Plant kingdom


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Plant kingdom

  1. 1. Plant Kingdom JGT
  2. 2. Early Ancestors Aquatic to Terrestrial Life
  3. 3. Aquatic Ancestor <ul><li>Closest living species to a possible land plant ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Group of green algae </li></ul><ul><li>Called Charyophyceans </li></ul>Chara
  4. 4. Algae & Land Plant Similarities <ul><li>Both contain chlorophylls a and b </li></ul><ul><li>Have chloroplasts with stacks of thylakoids </li></ul><ul><li>Store starch in plastids </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose in cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Go through Alternation of Generations life Cycle </li></ul>
  5. 5. Terrestrial Habitat Aquatic Habitat
  6. 6. Living in Aquatic Environments <ul><li>Plants surrounded by water so don’t dry out </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm swims to egg </li></ul><ul><li>Water supports plant </li></ul><ul><li>Plants stay in upper surface near light </li></ul><ul><li>Absorb nutrients from the H 2 O </li></ul>
  7. 7. Problems living in a terrestrial ecosystem <ul><li>Support - in water, the plant is held up. On land, a support system is required. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Plant Adaptations to Land <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Need minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Height for Light </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations for Drier environment </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions: </li></ul><ul><li>Roots absorb H 2 O & minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Lignin & cellulose in cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular Transport System </li></ul><ul><li>Waxy cuticle & stomata with guard cells </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen containing sperm </li></ul>
  9. 9. General Characteristics of Plants <ul><li>The earliest plants appeared around a half a billion years ago. (Earth was barren rock before then). </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are eukaryotic, multicellular organisms that carry out photosynthesis. Their cells have cell walls containing cellulose. They are mostly land-dwelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants develop from embryos protected by the tissues of the parent plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants include mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are adapted for life on land, (a few are aquatic), and thrive in a wide variety of environments. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Plants go through an alternation of generations . One generation is haploid (n) and the other is diploid (2n). </li></ul><ul><li>These are called the gametophyte and sporophyte generations. </li></ul><ul><li>A plant produces haploid reproductive cells called spores. A spore will undergo cell division (mitosis) to grow into a new plant. </li></ul><ul><li>These haploid plants eventually produce gametes, which fuse to produce a diploid zygote. The zygote then grows into a diploid sporophyte plant. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nonvascular <ul><li>No vessels </li></ul><ul><li>No roots </li></ul><ul><li>No stems </li></ul><ul><li>No leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Mosses and liverworts </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Non-Vascular Plants <ul><li>Bryophytes include the mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. </li></ul><ul><li>These plants lack true roots, stems and leaves and they do not have specialized tissues to transport materials throughout the plant body. </li></ul><ul><li>These grow in dense mats in moist environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Bryophytes produce spores rather than seeds. A plant that is the result of fertilization releases the spores. Wind or water carries the spores to a suitable environment where they develop into mature plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Peat moss is very important as a fuel for heat and electricity, a soil additive and storage area reducing the Earth’s levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Division Bryophyta – mosses, liverworts, hornworts. All are non-vascular and non-seed . </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Bryophyte gametophytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce flagellated sperm in antheridia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce ova in archegonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally form ground-hugging carpets and are at most only a few cells thick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some mosses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have conducting tissues in the center of their “stems” and may grow vertically </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Division Lycophyta - Club Mosses – vascular and non-seed .
  16. 17. Division Pterophyta whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns vascular and non-seed .
