DED 100 Ed Psych 1 TG 8 Group 5 PBL Group Assignment Members : Hidayah Jowie Marinah Nora Safikha
To kickstart, let’s watch the video…
A. Introduction <ul><li>Andy’s age: 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Family Background: </li></ul><ul><li>From middle-SES(socio-econom...
B. Problem Encounter Mindmap
Teacher <ul><li>Erik Erikson’s Life Span Stage 3, 4  </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner ‘s Operant Conditioning  </li></ul>Classmat...
Learning Objectives from Andy <ul><li>Maslow’s theory give us a way of looking at a whole student, whose physical, emotion...
The better scenario for Scene 1: Andy:  (recalling Ms Wong throwing a book at him the previous week) Andy:  (thinking to h...
<ul><li>Erikson believes that a primary motivation for human behavior is social and reflects a desire to connect with othe...
The better scenario for Scene 2: Ms Wong:  Andy, you did not finish your corrections before handing in your Science book t...
Learning Objectives from Classmates  <ul><li>Bronfenbrenner's Microsystem shows that when the student choose disruptive fr...
<ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>perspective of </li></ul><ul><li>motivation  </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow believe...
<ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Andy’s basic needs are met </li></ul><ul><li>His father is working  </li></ul><ul>...
D. Discovery and Reporting <ul><li>Love and belongingness </li></ul><ul><li>Start of the issue.  </li></ul><ul><li>In clas...
D. Discovery and Reporting <ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>From then, Andy pretty much gave up to be better. ...
<ul><li>From Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, we indentified that we need to look at the causes and issues that leads to Andy’...
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>The Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Development is mainly shaped by their genetic ...
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>Microsystem   </li></ul><ul><li>The  most powerful environmental  influence occ...
From Scene 3: <ul><li>Ms Wong </li></ul><ul><li>Andy reacted to the situation with words he heard Ms Wong used against the...
Ms Wong:  Yes, Andy. Please read up your Science chapter and practice the questions. I know  you can do this! I have confi...
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Peers exert the most powerful influence on a person’s p...
The better scenario for Scene 3: Bee Choo:  Hey Andy, how did you do for your Spelling? Andy:  *Sighs* Not good at all. I’...
From Scene 3: Ahmad approached Andy to play soccer even though there was a test the next day. This shows that Ahmad could ...
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>Social Development </li></ul><ul><li>Having peers such as Bee Choo deters Andy ...
From Scene 3: Ahmad approached Andy to play soccer even though there was a test the next day. This shows that Ahmad could ...
Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psycosocial Development  <ul><li>In Erikson's psychosocial theory, Andy is classified to be...
Skinner’s Behavioral View <ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcers and Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Six operant conditioning strategies  </li></ul><ul><li>To increase a child’s desirable behaviors. </li></ul><ul><l...
The better scenario for Scene 5: Ms Wong:  Alright class, I have the results of the Science test with me now. I’d like to ...
Skinner’s Behavioural View <ul><li>2) Make Reinforcers Contingent and Timely </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must give it only a...
Skinner’s Behavioural View <ul><li>5.  Use Negative Reinforcement Effectively  </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Thomas you h...
Q & A END
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  • Instead of being affected and discouraged by his peers remarks, Andy could turn them into a motivation for himself, that might help build his self-confidence.
  • The teacher should not criticize the student especially not in front of the other students thus bringing about a sense of guilt and inferiority in him. Instead the teacher should encourage him and give him constructive ideas on how to improve. She should also teach the &apos;Water Cycle&apos; using explanations and examples from everyday events instead of making them recite the &apos;Water Cycle&apos; repeatedly.
  • In this case, I would suggest that the students surround himself with positive peers who would provide emotional support and a sense of identity for him therefore making the student have a feeling of belonging.
