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Cookery.ppp

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Introduction to Cookery

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Cookery.ppp

  1. 1. COOKERY Prepared by: Jolito E. Vallejo
  2. 2. What is Culinary Arts?  Culinary Arts is the art of preparing and cooking foods. The word "culinary" is defined as something related to, or connected with, cooking.
  3. 3. Cooking  Cooking is the transfer of energy from a heat source to a food. This energy alters the foods molecular structure, changing its texture, flavor, aroma and appearance.
  4. 4. Why food is being cooked?  Cooking makes food taste better.  Cooking destroy undesirable organisms and makes food to ingest and digest
  5. 5. 2 types of Cooking Method A. Dry- Heat Cooking Method  The most popular method of cooking meat because it develops the meat surface flavor and requires only a short cooking time with a small piece of tender meat.  A process of applying heat either directly, by subjecting to the heat of flame or indirectly by surrounding the food with heated air or heated fat.
  6. 6. B. Moist-Heat Cooking Method  The moist heat method has water and steam as its working media for tenderizing meat.  Water and steam are much better conductors of heat than air and cause the temperature of the connective tissue to rise to the point where gelatin formed much more rapidly.
  7. 7. Dry heat method includes: Roasting Broiling Pan or griddle boiling Frying in shallow or deep fat The moist heat method includes:  Braising and pressure cooking  Stewing or broiling
  8. 8. CAREERS IN CULINARY ARTS
  9. 9. Variety of culinary arts occupations 1. Consulting and Design Specialists – Work with restaurant owners in developing menus, the layout and design of dining rooms, and service protocols. 2. Restaurant managers – Manage a restaurant, cafeteria, hotel dining area, etc. 3. Food and Beverage Controller – Purchase and source ingredients in large hotels as well as manage the stores and stock control.
  10. 10. Variety of culinary arts occupations 4. Food and Beverage Managers – Manage all food and beverage outlets in hotels and other large establishments. 5. Food Writers and Food Critics – Communicate with the public on food trends, chefs and restaurants though newspapers, magazines, blogs, and books. Notables in this field include Julia Child, Craig Claiborne and James Beard.
  11. 11. Variety of culinary arts occupations 6. Sales – Introduce chefs and business owners to new products and equipment relevant to food production and service. 7. Instructors – Teach aspects of culinary arts in high school, vocational schools, colleges, recreational programs, and for specialty businesses (for example, the professional and recreational courses in baking) 8. Entrepreneurs – Deepen and invest in businesses, such as bakeries, restaurants, or specialty foods (such as chocolates, cheese, etc.).
  12. 12. Variety of culinary arts occupations 9. Research and Development Kitchens – Develop new products for commercial manufacturers and may also work in test kitchens for publications, restaurant chains, grocery chains, or others. 10. Food Stylists and Photographers – Work with magazines, books, catalogs and other media to make food visually appealing.
  13. 13. Brigade de cuisine  French: kitchen brigade) is a system of hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, commonly referred to as "kitchen staff" in English speaking countries.  Developed by Georges Auguste Escoffier  This structured team system delegates responsibilities to different individuals who specialize in certain tasks.
  14. 14. Who are considered chef? - A chef is a person who cooks professionally for other people. - Traditionally it refers to a highly skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation.
  15. 15. Master Executive Chef -This person is in charge of all things related to the kitchen, which usually includes menu creation, management of kitchen staff, ordering and purchasing of inventory, and plating design
  16. 16. Sous-chef - The Sous-Chef de Cuisine (under-chef of the kitchen) is the second-in-command and direct assistant of the Chef de Cuisine. - This person may be responsible for scheduling the kitchen staff, and substituting when the head chef is off-duty. - This person is accountable for the kitchen's inventory, cleanliness, organization, and the ongoing training of its entire staff.
  17. 17. Chef de partie - also known as a "station chef" or "line cook. - is in charge of a particular area of production. In large kitchens, each Chef de partie might have several cooks and/or assistants. In most kitchens, however, the Chef de partie is the only worker in that department. - Line cooks are often divided into a hierarchy of their own, starting with "first cook," then "second cook," and so on as needed.
