Emergency nursingFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaEmergency Nursing is a nursing specialty in which nurses care for patients in the emergency orcritical phase of their illness or injury.In contrast to practically every other specialty of nursing, in which a patient arrives witha diagnosis applied by a physician and the nurse must manage the patients care according to thatdiagnosis, emergency nurses work with patients in whom a diagnosis has not yet been made andthe cause of the problem is not known. Emergency nurses frequently contact patients intheemergency department before the patient sees a physician. In this situation, the nurse must beskilled at rapid, accurate physical examination, early recognition of life-threatening illness or injury,the use of advanced monitoring and treatment equipment, and in some cases, the ordering oftesting and medication according to "advance treatment guidelines" or "standing orders" set out bythe hospitals emergency physician staff. As any type of patient from newborn to elderly, fromminor injury to critical trauma or illness may present to the emergency department, emergencynursing encompasses aspects of pediatrics, obstetrics, critical care, psychology and geriatrics.Emergency nursing may also involve aspects of law enforcement, as in the careofassault or rape victims, or those involved in drunk driving or drug abuse; in these cases, thenurse must care for the patient while simultaneously preserving and collecting evidence for futurelegal use.Emergency nurses most frequently are employed in hospital emergency departments, though theymay also work in free-standing urgent care clinics.EMERGENCY NURSEBackground:Emergency nurses specialize in rapid assessment and treatment when every second counts,particularly during the initial phase of acute illness and trauma. Emergency nurses musttackle diverse tasks with professionalism, efficiency, and above all—caring.Emergency nursing is a specialty area of the nursing profession like no other. To providequality patient care for people of all ages, emergency nurses must possess both general andspecific knowledge about health care to provide quality patient care for people of all ages.Emergency nurses must be ready to treat a wide variety of illnesses or injury situations,ranging from a sore throat to a heart attack.Roles: • Patient Care—Emergency nurses care for patients and families in hospital emergency departments, ambulances, helicopters, urgent care centers, cruise ships, sports arenas, industry, government, and anywhere someone may have a medical emergency or where medical advances or injury prevention is a concern.
• Education—Emergency nurses provide education to the public through programs to promote wellness and prevent injuries, such as alcohol awareness, child passenger safety, gun safety, bicycle and helmet safety, and domestic violence prevention. • Leadership and Research—Emergency nurses also may work as administrators, managers, and researchers who work to improve emergency health care. Specialties:Because emergency nurses must be prepared to provide patient care for almost any situationthey may encounter, specialization is rare. However, common areas of specialization includetrauma, pediatrics, geriatrics, and injury prevention.Qualifications:Emergency nurses are registered nurses. Many emergency nurses acquire additionalcertifications in the areas of trauma nursing, pediatric nursing, nurse practitioner, and variousareas of injury prevention.A. General information1. Emergency nursing deals with human responses to any trauma or sudden illness that requires immediate intervention to prevent imminent severe damage or death2. Care is provided in any setting to persons of all ages with actual or perceived alterations in physical or emotional health.3. Initially, patients may not have a medical diagnosis.4. Care is episodic when patients return frequently, primary when it is the initial option for health or preventive care, or acute when patients need immediate and additional interventions.5. Emergency nursing is a specialty area of the nursing profession like no other.6. Emergency nurses must be ready to treat a wide variety of illnesses or injury situations, ranging from a sore throat to a heart attack.C. Emergency Care Environment1. Prehospital care by emergency medical services (EMS), emergency medical technicians, and paramedics provides initial stabilizations and transport of patients; personnel communicate with the emergency department during patient transport2. The national emergency telephone number 911 is the result of an effort to improve access to EMS3. The concept of the emergency room has expanded to that of the emergency department, which provides various levels of care4. Specialized electronic technology and techniques are used to monitor patient status continuously; these may pose safety hazards to patients, such as possible exposure to electric shockD. Triage
1. Triage classifies emergency patients for assessment and treatment priorities2. Triage decisions require gathering objective and subjective data rapidly and effectively to determine the type of priority situation present3. Emergent situations are potentially life-threatening; they include such conditions as respiratory distress or arrest, cardiac arrest, severe chest pain, seizures, hemorrhage, severe trauma resulting in open chest or abdominal wounds, shock, poisonings, drug overdoses, temperatures over 105°F (40.5°C), emergency childbirth, or delivery complications4. Urgent situations are serious but not life-threatening if treatment is delayed briefly; they include such conditions as chest pain without respiratory distress, major fractures, burns, decreased level of consciousness, back injuries, nausea or vomiting, severe abdominal pain, temperature between 102 and 105°F (38.9 and 40.5° C), bleeding from any orifice, acute panic, or anxiety5. Nonemergency situations are not acute and are considered minor to moderately severe; they include such conditions as chronic backache or other symptoms, moderate headache, minor burns, fractures, sprains, upper respiratory or urinary infections, or instances in which a patient is dead on arrivalE. Roles of the Emergency Nurse1. Care provider: provides comprehensive direct care to the patient and family.2. Educator: provides patient and family with education based on their learning needs and the severity of the situation and allows the patient to assume more responsibility for meeting health care needs3. Manager: coordinates activities of others in the multidisciplinary team to achieve the specific goal of providing emergency care4. Advocate: ensures protection of the patient’s rightsF. Functions of the Emergency Nurse1. Uses triage to determine priorities based on assessment and anticipation of the patient’s needs2. Provides direct measures to resuscitate, if necessary3. Provides preliminary care before the patient is transferred to the primary care area4. Provides health education to the patient and family5. Supervises patient care and ancillary personnel6. Provides support and protection for the patient and familyG. Legal issues affecting the provision of emergency nursing1. Negligence2. Malpractice3. Good Samaritan Laws (these statutes may protect private citizens but usually do not apply to emergency personnel on duty or in normal emergency situations)4. Informed consent5. Implied consent6. Duty to report suspected crimes to the police7. Duty to gather evidence in criminal investigations; be aware of hospital policy and state laws for evidence collection8. Advanced directives, including durable power of attorney and living willsH. Qualifications of an Emergency Nurse
1. An emergency nurse is a registered nurse with specialized education and experience in caring for emergency patients.2. Emergency nurses continually update their education to stay informed of the latest trends, issues, and procedures in medicine today.3. Many take a special examination that proves their level of knowledge. After successful completion of this exam they are certified in emergency nursing.4. Some emergency nurses also acquire additional certifications in the areas of trauma nursing, pediatric nursing, nurse practitioner, and various areas of injury prevention5. Many emergency nurses acquire additional certifications in the areas of trauma nursing, pediatric nursing, nurse practitioner, and various areas of injury prevention