Joyce T. Duhaylungsod Educational Technology II
BSEd - English III Prof. Leonardo Pongos
Some of the missing links of the Developments of Educational Technology
- method of presenting new subject matter to students in a graded sequence of controlled steps.
Students work through the programmed material by themselves at their own speed and after each step
test their comprehension by answering an examination question or filling in a diagram. They are then
immediately shown the correct answer or given additional information. Computers and other types of
teaching machines are often used to present the material, although books may also be used. Computer-
assisted instruction, which both tests students' abilities and marks their progress, may supplement
classroom activity or help studentsto develop ideas and skills independently.
The first teaching machine was invented (1934) by Sydney L. Pressey, but it was not until the
1950s that practical methods of programming were developed. Programmed instruction was
reintroduced (1954) by B. F. Skinner of Harvard, and much of the system is based on his theory of the
nature of learning. As programming technology developed, so did the range of teaching machines and
other programmed instruction materials. Programs have been devised for the teaching of spelling,
reading, arithmetic, foreign languages, physics, psychology, and a number of other subjects. Some
programs are linear in concept, allowing advancement only in a particular order as the correct answer is
given. Others are branching, giving additional information at the appropriate level whether a correct or
incorrect answer is given.
Although there has been considerable controversy regarding the merits of programmedinstruction as the
sole method of teaching, many educators agree that it can contribute to more efficient classroom
procedure and supplement conventional teaching methods. Teaching machines enable students to work
individually, calling for active participation of the learner. In industry and the armed services,
programmedinstruction is often used to train personnel.
1970 Systematic Instructional Design
Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)) is the practice of
maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The
processconsists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal
of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. Ideally the processis informed
by pedagogically and andragogically (adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take place in
student- only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly
observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. There are many instructional
design models but many are based on the ADDIE model with the phasesanalysis, design, development,
implementation, and evaluation. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in
cognitive and behavioral psychology.
Computer- Assisted Language Learning originates from CAI (Computer- Accelerated
Instruction), a term that was first viewed as an aid for teachers. The philosophy of CALL puts a strong
emphasis on student- centered lessons that allow the learners to learn on their own using structured
and/or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features: bidirectional
(interactive) learning and individualized learning. CALL is not a method. It is a tool that helps teachers
to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the
classrooms. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited languageproficiency
1990 The Internet
An online learning community is a common place on the Internet that addresses the learning
needs of its members through proactive and collaborative partnerships. Through social networking and
computer- mediated communication, people work as a community to achieve a shared learning objective.
Learning objectives may be proposed by an instructor or may arise out of discussions between
participants that reflect personal interests. In an online community, people communicate via textual
discussion (synchronous or asynchronous), audio, video, or other Internet- supported devices. Blogs
blend personal journaling with social networking to create environments with opportunities for
Much literature promotes online learning communities as environments conducive to
communities of practice as described by Etienne Wenger. eTwinning is a European online community
operatedby European schoolnet comprising more than 50,000 registeredteachers.
2000 Social Network and Web 2.0
Rourke, Anderson, Garrison & Archer (1999) define social presence as the ability of learners to
project themselvessocially and affectively into an online community of inquiry. Three categories of
Affective - the expression of emotion, feelings, and mood
Interactive - thosethat show that someoneelse is attending to the poster
Cohesive - thosethat draw the community together (sometimescalled weaving)
They offer social presencedensity calculation as an important quantitative description of
computer conferencing environments(Rourke, Anderson, Garrison, & Archer, 1999) . Research has
also shown that communication richnessmay be revealed by the application of critical social theory.
[People communicating via electronic media] " perform social acts in action situations that are
normatively regulated by, and already have meaning within the organisational context" (Ngwenyama&
Lee, 1997) . An example of this could the power relations that underpin a set of text messages
between a group of young people where meaning could only be understood within that social context. A
bullying text from a stranger would have a very different impact.
P. Callender, Programmed Learning (1969); L. Thomas, Self-Organized Learning (1985)