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Powerpoint presentation of "Potato" in Principles of food production (.

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  1. 1. Potato
  2. 2. Potato The history of the potato has its roots in the windswept Andes Mountains of South America. It is an austere region plagued by fluctuating temperatures and poor soil conditions. Yet the tough and durable potato evolved in its thin air (elevations up to 15,000 feet), climbing ever higher like the people who first settled the region.
  3. 3. Potato The tough pre-Columbian farmers first discovered and cultivated the potato some 7,000 years ago. They were impressed by its ruggedness, storage quality and its nutritional value. Western man did not come in contact with the potato until as late as 1537 when the Conquistadors tramped through Peru. And it was even later, about 1570, that the first potato made its way across the Atlantic to make a start on the continent of Europe.
  4. 4. Potato  Though the tuber was productive and hardy, the Spanish put it to very limited use. In the Spanish Colonies potatoes were considered food for the underclasses; when brought to the Old World they would be used primarily to feed hospital inmates.  It would take three decades for the potato to spread to the rest of Europe. Even so the potato was cultivated primarily as a curiosity by amateur botanists. Resistance was due to ingrained eating habits, the tuber's reputation as a food for the underpriveleged and perhaps most importantly its relationship to poisonous plants.
  5. 5. Potato In Europe, at first, potatoes are just ornamental plants specially the hanging potato variety.  King Frederick II of Prussia first introduced the use potato to be eaten to fight against famine during world war, most of the soldiers that time become weak and sickly due to starvation. So he asked them to start cultivation of potatoes for eating.  While in Ireland the potato gained acceptance from the bottom up, in France the potato was imposed upon society by an intellectual. Antoine Augustine Parmentier saw that the nutritional benefits of the crop combined with its productive capacity could be a boon to the French farmer. He was a pharmacist, chemist and employee of Louis XV. Parmentier discovered the benefits of the potato while held prisoner by the Prussians during the Seven Years War. He was so enamored by the potato that he determined that it should become a staple of the French diet. After failing by conventional means to convince Frenchmen of its advantages, he determined upon a surreptitious means of making his point.
  6. 6. Potato Europe would wait until the 1780's before the potato gained prominence anywhere. About 1780 the people of Ireland adopted the rugged food crop. The primary reason for its acceptance in Ireland was its ability to produce abundant, nutritious food. Unlike any other major crop, potatoes contain most of the vitamins needed for sustenance. Perhaps more importantly, potatoes can provide this sustenance to nearly 10 people on an acre of land. This would be one of the prime factors causing a population explosion in the early 1800s. Of course, by the mid-1800's the Irish would become so dependent upon this crop that its failure would provoke a famine.
  7. 7. Potato  Parmentier acquired a miserable and unproductive spot of ground on the outskirts of Paris. There, he planted 50 acres of potatoes. During the day, he set a guard over it. This drew considerable attention in the neighborhood. In the evening the guard was relaxed and the locals came to see what all the fuss was about. Believing this plant must be valuable, many peasants "acquired" some of the potatoes from the plot, and soon were growing the root in their own garden plots. Their resistance was overcome by their curiosity and desire to better their lot with the obviously valuable new produce.
  8. 8. Potato  Soon the potato would gain wide acceptance across Europe and eventually make its way back over the Atlantic to North America. As time passed, the potato would become one of the major food stuffs of the world. But not without a few bumps in the road. The 1840's saw disastrous potato blight. This terrible disease was caused by a fungus known as Phytophthora infestans. With the devastation of potato crops throughout Europe came the destruction and dislocation of many of the populations that had become dependent upon it. The Potato Famine in Ireland would cut the population by half (through both starvation and emigration). An effective fungicide was not found until 1883 by the French botanist, Alexandre Millardet.
  9. 9. Potato The potato is a member of the nightshade family and its leaves are, indeed, poisonous. A potato left too long in the light will begin to turn green. The green skin contains a substance called solanine which can cause the potato to taste bitter and even cause illness in humans. Such drawbacks were understood in Europe, but the advantages, generally, were not.
  10. 10. Potato TUBERS Are connected to the root system. However, they are not directly connected to the stem and leaf system of plant.
  11. 11. Culinary Essentials Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. TUBERS Potatoes Mealy. Waxy. Russet. Red. Yukon. Sweet.
  12. 12. Culinary Essentials Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Quality Characteristics of Potatoes All varieties of potatoes should be heavy and firm, without soft spots, green color, or sprouting eyes. Sweet potatoes should have dry- looking, orange and golden-orange skins. Avoid sweet potatoes with softened ends. This marks the beginning of spoilage. Other potatoes should have dry, tight skins, without wrinkles.