  17. 18. Life cycle of a bryophyte
  18. 19. Liverwort Hornwort Mosses Three types of Bryophytes
  19. 21. Vascular <ul><li>Have vessels to transport food and water </li></ul><ul><li>They have roots, stems or leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: grass, corn, trees, flowers, bushes </li></ul>
  20. 22. Getting Water and Nutrients <ul><li>Aquatic plants are surrounded by water and nutrients so most cells can just absorb them the environment. Terrestrial plants require a system for collecting and transporting water. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants developed root systems that can collect and transport water. Some plants have shallow roots which spread out to collect water. </li></ul><ul><li>Water carrying minerals from the roots can travel to all parts of the plant and food made in the leaves can travel to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant. </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>A leaf is a broad flat organ that traps light energy for photosynthesis and exchanges gases through stomata. </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and passes that energy into the stroma. </li></ul><ul><li>Stroma contain enzymes that turn light energy into sugar and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>SUNLIGHT + 6CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Grana are stacks light trapping chlorophyll. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Drying Out <ul><li>Leaves are covered by a waterproof outer layer called the cuticle. </li></ul><ul><li>Openings in the leaves called stomata allow passage of gases for photosynthesis but can be closed when it is too warm. </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms have very narrow leaves to minimize water loss. </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Cuticle – a protective waxy coating that prevents H 2 O in plant tissues from evaporating into the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Within the cuticle are stomata that allow exchange of gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Guard cells open and close pores in the stomata to release O 2 into the atmosphere and take in CO 2 . </li></ul>
  26. 28. Root – a plant organ that anchors the plant in soil and absorbs H 2 O and minerals from soil transporting them to the stem.
  27. 29. <ul><li>A root cell’s job is to take water and nutrients from the soil and send them up to the part of the plant above the ground. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Growing root includes 3 regions: </li></ul><ul><li>- root tip </li></ul><ul><li>- elongation region </li></ul><ul><li>- maturation region </li></ul><ul><li>Root tip and elongation region are sites of primary growth through apical meristem tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Maturation zone, vascular tissue forms primary xylem and phloem which forms </li></ul><ul><li>stele (the inner concentric cylinder) </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>The stem is the plant’s structural support for upright growth containing tissues to transport H 2 O, minerals, and nutrients from one part of the plant to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Stems may also store food. </li></ul><ul><li>Green stems carry on photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>The stem is the plant’s structural support for upright growth containing tissues to transport H 2 O, minerals, and nutrients from one part of the plant to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Stems may also store food. </li></ul><ul><li>Green stems carry on photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Plant Vascular Tissues <ul><li>Xylem – made up of a series of dead tubular cells that transport H 2 O and dissolved minerals upward from roots to leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem – made up of a series of living tubular cells that transport sugars from leaves to all parts of the plant. </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Two types of xylem cells: </li></ul><ul><li>- tracheids which are are long and thin </li></ul><ul><li>- vessel elements which are short and thick </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem cells are made up of </li></ul><ul><li>- sieve tube elements (carry nutrients) </li></ul><ul><li>- companion cells (support sieve tube elements) </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Xylem: transports water </li></ul><ul><li>Phloem: transports food & nutrients </li></ul>
  34. 39. <ul><li>When there is no water in the soil for the plant, it looses turgor pressure (wilts). </li></ul>
  35. 40. <ul><li>Alternation of Generations </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In meiosis , the chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid number. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In fertilization, the nuclei of two gametes fuse, raising the chromosome number from haploid to diploid. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 41. <ul><li>In most plants meiosis and fertilization divide the life of the organism into two distinct phases or &quot;generations&quot;. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The gametophyte generation begins with a spore produced by meiosis. The spore is haploid, and all the cells derived from it (by mitosis) are also haploid. In due course, this multicellular structure produces gametes — by mitosis — and sexual reproduction then produces the diploid sporophyte generation . </li></ul></ul>