  • Humanistic perspective of motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow believes that certain basic needs must be met before higher needs can be satisfied. The hierarchy of needs (in regards to Andy&apos;s life) is as follows: Physiological Andy’s basic needs are met His father is working His mother is a house wife. He has a roof over his head and has the necessities for living. Safety Andy is in a protected environment whereby there is no war and relatively low crime. He does not need to think about his survival as compared to people in third world countries.
  • Humanistic perspective of motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow believes that certain basic needs must be met before higher needs can be satisfied. The hierarchy of needs (in regards to Andy&apos;s life) is as follows: Physiological Andy’s basic needs are met His father is working His mother is a house wife. He has a roof over his head and has the necessities for living. Safety Andy is in a protected environment whereby there is no war and relatively low crime. He does not need to think about his survival as compared to people in third world countries.
  • Humanistic perspective of motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow believes that certain basic needs must be met before higher needs can be satisfied. The hierarchy of needs (in regards to Andy&apos;s life) is as follows: Physiological Andy’s basic needs are met His father is working His mother is a house wife. He has a roof over his head and has the necessities for living. Safety Andy is in a protected environment whereby there is no war and relatively low crime. He does not need to think about his survival as compared to people in third world countries.
  • Humanistic perspective of motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow believes that certain basic needs must be met before higher needs can be satisfied. The hierarchy of needs (in regards to Andy&apos;s life) is as follows: Physiological Andy’s basic needs are met His father is working His mother is a house wife. He has a roof over his head and has the necessities for living. Safety Andy is in a protected environment whereby there is no war and relatively low crime. He does not need to think about his survival as compared to people in third world countries.
  •   Upon hearing this, Bee Chu turned around and sneered at Andy, her voice booming, “Yah! You are going to fail!”   Andy felt a surge of anger welling inside him as he shouted at Bee Chu, “You shut your mouth up!”   Ms Wong glared angrily at Andy, “That is so rude of you Andy!”   Andy wondered to himself, “What did I do wrong this time? Didn&apos;t you also use those same words just now?“
  • “ You shut up! You think you are so smart!” Ahmad shouted.
  • Ahmad approached Andy to play soccer even though there was a test the next day. This shows that Ahmad could not care much about the test.      Ahmad asked, &amp;quot;Andy, do you want to play soccer with us? … …  “ Huh, revise later, what if I fail again?” Andy queried.   “ Never mind lah, won’t fail one lah” Ahmad responded confidently. With his peers being quite disruptive, it only adds to the decline in his grades.
  • Ahmad sidled up to Andy, “I thought you were studying, you didn’t join us for soccer.” Andy replied, “I spent so much time learning the water cycle but I couldn’t remember anything when I sat for the test. Even though I know the different states of matter, I don’t even know what Ms Wong is asking for … Aiyah, I should have played soccer with you guys huh, after all, I still failed!”
  • For Andy in this scenario, Andy is struggling with persevering in his studies as the challenges he faces prevents him from having a sense of competence. Not being able to meet up with the standards as compared to his classmates causes him to have feelings of inferiority. As he is &apos;labelled&apos; a failure, there is little eagerness to engage in productive work. He tried to study for his test but that does not necessary mean productive studying. With the lack of ability to cope with issues, In this stage of Erikson&apos;s Stages of Psycosocial Development, Andy is more inclined towards inferiority than industry.
  • Reinforcers and Reinforcement To reinforce behavior means to strengthen the behavior. There are two forms of reinforcement i.e positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement The frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus eg: A teacher’s positive comment Negative reinforcement The frequency of a response increases because it  is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. E.g  a father nags at his son to do homework. He keeps nagging. Finally, the son gets tired of hearing the nagging and does his homework.
  • 5.  Use Negative Reinforcement Effectively For example: Thomas you have to stay in your seat and finish your writing before you join the other students in making a poster Using negative reinforcement has some drawbacks. Sometimes when teachers try to use this behavioral strategy, children throw a tantrum.
