 7. <ul><li>Nursing is “caring in the human health experience” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Health is a “process of developing awareness of self and the environment together with increasing the ability to perceive alternatives and respond in a variety of ways” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  8. 8. <ul><li>Consciousness is described as what allows the “system to interact with the environment” and includes “feeling, thinking, and processing information” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding consciousness is the “evolving pattern of the whole” and is characterized by illumination and pattern recognition resulting in transformation and discovery” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  9. 9. <ul><li>Pattern is characterized by “movement, diversity, and rhythm” and is described as a “scheme, design, or framework as is seen in person-environment interactions” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Wills, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern recognition is the “insight or recognition of a principle, realization of a truth, or reconciliation of a duality” and is “key to the process of evolving to a higher level of consciousness” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  10. 10. <ul><li>Time and space is described as “temporal patterns that are specific to individuals and define their ways of being within their world” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ Health and illness are synthesized as health…the fusion on one state of being (disease) with its opposite (non-disease) results in what can be regarded as health” (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing is seen as a partnership between the nurse and client, with both grow in the “sense of higher levels of consciousness” (Ugarriza, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Environment is built upon Roger’s definition (McEwen & Willis, 2007). </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  12. 12. Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  13. 13. <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be applied in any setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Generates caring interventions” (McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-dimensional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little discussion on environment seen in the literature </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  14. 14. <ul><li>Humans can not be divided into parts (McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human beings, both as a species and individual, are identified by their patterns of consciousness (McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persons do not posses consciousness, they are consciousness (Newman, as cited in McEwen & Willis, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health is central to the theory and is seen “and is seen as a process of developing awareness of self and the environment” (McEwen & Willis, 2007). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illness and non-illness are not separate entities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Consciousness is a manifestation of an evolving pattern of person-environment interaction” (Newman, 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consciousness is expandable </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  15. 15. <ul><li>“ During a pediatric clinical experience, a student stated that she did not feel she could care effectively for children. Her reflective journals indicated that she felt sorry for the children and could not deal with their pain. The instructor dialogued with the student through the journal, communicating that children can teach nurses a lot about living. During the next few weeks, the clinical instructor assigned the student to children who appeared to be happy and thriving despite their chronic illnesses. The student became increasingly more enthusiastic about the experience. After reflecting on some insights about the experience with another student, the student applied for and was accepted for a summer job at a prescribed care facility for chronically ill children. Following the summer experience, the student told the instructor abut a personal decision to become a pediatric nurse. The student is currently practicing as a staff nurse in a pediatric intensive care unit” (Wade, 1998). </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick
  16. 16. <ul><li>McEwen, M., & Wills, E. (2007). Theoretical Basis for Nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & </li></ul><ul><li> Williams </li></ul><ul><li>Newman, M. (2009). Health as expanding consciousness . Retrieved May 21, 2009, from health as </li></ul><ul><li>expanding consciousness: </li></ul><ul><li>Ugarriza, D. N. (2002). Intentionality: Applications within Selected Theories of Nursing. Holistic </li></ul><ul><li> Nursing Practice, 16 (4), 41-50. </li></ul><ul><li>Wade, G. (1998). A concept analysis of personal transformation. Journal of Advanced Nursing , 28 (4), </li></ul><ul><li> 713-718. </li></ul>Copyright 2009 Jessica Passick