Research is the Search for Knowledge It is an Art of Scientific Investigation According to Redman and Mory, Research is a “Systematized effort to gain new knowledge” Research is an original addition to the available knowledge, which contributes to it’s further advancement In sum, Research is the search for knowledge, using objective and systematic methods to find solution to a problem
To gain familiarity with new insights into a phenomenon To accurately portray the characteristics of a particular individual, group, or a situation To analyze the frequency with which something occurs To examine the Hypothesis of a casual relationship between two variables
Research Methods are the methods that the researcher adopts for conducting the research Studies Research Methodology is the way in which research problems are solved systematically. It is the Science of studying how research is conducted Scientifically
Quantitative Approach(Uses experimental, inferential and simulation approaches to research) Qualitative Approach(Uses techniques like in-depth interview, focus group interviews)
In Descriptive Research, the Researcher has to only report what is happening or what has happened. In Analytical Research, the Researcher has to use the already available facts or information, and analyse them to make a critical evaluation of the subject
An attempt to find solution to an immediate problem encountered by a firm, an Industry, a business organization, or the Society is known as Applied Research Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is ‘Pure’ or ‘Basic’ or ‘Fundamental’ Research
Quantitative Research involves the measurement of quantity or amount. (ex: Economic & Statistical methods) Qualitative Research is concerned with the aspects related to or involving quality or Kind. (ex: Motivational Research involving behavioural Sciences)
The Research related to some abstract idea or theory is known as Conceptual Research. (Ex: Philosophers and Thinkers using this to developing new concepts) Empirical Research relies on the observation or experience with hardly any regard for theory and system.
One-time or Longitudinal Research (On the basis time) Laboratory Research or Field-setting or Simulational Research (On the basis of environment) Historical Research
Helps Researcher to develop disciplined thinking The Researcher will confidently evaluate and utilize the Research Findings Helps the Research consumer to evaluate Research and make rational decisions The Researcher will be equipped with knowledge of different tools to conduct scientific Research
Desire for accuracy of observation & precision of statement An alert mind. Must practice “The art of enduring intellectual hardships” Making statements cautiously
According to Hudson Maxim “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention”
1. Formulating the Research Problem 2. Extensive Literature Survey 3. Developing Hypothesis 4. Preparing the Research Design 5. Determining Sample Design 6. Collecting Data 7. Execution of the Project 8. Analysis of the Data 9. Hypothesis Testing 10. Generalization and Interpretation 11. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of the Results
Research Problem is an unanswered question that a researcher might encounter in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation
A research problem refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences and wants to obtain a solution for the same. The components of a research problem are: There should be an individual or a group who have some difficulty or problem There should be some objective to be pursued (A person or an organization who wants nothing cannot have a problem) There should be more than one alternative means available to the Researcher. There should be some doubt in the mind of the Researcher about the choice of alternative means There must be some environment to which the difficulty pertains
I- an individual or an organization (to whom the problem is attributed) Y-the environment where I is situated Z-the uncontrolled variables which control Y C1 & C2 two courses of action B1 & B2 two possible outcomes of the said course (One outcome should be what Researcher Wants)
Statement of the problem in a general way Understanding the nature of the problem Surveying the available literature Developing ideas through discussions Rephrasing the research problem
It highlights decisions which include1. The Name of the Study2. The Purpose of the Study3. The Location where the study would be conducted4. The Nature of Data Required5. From where the required Data can be collected6. What time period the study would cover7. The Type of Sample Design8. The Techniques of Data Collection9. The Methods of Data Analysis10.In what style will the report be prepared
The sampling design: method of selecting items The observational design: the conditions under which observations are to be made The statistical design: methods of data analysis The operational design: the techniques by which the procedures specified above can be carried out
Dependent and Independent variables Extraneous variables Confounded relationship Research hypothesis: A predictive statement that relates an independent variable to a dependent variable Experimental and non experimental hypothesis testing research: When the purpose of research is to test a research hypothesis, it is term end as hypothesis testing research. It can be of the experimental design or of the non experimental design Experimental and control groups
Research Design in case of exploratory research studies Research Design in case of Descriptive and Diagnostic research studies Research Design in case of Hypothesis- testing Research Design research studies
To formulate a Research Problem for an in-depth or more precise investigation To discover new ideas and insights Three methods considered for such Research Design a) A Survey of related Literature b) Experience survey c) Analysis of insight-stimulating instances: Suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide
Descriptive Research Design is concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group. Diagnostic Research Design is determines the frequency with which a variable occurs or it’s relationship with other. The design for both studies is rigid and consists of the following: Formulating the objective Data collection methods Sample selection Collection of data Analysis Reporting
The Researcher tests the Hypothesis of casual relationship between two or more variables Such studies require experiments to be conducted as experiments are unbiased. Thus when we talk of research design in such studies, we often mean the design of experiments.
