Ed 501: Philosophy- Behaviorism


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This slide discuss about the life, works and theories of Ivan Pavlov, Burrhus "B.F." Skinner, and Edward Thorndike.

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Ed 501: Philosophy- Behaviorism

  1. 1. BEHAVIOURISM a school of thought in psychology based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment
  2. 2. ASSUMPTIONS OF BEHAVIOURISM the environment shapes behaviour taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behaviour
  3. 3. IVAN PAVLOV (1849-1936) "Science demands from a man all his life. If you had two lives that would not be enough for you. Be passionate in your work and in your searching." - Ivan Pavlov Best Known For: Classical conditioning Research on physiology and digestion. 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology.
  4. 4. IVAN PAVLOV (1849-1936) Contributions to Psychology: development of behaviourism discovery and research on reflexes influenced the growing behaviourist movement
  5. 5. IVAN PAVLOV (1849-1936) Contributions to Psychology: researchers utilized Pavlov's work in the study of conditioning as a form of learning research also demonstrated techniques of studying reactions to the environment in an objective, scientific method
  6. 6. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING One of the best-known aspects of behavioural learning theory A learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus
  7. 7. PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Generalization Discrimination
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Acquisition initial stage of learning when a response is first established and gradually strengthened Extinction when the occurrences of a conditioned response decrease or disappear. In classical conditioning, this happens when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus
  9. 9. PRINCIPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Spontaneous Recovery the reappearance of the conditioned response after a rest period or period of lessened response Stimulus Generalization tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned Discrimination the ability to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
  10. 10. BURRHUS FREDERIC “B.F.” SKINNER (1904- 1990) “Teachers must learn how to teach … they need only to be taught more effective ways of teaching.” - B.F. Skinner Best Known For: Operant conditioning chamber. Reinforcement. Punishment.
  11. 11. Contributions to Psychology:  invented the operant conditioning also known as Skinner’s box  innovated his own philosophy of science called radical behaviourism  founded his own school of experimental research psychology –the experimental analysis of behaviourism BURRHUS FREDERIC “B.F.” SKINNER (1904- 1990)
  12. 12. Contributions to Psychology:  discovered and advanced the rate of response as a dependent variable in psychological research.  invented the cumulative recorder BURRHUS FREDERIC “B.F.” SKINNER (1904- 1990)
  13. 13. OPERANT CONDITIONING CHAMBER  Operant refers to any behavior that operates on the environment Learning occurs when the individual makes desired responses because he is awarded for doing so and he avoids undesired responses because he is not rewarded or is punished by making them
  14. 14. Primary Reward Conditioning Escaping Conditioning Avoidance Conditioning Secondary Reward Conditioning TYPES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING CHAMBER
  15. 15. REINFORCEMENT  refers to any consequence or effect of a particular act that increases the probability of the acts recurring  a powerful tool in shaping and controlling behavior in and out of the classroom
  16. 16. CLASSIFICATION OF REINFORCEMENT Verbal Physical Non- Verbal Activity Token Consumable Good Job! Very Good! Excellent!
  17. 17. 100 WAYSTO PRAISEYOUR CHILD Wow * Way to go * super * You are special * outstanding * excellent * great * good * neat * well done * remarkable * I knew you could do it * I am proud of you * Fantastic * Super star * Nice work * Looking good * You are on top of it * Beautiful * now you are flying * you are catching on * now you’ve got it * you are incredible * bravo * you’re fantastic * hurray for you * you’re on target* you’re on your way * how nice * how smart * good job * that’s incredible * hotdog * dynamite * you’re beautiful * you’re unique * nothing can stop you now * good for you * I like you * you are a winner * remarkable job * hip,hip,hooray * bingo * magnificent* marvelous* terrific * you’re important * phenomenal * you’re sensational * super work * creative job * excellent job * exceptional performance * you’re a real trooper * you are responsible * you’re exciting * you learned it right * what an imagination * what a good listener * you’re fun * you’re growing up * you tried hard * you care* beautiful sharing * outstanding performance * you’re a good friend * I trust you * you’re important * you mean a lot to me * you make me happy * you belong * you’ve got a friend * you make me laugh * you brighten my day * I respect you * you mean the world to me * that is correct * you’re a joy * you’re a treasure * you’re wonderful * you’re perfect * awesome * A+ job * you’re okay * my buddy *
  18. 18. REINFORCERS  Primary Reinforcers are those that satisfy basic human needs  Secondary Reinforcers are those that acquire reinforcing power because they have been associated with primary reinforcers.
  19. 19. TYPE OF REINFORCERS  Positive Reinforcers are events that are presented after a response has been performed and that increase the behavior or activity they follow.  Negative Reinforcers are escape from unpleasant situations or ways of preventing something unpleasant occurring.
  20. 20. TYPE OF REINFORCERS  Positive Reinforcers are events that are presented after a response has been performed and that increase the behavior or activity they follow.  Negative Reinforcers are escape from unpleasant situations or ways of preventing something unpleasant occurring.
  21. 21. PUNISHMENT  occurs when a stimuli delivers to an organism decreases that rate of probability of occurrence of the response that preceded it
  22. 22. TYPE OF PUNISHMENT  Positive Punishment involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows  Negative Punishment occurs when a favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.
  23. 23. EDWARD LEETHORNDIKE (1874- 1949) “Education is what survives when what has been learnt has been forgotten” –Edward Lee “Ted”Thorndike Best Known For: Theory of Connectionism  Law of Readiness  Law of Exercise  Law of Effect
  24. 24. Contributions to Psychology:  his work on animal behaviour and the learning process led to the theory of connectionism Helped lay the scientific foundation for modern educational psychology He was a board member of Psychological Corporation and serves as President of the American Psychological Corporation EDWARD LEETHORNDIKE (1874- 1949)
  25. 25. THORNDIKE’S LAW  Law of Readiness implies the degree of preparedness and eagerness to learn.  Law of Exercise things that are most often repeated are best remembered.  Law of Effect based on the emotional reaction and motivation of the students. Learning strengthened with pleasant or satisfying feeling while unpleasant feelings tend to do otherwise.
  26. 26. THORNDIKE’S LAW  Law of Primacy is learning should be done correctly for the first time since it is difficult to “unlearn” or change an incorrectly learned materials.  Law of Recency are things that are most recently learned are often best remembered.  Law of Intensity the more intense something is taught, the more likely it will be retained.
  27. 27. THREE MAJOR SCHOOL OF LEARNING  Behavioral Theory is learning takes place when there is a change in behavior.  Field and Gestalt Theory is observational learning, imitation and modeling. Cognitive Theory is learning by thinking, reasoning and transferring.
  28. 28. THREE ROLE OF LEARNING Role ofTeacher Role of Student Role of Curriculum