  13. 13. Culinary Essentials Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Market Forms of Potatoes Fresh. Canned. Frozen. Dehydrated.
  14. 14. Understanding Potatoes Types Potatoes are classified according to their starch content. The amount of starch determines the use for which they are most suitable.
  15. 15. Types: Waxy or new potatoes.  High moisture content, high sugar content, low starch content.  Usually small and round in shape, but some varieties can be large, and some may be elongated in shape. Flesh is white, yellow, or even blue or purple. Skin is white, red, yellow or blue.  Hold shape well when cooked. Firm, moist texture.  Use for boiling whole, for salads, soups, hashed browns and any preparation where the potato must hold its shape.  Do not use for deep-frying. High sugar content will cause dark streaks and poor texture.
  16. 16. Mature or starchy potatoes. High starch content, low moisture and sugar. Light, dry and mealy when cooked. Types:
  17. 17. Russets or Idahos.  Long, regularly shaped potatoes with slightly rough skin.  Ideal for baking. Best potato for French fries because the high starch content produces an even, golden color and good texture. Also, the regular shape means little trimming loss.  May be used for mashing, but is generally too expensive.  Sizes are indicated by count per 50-pound carton. For example, 100s average 8 oz each. Types:
  18. 18. All-purpose (sometimes called chef potatoes) • Not always as dry and starchy as russets. • Irregularly shaped, less expensive than russets. • Suitable for most purposes except baking (due to shape). • Especially useful for pureeing or mashing, or any presentation in which the shape of the whole potato is not important. Types:
  19. 19.  Fingerling or Ratte Potatoes  Mealy, Yukon  Purple Potato  Red Potato  Nouvelle potato  Sweet potato Types:
  20. 20. Cooking Potatoes Some potato recipes are simple, but many are complex and use a combination of cooking methods. Boiling and Steaming Potatoes Boiled potatoes are generally started in cold water rather than hot. This allows for more even cooking and heat penetration from outside to inside during the relatively long cooking time required. Potatoes are never cooled in cold water, unlike most vegetables. This would make them soggy.
  21. 21. Cooking Potatoes Potato Puree Potato puree is an important product in most kitchens, even though it is not served as is. It is the basis of many popular preparations, including mashed or whipped potatoes, ducheese potatoes and potato croquettes. (Please take note that this usage of the term is different from classic European usage, where puree de pommes de terre means mashed or whipped potatoes.)
  22. 22. Cooking Potatoes Baking Preparing baked potatoes is a simple procedure, which, for some reason, is widely misunderstood and needlessly complicated. Properly baked potatoes are white, fluffy, mealy and steamy. Poorly baked potatoes, unfortunately common, are gray and soggy.
  23. 23. Cooking Potatoes Sautéing and Pan-frying There are many varieties of sautéed and pan-fried potato preparations. Some are made with raw potatoes, others with precooked or blanched potatoes. Many of these recipes are especially useful because they are excellent ways to utilize leftover boiled potatoes.
  24. 24. Cooking Potatoes Deep-Frying  There are two kinds of deep-fried potato preparations:  Potatoes fried raw.  These are potatoes that are simply cut into various shapes and deep- fried until golden and crisp. They include all the varieties of French fries as well as potato chips.  Russet or Idaho potatoes are most suitable for frying because of their high starch content and their regular shape, which permits less trimming loss.  Preparations made from cooked, pureed potatoes.  Most these products are made from ducheese potato mixture. They include potato croquette variations, Dauphine potatoes and Lorette potatoes.  Starchy potatoes are used for these recipes, as they are for ducheese potatoes, because they make a good dry, mealy puree.
  25. 25. Cooking Potatoes French Fries Because French fries, or deep-fried potatoes, are one of the most popular items in American food service, you must know how to prepare them well. Most French fries served are made from blanched, frozen products, but it is also important to know how to make them from fresh potatoes.
  26. 26. Cooking Potatoes Baked “En Casserole” A number of preparations call for potatoes baked in a baking pan or casserole, with or without liquid added. The best-known is scalloped potatoes. A characteristic of most of these preparations is that they are baked uncovered at least part of the time so that a brown crust forms on top. (Note that two versions of Gratin Dauphinois are included here. The first is a modern version, while the second is a more traditional version.)
  27. 27. Common Potato Dishes Duchesse Lyonaise Pomme anna Boulangere Gratin dauphinoise
  28. 28.  Baked  Fondant  Macaire/ Croquette  Boiled  Mashed Common Potato Dishes
  29. 29. The end  Disclaimer: I do not own the rights nor property of this powerpoint presentation. All rights reserved to the owner.  Don't forget to follow me on twitter @joviinthecity  Thank You!