The principle of replication: The experiment should be repeated more than once to increase the statistical accuracy of the experiments. In other words, it is a complete run for all the treatments to be tested in the experiment. The principle of randomization: Provides protection against the effect the extraneous factors The principle of local control: The extraneous factor is made to vary deliberately(application of ANOVA)
INFORMAL Before and after without control design After only with control design Before and after with control design FORMAL Completely randomized design Randomized block design Latin square design Factorial designs
There are 2 types of data: primary and secondary Primary data is collected by the researcher himself using surveys, observation and experiments Secondary data is already available beforehand Advantages and disadvantages of both types of data?????????
Identify the need for secondary data Test for objectivity, relevancy, accuracy, Stop using FUtility of internal data sources internal sec. currency, authenticity, action ability data Not useful Utility of external data Test for objectivity, relevancy, accuracy, F Stop using currency, authenticity, action ability external sec. sources data Not useful Stop using Use external data external sec. data
There are two major methods of primary data collection Survey: Gathering info through respondents for any pre established research objective Observation: watching and recording the behavior of test subjects without any interaction with them
Cost Time Response rate Speed of data collection Survey coverage area Bias due to Interviewer Quantity of data Anonymity of the respondents Question posing Question diversity
Observation research can be broadly classified as: Direct vs Indirect: observing behavior vs observing the outcome of behavior Structured vs unstructured: following a guideline vs not following a guideline Disguised vs undisguised: subject unaware vs subject aware Human vs Mechanical
Personal Observation Mechanical observation Audits (examination of particular records or inventory analysis of the items under investigation) Content analysis (research technique used to objectively and systematically make inferences about the intentions, attitudes and values of individuals by identifying specified characteristics in textual messages) Physical Trace Analysis(involves collection of data through physical trace of the subjects in terms of understanding their past behavior)
A questionnaire consists of formalized and prespecified set of questions designed to obtainresponses from potential respondents. Thequestions reflect the research objective underinvestigation
PART 1: Pre Construction Phase Specify the required info in light of the research objective Overview of respondent’s characteristics Selecting an appropriate survey technique PART 2: Construction Phase Decision regarding question format Decision Regarding question wording Decision Regarding question sequencing Decision Regarding question response choice Decision Regarding questionnaire layout Produce first draft of questionnaire PART 3: Post Construction Phase Go for pre testing Revisit the questionnaire Revise final draft Administer the questionnaire
Open-ended questions Questions in which respondent answers in his own words Most beneficial in exploratory research Costs are much greater than for fixed questions due to coding, editing, and analyzing the data. Fixed-alternative/Close-ended questions Question in which respondent selects one or more options from pre-determined set of responses Alternatives should be mutually exclusive 3 types: Simple dichotomy , MCQs and scales Most questionnaires include both open-ended and close ended questions.
Questions should be simple and easy to understand Eg: What is your perception about the new ad campaign? No Vague or ambiguous words Eg: in one year, how much will you spend on shopping? Avoid double barreled questions Eg: On weekends, would you prefer an outing with your family and where would you like to go? Avoid leading and loaded questions Eg: Aren’t you satisfied with the new feature of this product? Eg: Every patriotic Indian will prefer an Indian brand of soap. In some situations, the split ballot technique is used
Avoid using overstated words Avoid implied assumptions Do you think Company A should continue with its incentive scheme on bulk purchase? Respondent’s memory should not be overtaxed Avoid generalization and estimation What is the average per person consumption of pulses by your family in the past 6 months? Respondent’s ability to answer must be considered
Screening questions Opening questions Transition statements(movement from one set of questions to another) Difficult to answer questions Identification and categorization questions (basic info and demographic info) Logical order of questioning(Funnel technique, Work technique, Section technique)
As a general rule, researchers present a question with five to seven response alternatives, but these can vary in accordance to the question being asked. Eg: which place would you like to visit during the holidays? Eg: how do you like to spend your time during the weekend?
Decision Regarding questionnaire layoutProduce first draft of questionnaire
PRE TESTING: Involves administering the questionnaire to a small sample of the population to identify and eliminate potential problems. 4 methods are used: expert panel, conventional pre test, behavioral interaction coding and cognitive interviews REVISIT THE QUESTIONNAIRE REVISE FINAL DRAFT ADMINISTER THE QUESTIONNAIRE