  37. 42. <ul><li>In fact, the gametophyte generation is the major stage in the life of mosses and an independent plant in ferns . </li></ul><ul><li>However, the gametophyte is only an inconspicuous structure in angiosperms and other &quot;higher&quot; plants. </li></ul>
  38. 44. <ul><li>The sporophyte generation produces spores (diploid) which develop into the gametophyte generation. </li></ul><ul><li>The gametophyte generation produces gametes (haploid). </li></ul><ul><li>In vascular plants, the sporophyte generation is dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>In non-vascular plants, the gametophyte is larger and more conspicuous than the sporophyte. </li></ul>
  39. 45. <ul><li>Plant Tropisms </li></ul><ul><li> Phototrophism - growth toward light </li></ul>
  40. 46. <ul><li>Plant Tropisms </li></ul><ul><li> Gravitropism – downward growth of roots </li></ul>
  41. 47. <ul><li>Plant Tropisms </li></ul><ul><li>- Thigmotropism </li></ul><ul><li>– plants response when it comes into contact with a solid object. </li></ul>
  42. 49. Vegetative Reproduction………………. …………… is asexual
  43. 50. <ul><li>Plant Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Meristematic tissue is made up of actively </li></ul><ul><li>dividing cells </li></ul><ul><li>Primary growth occurs via apical </li></ul><ul><li>meristems in the tips of roots and stems </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary growth is carried out by lateral </li></ul><ul><li>meristems increasing the girth of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>- two types of cells: vascular cambium </li></ul><ul><li> cork cambium </li></ul>
  44. 51. <ul><li>Vascular cambium </li></ul><ul><li>produces secondary xylem and </li></ul><ul><li> phloem secondary which replaces </li></ul><ul><li> primary xylem and primary phloem </li></ul><ul><li>Cork cambium produces the tissues of the </li></ul><ul><li>outer bark </li></ul><ul><li>Plants also have lenticels which allow for gas </li></ul><ul><li> exchange through bark </li></ul>
  45. 52. The Vascular Plants <ul><li>Tracheophytes are a diverse group of plants that include most modern day plants. </li></ul><ul><li>They are well adapted to life on land due to the presence of conducting tissues called xylem and phloem, which transport materials throughout the plant. This evolution allows these plants to grow much taller than bryophytes. </li></ul><ul><li>The vascular plants are divided into two groups: the spore-producing plants and the seed-producing plants. </li></ul>
  46. 53. <ul><li>Seedless plants ( e.g. , ferns) have a vascular system but reproduce using spores. </li></ul>
  47. 54. <ul><li>Spores </li></ul>
  48. 56. Spore-producing Vascular Plants <ul><li>The club mosses and horsetails contain the smallest and most primitive members of the tracheophytes. They grow in marshes and on the edges of streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferns are closely related to club mosses and horsetails but are more widespread. Found from the artic to rain forests mostly in shady and wet environments. </li></ul><ul><li>The leaves of ferns are called fronds. Ferns have underground stems called rhizomes. Ferns produce spores in sporangia. Ferns require water in order for the sperm to reach the archegonia to fertilize the eggs. </li></ul>
  49. 57. The life cycle of a fern
  50. 58. Club moss Ferns Horsetails Three types of spore producers
  51. 59. Seed producing Vascular Plants <ul><li>Most successful plants on Earth. They have highly specialized organs; leaves, stems and roots that have allowed them to adapt to a variety of environments. </li></ul><ul><li>The two main groups of seed producing plants produce either cones or flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>In both groups sexual reproduction occurs by pollination . As a result these plants don’t require water and can survive in dry environments. </li></ul>
  52. 60. Seed Plants <ul><li>Gymnosperms have seeds that are not enclosed. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;naked seeds&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>cone bearing plants (seeds grow on cones) </li></ul><ul><li>needle like leaves </li></ul><ul><li>usually stay green year round </li></ul><ul><li>wind pollinated </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: pine trees & evergreens </li></ul>
