Chapter 2. job analysis and evaluation (1)


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Chapter 2. job analysis and evaluation (1)

  1. 1. Chapter 2
  2. 2. o Job Analysis o Importance of Job Analysis o Writing a good job description o Using other Job Analysis Methods o Employment Profile o Preparing for Job Analysis o Conducting a Job Analysis o Determining Internal Pay Equity o Determining External Pay Equity o Determining Sex and Race Jesser EchonJonele EscarchaAda VelasKimberly Lagasca Zandra Mabal Pjay BaunoJoy AraojoCharlene AndradeCriselle MasungsongJudel CelestialCamille Salinas
  3. 3. Job Analysis Job Description Job Specification Compensation Training Recruitment Selection Legal Employee Relation Labor Duties Responsibilities Abilities Skills Knowledge
  4. 4. Importance of Job Analysis • Writing Job Description • Employee Selection • Training • PersonPower Planning • Performance Appraisal • Job Classification • Job Evaluation • Job Design • Compliance with Legal Guidelines • Organizational Analysis
  5. 5. Writing a good job description Job descriptions are an essential part of hiring and managing your employees. These written summaries ensure your applicants and employees understand their roles and what they need to do to be held accountable. Job descriptions also: • Help attract the right job candidates • Describe the major areas of an employee’s job or position • Serve as a major basis for outlining performance expectations, job training, job evaluation and career advancement • Provide a reference point for compensation decisions and unfair hiring practices
  6. 6. Using other Job Analysis Methods These methods tend to provide information on one of four specific factors that are commonly included job description: worker activities, tools and equipment used, work environment and competencies. Methods Providing General information About Worker Activities • Position Analysis Questionnaire – It is a structured instrument test developed at Purdue University by McCormick, Jeannerete and Mecham (1972). – It contains 194 items organized into six main dimensions: information input, mental processes, work input, relations with other persons, job context, and other job related variables. – PAQ tells us if a job involves interviewing that is performed or how the interview is conducted. – It is inexpensive and takes relatively little time to use. – One of the most standardized job analysis methods.
  7. 7. Using other Job Analysis Methods (Cont.) Job Structure Profile • Developed by Patrick and Moore (1985). • Include item content and style, new items to increase the discriminatory power of the intellectual and decision making dimensions, and an emphasis on having a job analysis rather than the incumbent. Job Elements Inventory • Developed by Cornelius and Hakel (1978) • Considered to be an alternative to the PAQ • Contains 153 items and has a readability level appropriate for an employee with only a tenth-grade education Functional Job Analysis • Designed by Fine (1955) • As a quick method that could be used by the Federal government to analyze and compare thousands of jobs • Broken down into the percentage of time the incumbent spends on three functions: data, people and things.
  8. 8. Using other Job Analysis Methods (Cont.) Methods Providing information About Tools and Equipment Job Components Inventory • Developed by Banks, Jackson, Stafford and Warr (1983). • Consist more than 400 questions covering five major categories: tools and equipment, perceptual and physical requirements, mathematical requirements, communication requirements, and decision making and responsibility. • It is only the job analysis method containing a detailed section on tools and equipment. • Not abundant but it does appear to be a promising technique.
  9. 9. Using other Job Analysis Methods (Cont.) Methods Providing Information About Competencies Occupational information Network • A national job analysis system created by federal government to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Title (DOT) was used since 1930’s • It is major advancement in understanding the nature of work, in large because its developers understood that jobs can be viewed at four levels: economic, organizational, occupational, and individual. Critical Incident Technique • Developed by john Flanagan and his students ate the University of Pittsburgh in late 1940’s and early 1950’s. • Used to discover actual incidents of job behavior that make the difference between a job’s successful or unsuccessful performance.
  10. 10. Using other Job Analysis Methods (Cont.) Threshold Traits Analysis • Developed by Lopez, Kesselman, and Lopez (1981) • This method is available only by hiring a particular consulting firm • The TTA questionnaire's 33 items identify the traits that are necessary for the successful performance for a job • The 33 item covers 5 trait categories: physical, mental, learned, motivational and social • TTA also focuses on traits, its main uses are in the development of an employee selection system or a career plan. Fleishman Job Analysis Survey • Requires incumbents or job analyst to view a series of abilities. • It is easy to use by incumbents or trained analyst, and is supported by years of research. Its advantages over TTA are that it is more detailed and is commercially available.
  11. 11. Using other Job Analysis Methods (Cont.) Job Adaptability Inventory • Is a 132 item inventory developed by Pulakos, Arad, and Plamondon (2000) It has 8 dimensions: 1. Handling emergencies or crisis situations. 2. Handling work stress. 3. Solving problems creatively. 4. Dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situations. 5. Learning work tasks, technologies and procedures. 6. Demonstrating interpersonal adaptability. 7. Demonstrating cultural adaptability. 8. Demonstrating physically oriented adaptability .
  12. 12. Using other Job Analysis Methods (Cont.) Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF) • Developed by Raymark, Schmit, and Guion (1997) • Identify the personality types needed to perform job-related tasks. • Consist of 107 items tapping 12 personality dimensions that fall under “Big 5” personality dimensions (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) • Is reliable and show promise as a useful job analysis instrument for identifying the personality traits necessary to perform a job.