  • T8G5 PBL Presentation

    1. 1. DED 100 Ed Psych 1 TG 8 Group 5 PBL Group Assignment Members : Hidayah Jowie Marinah Nora Safikha
    2. 2. To kickstart, let’s watch the video…
    3. 3. A. Introduction <ul><li>Andy’s age: 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Family Background: </li></ul><ul><li>From middle-SES(socio-economic status) </li></ul><ul><li>Mother's a home-maker </li></ul><ul><li>Father's a blue-collar worker </li></ul><ul><li>He has a younger sister of 7 who attends the same school as he does. </li></ul>
    4. 4. B. Problem Encounter Mindmap
    5. 5. Teacher <ul><li>Erik Erikson’s Life Span Stage 3, 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner ‘s Operant Conditioning </li></ul>Classmates <ul><li>Erik Erikson’s Life Span Stage 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Bronfenbrenner’s </li></ul><ul><li>Microsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Bronfenbrenner’s </li></ul><ul><li>Microsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs </li></ul>Andy Learning Objectives
    6. 6. Learning Objectives from Andy <ul><li>Maslow’s theory give us a way of looking at a whole student, whose physical, emotional, and intellectual, are all inter-related (Woolfolk , 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship in Bronfenbrenner’s microsystem are reciprocal – The teacher influences the student and the student influences the teacher (Woolfolk , 2010) </li></ul>
    7. 7. The better scenario for Scene 1: Andy: (recalling Ms Wong throwing a book at him the previous week) Andy: (thinking to himself) I should try and score higher for the next test so Miss Wong will not think that I am useless.
    8. 8. <ul><li>Erikson believes that a primary motivation for human behavior is social and reflects a desire to connect with other people (Erikson, 1968, 1980). </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the teacher's criticisms, the student is feeling guilt which meant that he has not overcome Erikson's Life-Span Stage 3. </li></ul><ul><li>And due to the student's failures the student feels inferior which show in Erikson's Life-Span Stage 4. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Skinner’s theory, a teacher’s praise after a student’s answer would increase the likelihood of the student trying to reprimands for inappropriate behaviour. </li></ul>Learning Objectives from Teacher
    9. 9. The better scenario for Scene 2: Ms Wong: Andy, you did not finish your corrections before handing in your Science book to me. May I know the reason? Andy: I’m sorry, Ms Wong. It’s just that, I am not too sure of how to do them. No one else would help me. Ms Wong: How about you stay back for a short while during recess. We will go through them together. Andy: Ok, Ms Wong.
    10. 10. Learning Objectives from Classmates <ul><li>Bronfenbrenner's Microsystem shows that when the student choose disruptive friends, their grades decline and behaviour problems increase (Eggen & Kauchack, 2009 8th Ed). </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson's Life-Span Stage 4 shows that interaction with peers at school place an imperative role of a child's development. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>perspective of </li></ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow believes that certain basic needs must be met before higher needs can be satisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul>D. Discovery and Reporting Let’s look at how this hierarchy looks in regards to Andy’s life…      
    12. 12. <ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Andy’s basic needs are met </li></ul><ul><li>His father is working </li></ul><ul><li>His mother is a house wife. </li></ul><ul><li>He has a roof over his head and has the necessities for living. </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul>D. Discovery and Reporting <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Andy is in a protected environment whereby there is no war and relatively low crime. </li></ul><ul><li>He does not need to think about his survival as compared to people in third world countries. </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul>
    13. 13. D. Discovery and Reporting <ul><li>Love and belongingness </li></ul><ul><li>Start of the issue. </li></ul><ul><li>In classroom environment, there is a lack of security, affection and attention </li></ul><ul><li>Andy’s teacher gives him attention but in the wrong way </li></ul><ul><li>This clearly portrays a lack of love from the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>With lack of love and belongingness, his self-esteem is affected. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g: The test that he studied hard for. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a slight intrinsic motivation that causes him to want to study for the test. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the result brought about an even lowered self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul>