  53. 62. Gymnosperms <ul><li>In addition to conifers, there are three groups of gymnosperms: gnetae, ginkgos, and cycads. </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms have specialized reproductive structures called cones. There are two types: the male cones (pollen cones) produce pollen grains and the female cones (seed cones) produce ovules. </li></ul><ul><li>The male cones release pollen grains, which are carried in the wind and some of them drift into female cones. Once inside the pollen grain produces sperm cells by mitosis and these fertilize the ovules. After fertilization, zygotes grow into seeds on the surface of the cones scales. Once the cone matures and if it lands on good soil it can develop into a new plant. </li></ul><ul><li>The wood from conifers is called softwood and is used extensively in construction. Canada supplies 20% of the world’s softwood. </li></ul>
  54. 63. <ul><li>Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds on scales of woody strobili called cones. </li></ul>
  55. 64. <ul><li>In other words, they have naked seeds - seeds not enclosed in a fruit. </li></ul>
  56. 65. <ul><li>The four divisions of Gymnosperms are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycadophyta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ginkgophyta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnetophyta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferophyta </li></ul></ul>
  57. 66. <ul><li>Cycads have a terminal rosette of leaves and bear seeds in cones. </li></ul><ul><li>All cycads have separate male and female plants. </li></ul>
  58. 67. <ul><li>Division Ginkgophyta has only on living species – Ginkgo biloba . </li></ul><ul><li>The leaves are lobed. </li></ul><ul><li>Like Cycads, Ginkgos have separate male and female trees. </li></ul>
  59. 69. <ul><li>Division Gnetophyta has 3 genera: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gnetum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ephedra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welwitschia </li></ul></ul>
  60. 71. <ul><li>Coniferophyta is the largest and most diverse division of the gymnosperms. </li></ul><ul><li>Most are evergreen – keeping their leaves year-round. </li></ul><ul><li>A very few are deciduous – dropping all of their leaves at </li></ul><ul><li>the same time </li></ul>
  61. 73. The life cycle of a conifer
  62. 74. Angiosperms <ul><li>Angiosperms are flowering plants. They are the most widespread with about 250,000 species. </li></ul><ul><li>All angiosperms reproduce sexually by means of flowers, through the process of pollination. </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm seeds are contained in a protective wall that develops into a fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperms are the most successful of all plants due to the following: </li></ul><ul><li>they use flowers as their reproductive structures and they don’t require water for reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>the ovules of angiosperms are more protected than those of gymnosperms </li></ul><ul><li>Their well protected seeds are dispersed through a variety of different methods. </li></ul>
  63. 76. Angiosperms include one division - Anthophyta
  64. 77. <ul><li>Though there is only one division of angiosperms , Anthophyta …. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the largest and most diverse group of seed plants on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthophytes produce flowers, then seeds enclosed in a fruit . </li></ul><ul><li>Anthophytes can be annuals , biennials , or perennials . </li></ul>
  65. 78. <ul><li>What is an annual ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a biennial ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a perennial ? </li></ul>
  66. 79. The life cycle of an angiosperm
  67. 80. <ul><li>In order for the angiosperms to reproduce, an ovum inside the pistil, the female part of the flower, must be fertilized by a sperm cell, contained in a pollen grain. </li></ul><ul><li>Once fertilized, the zygote develops into an embryo contained in a seed. The seeds must be released from the fruit and find suitable soil in which to germinate into a new plant. This seed dispersal occurs by means of wind, water, and animal involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-pollination- pollen from the same plant fertilizes an egg cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-pollination- pollen transferred from one plant to another of the same species. </li></ul>
  68. 81. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of fruit? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 83. <ul><li>Seeds can be dispersed in a variety of ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passing through an animals digestive system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catching on fur or skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floating on water </li></ul></ul>
  70. 84. The parts of a flowering plant
  71. 85. <ul><li>Male Gametophyte </li></ul>
  72. 86. <ul><li>Female Gametophyte </li></ul>
  73. 87. Fertilization
  74. 88. <ul><li>most are pollinated by birds & bees </li></ul><ul><li>have finite growing seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: grasses, tulips, oaks, dandelions </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into two main groups: Monocots & Dicots </li></ul>