  13. 13. Employment Profile Demographic Data Educational Attainment Medical Records Criminal History Salary Rate Job Descriptions Performance Appraisal
  14. 14. Employment Profile (Cont.) Evaluation of Methods 2 Different Approaches to Job Analysis:  Worker-oriented Methods - Best for employee selection and performance appraisal. - Examine the human attributes needed to perform the job successfully * Knowledge * Skills * Abilities * Other characteristics E.g. Threshold Traits Analysis (TTA), Job Components Inventory (JCI), Critical Incident Technique (CIT)
  15. 15. Employment Profile (Cont.)  Job-oriented Methods - Best for work design and writing job descriptions. - Focus on the actual activities involved in performing work. - Considers the work duties, responsibilities, and functions. E.g. Task analysis- a technique used to describe job expertise. *Cognitively Oriented Task Analysis (COTA) From a legal perspective, acceptable job analyses should: • Use several up-to-date sources. • Be conducted by experts. • Use a large number of job incumbents. • Cover the entire range of worker activities and qualifications .
  16. 16. Employment Profile (Cont.) According to the survey research findings of Levine, Ash, and their colleagues: • The PAQ is seen as the most standardized technique and the CIT the least standardized. • The CIT takes the least amount of job analyst training and task analysis the most. • The PAQ is the least costly method and the CIT the most. • The PAQ takes the least amount of time to complete and task analysis the most. • Task analysis has the highest-quality results and TTA the lowest. • Task analysis reports are the longest and job-elements reports the shortest. • The CIT has been rated the most useful and the PAQ the least. • Task analysis gives the best overall job picture and the PAQ the worst.
  17. 17. Preparing Job Analysis Who will conduct the Analysis?  The Uniform Guidelines states that a job analysis must be “professionally conducted” and a job analyst certainly cannot be called a professional unless he has been trained. - Consultants - Job Incumbent - Supervisors How often should a job description be updated?  Job crafting- the informal changes that employees make in their jobs.
  18. 18. Preparing Job Analysis (Cont.) Which employees should participate?  Job competence  Race  Gender  Education Level  Personality  Viewpoint What types of information should be obtained?  Level of Specificity  Issue of formal vs. informal requirement
  19. 19. Conducting job analysis Step 1: Identify tasks performed – Gathering Existing Information – Interviewing Subject Matter Experts – Observing Incumbents – Job Participation Step 2: Write a tasks statements Step 3: Rate tasks statements Step 4: Determine Essential KSAOs. Step 5: Selecting Tests to Tap KSAOs
  20. 20. Determining Internal Pay Equity Internal pay equity involves comparing jobs within an organization to ensure that the people in jobs worth the most money paid accordingly. Step 1: Determining Compensable Job Factors (factors, such as responsibility and education requirements, that differentiate the relative worth of jobs) The first step in evaluating a job is to decide what factors differentiate the relative worth of jobs. Possible compensable job factors include: – Level of responsibility – Physical demands – Mental demands – Education requirements – Training and experience requirements – Working education
  21. 21. Determining Internal Pay Equity (Cont.) • Step 2: Determining the levels for Each Compensable Factors – Once the compensable factors have selected, the next step is to determine the levels for each factor. • Step 3: Determining the Factor Weights – Weights must be assigned to each factor and to each level within a factor. Here are some processes in doing it: • A job evaluation committee determines the total number of points that will be distributed among the factors. • Each factor is weighted by assigning a number of points. • The number of points assigned to a factor is then divided into each of the levels. • The total number of points for a job is compared with the salary currently being paid for the job.
  22. 22. Determining Internal Pay Equity (Cont.) FACTORS POINTS Education (100 points) Bachelor’s Degree Master’s Degree 50 50 Responsibility (100 points) Versatile 80 Physical Demands (50 points) Healthy 50 Example of completed job evaluation results.
  23. 23. Determining Internal Pay Equity (Cont.) Analyzing the Issues: Fred Cook, Founder of Frederic W. Cook & Co., provides these reasons as to why boards should use internal pay equity: 1. It is fair 2. It is economical 3. It mitigates market biases 4. It leads to better employee relations and a stronger company In addition, internal pay equity helps increase transparency and might uncover unintended consequences of historical executive compensation decisions.
  24. 24. Determining External Pay Equity • The worth of a job is determined by comparing the job to the external market (other organizations). • External equity is important if an organization is to attract and retain employees. • To determine external equity, organizations use salary surveys. – these surveys ask how much an organization pays its employees in various positions. An organization can either construct and send out its own survey or use the results of surveys conducted by trade groups, an option that many organizations choose.
  25. 25. Determining External Pay Equity (Cont.) • direct compensation – the amount of money a job is worth. – Employees are also compensated in other ways, such as pay for time not worked (e.g., holidays, vacation, sick days), deferred income (e.g., Social Security and pension plans), health protection such as medical and dental insurance, and perquisites (“perks”)
  26. 26. Determining Sex and Race Equity The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) ensures that employees are not paid differently on the basis of gender or race. Two types of Audits: • Equal Pay for Equal Work One that looks at pay rates of employees within positions with identical duties • Comparable Worth One that looks at pay rates of employees in jobs of similar worth and responsibility.