    14. 14. D. Discovery and Reporting <ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>From then, Andy pretty much gave up to be better. </li></ul><ul><li>Since self-actualization is possible only after the lower needs have been met, the lack of some needs mentioned earlier will deter him from reaching this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>From Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, we indentified that we need to look at the causes and issues that leads to Andy’s feeling lack of love and belongingness. </li></ul><ul><li>We therefore now look into Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory of development to help us identify factors that influence forms of development such as the personal, social and moral development. </li></ul>Maslow Bronfenbrenner
    16. 16. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory
    17. 17. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>The Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Development is mainly shaped by their genetic background and the environment that the individual is in. </li></ul><ul><li>In Andy’s case, the scenario given does not reflect much about his genetic background. </li></ul><ul><li>However, we do find that he does have some motivation from within that urged him to study for the test despite the negative surrounding that discourages motivation.  </li></ul>
    18. 18. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>Microsystem </li></ul><ul><li>The most powerful environmental influence occurs in this section of the model. </li></ul><ul><li>School teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Other that the child’s parents, the school teachers are the next group of adults who would largely influence the child’s development as the child spends bulk of the time in school.  </li></ul><ul><li>For Andy, his teacher, Ms Wong, has made a great influence in his development. Taking a look at how he responded when </li></ul><ul><li>being sneered upon by his classmate about him </li></ul><ul><li>sure-to-fail for his upcoming test </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    19. 19. From Scene 3: <ul><li>Ms Wong </li></ul><ul><li>Andy reacted to the situation with words he heard Ms Wong used against the class. This shows how easily he can be influenced by his teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Ms Wong being one primary influence towards Andy’s personal development is not modeling a good example. </li></ul><ul><li>She is not caring and apathetic enough to understand the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>She does not establish effective interaction style with him and that leads to insensitivity on her part as a teacher to put Andy down before the whole class. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Ms Wong: Yes, Andy. Please read up your Science chapter and practice the questions. I know you can do this! I have confidence in you. Andy: *Sighs* Another Science test? The better scenario for Scene 3: Andy: Thank you Ms Wong. (Yes. Ms Wong said I can do this! I will study hard for this test.)
    21. 21. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>Peers </li></ul><ul><li>Peers exert the most powerful influence on a person’s personal development. Peer influence exists in 3 forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and values </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of friends often determines a person’s grades and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>For Andy, his friends are those who are not very good role models in terms of behavior and not academically oriented. Ahmad did not display good social etiquette in class. </li></ul>
    22. 22. The better scenario for Scene 3: Bee Choo: Hey Andy, how did you do for your Spelling? Andy: *Sighs* Not good at all. I’m lousy in Science, and Spelling too. Bee Choo: Don’t say that. You just need a bit more practice, that’s all. Need my help in Science? We can revise our Spelling together too for next week! Andy: I’d like that! Thanks Bee Choo.
    23. 23. From Scene 3: Ahmad approached Andy to play soccer even though there was a test the next day. This shows that Ahmad could not care much about the test.      Ahmad asked, &quot;Andy, do you want to play soccer with us? … …  “ Huh, revise later, what if I fail again?” Andy queried.   “ Never mind lah, won’t fail one lah” Ahmad responded confidently. With his peers being quite disruptive, it only adds to the decline in his grades. Andy: Hey Ahmad! I’m doing my revision at home. Remember we have a Science test tomorrow? Ahmad: Hello Andy, What are you doing at home? The better scenario for Scene 4: Ahmad: Orh... I thought we could play soccer together. But it’s fine. What about I go to your house and we can study together? Andy: That will be a good idea. Don’t forget to bring your Science textbook. See you soon Ahmad!