  75. 91. Monocots <ul><li>Angiosperms have 1 seed leaf (cotyledon) </li></ul><ul><li>parallel veins on leaves </li></ul><ul><li>3 part symmetry for flowers </li></ul><ul><li>fibrous roots </li></ul><ul><li>Example: lilies, onions, corn, grasses, wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular tissue scattered </li></ul>
  76. 92. Dicots <ul><li>Angiosperms that have 2 seed leaves (cotyledons) </li></ul><ul><li>net veins on leaves </li></ul><ul><li>flowers have 4-5 parts </li></ul><ul><li>taproots </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: trees and ornamental flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular tissue arranged in a ring </li></ul>
  77. 93. Success of Angiosperms <ul><li>Transport gametes over great distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient dispersal via fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Tough, water resistant leaves for survival in hostile environments. </li></ul>
  78. 94. Pollination <ul><li>Birds are attracted to red flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Bees can see colors that humans cannot. </li></ul><ul><li>Moth-pollinated flowers are white and bloom at night. </li></ul>
  79. 95. <ul><li>Many insects are attracted to odors. One species smells like rotting meat and is pollinated by flies. </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers are often shaped so that non-pollinators cannot reach nectar or pollen. For example, hummingbird-pollinated flowers are long, and shaped like the bill of a hummingbird. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind-pollinated flowers are small, have no petals and little color and do not produce nectar. </li></ul>
  80. 97. Spreading Gametes <ul><li>Spores – tiny reproductive cells are carried long distance by the wind </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The embryo inside the seed is surrounded by a tough, drought-resistant, protective seed coat. Food packaged in the seed provides energy for the young plant until it can grow above the soil and begin photosynthesizing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations of seeds help in their dispersal. Some seeds are carried by wind, stick to the fur of animals or are eaten. </li></ul></ul>
  81. 99. Plant Uses: Why We Can’t do Without Plants! <ul><li>Produce oxygen for the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Produce lumber for building </li></ul><ul><li>Provide homes and food for many organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Used for food </li></ul>
  82. 100. <ul><li>Produce wood pulp for paper products </li></ul><ul><li>Source of many medicines </li></ul><ul><li>Ornamental and shade for yards </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers such as cotton for fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Dyes </li></ul>
  83. 101. <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What characteristics are shared by all plants? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What similarities and differences exist between plants and monerans? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What similarities and differences exist between plants and protists? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What similarities and differences exist between plants and fungi? </li></ul><ul><li>5. How are vascular plants and non-vascular plants different? </li></ul><ul><li>6. What group of plants lacks vascular tissue? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Simple, non-vascular plants can attain large size without the presence of support tissue while mosses cannot. Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Name two plant requirements that were met by vascular tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>9. State one difference and one similarity between mosses and ferns. </li></ul><ul><li>10. State one difference and one similarity between ferns and seed plants. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Why are ferns often described as the evolutionary link between mosses and seed plants? </li></ul><ul><li>12. How do seeds of gymnosperms differ from those of angiosperms? </li></ul><ul><li>13. What are the main reasons that angiosperms are so diverse and abundant? </li></ul><ul><li>14. What are some ways in which the is flower an advantage to angiosperms? </li></ul><ul><li>15. Describe the function of each of the main parts of the flower. </li></ul><ul><li>16. What is the name of the part of the pistil in which the ovules develop? </li></ul><ul><li>17. Where does fertilization occur in the flower? </li></ul><ul><li>18. Ovules mature into ____ and ovaries mature into _____ </li></ul><ul><li>19. Explain the differences you would expect to see in flowers of plants that are wind pollinated as opposed to those that are insect pollinated. </li></ul><ul><li>20. How would you expect seeds of large, colorful fruits to be dispersed? </li></ul><ul><li>21. Grasses often grow in open areas forming large fields. Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>22. What are the major functions of fruits? </li></ul><ul><li>23. Certain vascular plants, such as water lilies, live in water. Does this mean they are older than ferns? </li></ul>