    24. 24. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory <ul><li>Social Development </li></ul><ul><li>Having peers such as Bee Choo deters Andy from building solid social skills since he is being looked down upon perpetually every time.  </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Support </li></ul><ul><li>Friends are source of emotional support and sense of identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Andy’s clique appears to be those who are slightly more towards not academically inclined or not motivated in school work or probably only for Ms Wong’s class (Looking at Ahmad).  </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction of his friends in his clique also shapes his thoughts and motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>After the test, Ahmad’s words would have caused Andy to dislike studies even more and less motivated to work hard as he is not good in studies. </li></ul>
    25. 25. From Scene 3: Ahmad approached Andy to play soccer even though there was a test the next day. This shows that Ahmad could not care much about the test.      Ahmad asked, &quot;Andy, do you want to play soccer with us? … …  “ Huh, revise later, what if I fail again?” Andy queried.   “ Never mind lah, won’t fail one lah” Ahmad responded confidently. With his peers being quite disruptive, it only adds to the decline in his grades. Andy: I’m not sad. I’m just disappointed with myself. I studied but I still did not do well. Ahmad: Andy, Don’t‘ be sad about your results. The better scenario for Scene 5: Ahmad: Don’t regret . Whatever it is, you still have some time to show that you still can do well. Trust yourself, buddy. Andy: Thanks Ahmad for your encouragement!
    26. 26. Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psycosocial Development <ul><li>In Erikson's psychosocial theory, Andy is classified to be in the stage of Industry versus Inferiority. </li></ul><ul><li>According to his theory, students at this stage begin to see the relationship between perseverance and the pleasure of completing a task. </li></ul><ul><li>In today's context, children's ability to cope with their various roles at home, in the neighbourhood and school in terms of academics, group activities and relationships will lead to a growing sense of competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to meet up with the difficulty of these challenges will cause feelings of inferiority. At the same time, students are being compared to others as they master new skills and work towards new goals and this risk failure. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Skinner’s Behavioral View <ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcers and Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen the behavior. There are two forms of reinforcement as follows… </li></ul><ul><li>1)  Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>A rewarding stimulus e.g. Miss Wong could have encouraged Andy rather than putting him down. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2) Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>An unpleasant stimulus. E.g Miss Wong threw a book at Andy for not doing his corrections. </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>Six operant conditioning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>To increase a child’s desirable behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose Effective Reinforcers </li></ul><ul><li>  Teacher to find out what reinforcers work best with which children </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miss Wong pointing out that Andy improved on the test though minimally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consider novel reinforcers to reduce the child’s boredom. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of frontal teaching, Miss Wong could incorporate ICT to enhance her lessons. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural reinforcers such as praise and privileges are generally recommended over material rewards. </li></ul>Skinner’s Behavioural View
    29. 29. The better scenario for Scene 5: Ms Wong: Alright class, I have the results of the Science test with me now. I’d like to congratulate Bee Choo as she did very well for this test. Andy: *Claps* Ms Wong: Andy, I see that you have placed more effort in your test. Although there is room for improvement, keep it up! Andy: Thank you, Ms Wong. I will try even harder next time.
    30. 30. Skinner’s Behavioural View <ul><li>2) Make Reinforcers Contingent and Timely </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must give it only after the child performs the particular behavior. The child has to perform to get the reward </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcers are more effective when they are given in a timely way </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3) Select The Best Schedule of Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>In continuous reinforcement, children learn very rapidly, but when the reinforcement stops, extinction also occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Partial reinforcement involves reinforcing a response only part of the time </li></ul><ul><li>4)  Consider Contracting </li></ul><ul><li>Involves putting reinforcement contingencies in writing. If problem arises teacher can refer to the contract </li></ul>
    31. 31. Skinner’s Behavioural View <ul><li>5.  Use Negative Reinforcement Effectively </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Thomas you have to stay in your seat and finish your writing before you join the other students in making a poster </li></ul><ul><li>Using negative reinforcement has some drawbacks. Sometimes when teachers try to use this behavioral strategy, children throw a tantrum. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>6.  Use Prompts and Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>A prompt is an added stimulus or cue that is given just before a response that increases the likelihood that the response will occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the students consistently show the correct responses, prompts are no longer needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping involves teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations to a specified target behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping can be an important tool for the classroom teacher because most students need reinforcement along the way to reaching a learning goal. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Q & A END

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