  18. 18. Sauté Chef Responsible for all sautéed items and their sauce. This is usually the highest stratified position of all the stations.
  19. 19. Roast Chef Prepares roasted and braised meats and their appropriate sauce
  20. 20. Fish Chef Prepares fish dishes and often does all fish butchering as well as appropriate sauces. This station may be combined with the saucier position.
  21. 21. Grill Chef Prepares all grilled foods; this position may be combined with the rotisseur.
  22. 22. Fry Chef Prepares all fried items; this position may be combined with the rotisseur position.
  23. 23. Vegetable Chef Prepares hot appetizers and often prepares the soups, vegetables, pastas and starches. In smaller establishments, this station may also cover those tasks performed by the potager and legumier.
  24. 24. Rounds man Also referred to as a swing cook, fills in as needed on stations in the kitchen.
  25. 25. Pantry Chef Responsible for preparing cold foods including salads, cold appetizers, pâtés and other charcuterie items.
  26. 26. Butcher Butchers meats, poultry, and sometimes fish. May also be responsible for breading meats and fish.
  27. 27. Pastry Chef Makes baked goods such as pastries, cakes, breads and desserts. In larger establishments, the pastry chef often supervises a separate team in their own kitchen.
  28. 28. KITCHEN UTENSILS
  29. 29. Kitchen Utensils Vs. Food Preparation Utensils Kitchen Utensil is a hand-held, typically small tool that is designed for food-related functions. Food preparation utensils are a specific type of kitchen utensil, designed for use in the preparation of food.
  30. 30. Food Preparation Utensils Apple corer Purpose: To remove the core and pips from apples and similar fruits
  31. 31. Apple Cutter Purpose: To cut apple and similar fruits easily while simultaneously removing the core and pips
  32. 32. Baster Purpose: Used during cooking to cover meat in its own juices or with a sauce
  33. 33. Biscuit cutter Purpose: Shaping biscuit dough
  34. 34. Biscuit press Purpose: A device for making pressed cookies such as spritzgebäck
  35. 35. Blow torch Purpose: Commonly used to create a hard layer of caramelized sugar in a crème brûlée.
  36. 36. Boil over preventer Purpose: Preventing liquids from boiling over outside of the pot
  37. 37. Bottle opener Purpose: Twists the metal cap off of a bottle
  38. 38. Bowl Purpose: To hold food, including food that is ready to be served
  39. 39. Bread knife Purpose: To cut soft bread
  40. 40. Butter curler Purpose: Used to produce decorative butter shapes
  41. 41. Cake and pie server Purpose: To cut slices in pies or cakes, and then transfer to a plate or container
  42. 42. Cheese knife Purpose: Used to cut cheese.
  43. 43. Cheesecloth Purpose: To assist in the formation of cheese
  44. 44. Chef's knife Purpose: Originally used to slice large cuts of beef, it is now the general utility knife for most Western cooks.
  45. 45. Cherry pitter Purpose: Used for the removal of pits (stones) from cherries or olives.
  46. 46. Chinoise Purpose: Straining substances such as custards, soups and sauces, or to dust food with powder
  47. 47. Colander Purpose: Used for draining substances cooked in water
  48. 48. Corkscrew Purpose: Pierces and removes a cork from a bottle
  49. 49. Dough scraper Purpose: To shape or cut dough, and remove dough from a work surface
  50. 50. Egg poacher Purpose: Holds a raw egg, and is placed inside a pot of boiling water to poach an egg.
  51. 51. Egg slicer Purpose: Slicing peeled, hard- boiled eggs quickly and evenly
  52. 52. Fillet knife Purpose: A long, narrow knife with a finely serrated blade, used to slice fine filet cuts of fish or other meat
  53. 53. Fish Scaler Purpose: Used to remove the scales from the skin of fish before cooking
  54. 54. Fish slice Purpose: Used for lifting or turning food during cooking
  55. 55. Flour sifter Purpose: Blends flour with other ingredients and aerates it in the process
  56. 56. Food mill Purpose: Used to mash or sieve soft foods.
  57. 57. Funnel Purpose: Used to channel liquid or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening.
  58. 58. Garlic press Purpose: Presses garlic cloves to create a puree, functioning like a specialized ricer
  59. 59. Grapefruit knife Purpose: Finely serrated knife for separating segments of grapefruit or other citrus fruit.
  60. 60. Grater Purpose:
  61. 61. Ladle Purpose: A ladle is a type of serving spoon used for soup, stew, or other foods.
  62. 62. Lame Purpose: Used to slash the tops of bread loaves in artisan baking
  63. 63. Lemon reamer Purpose: A juicer with a fluted peak at the end of a short handle, where a half a lemon is pressed to release the juice.
  64. 64. Lemon squeezer Purpose: A juicer, similar in function to a lemon reamer, with an attached bowl.
  65. 65. Lobster pick Purpose: A long-handled, narrow pick, used to pull meat out of narrow legs and other parts of a lobster or crab.
  66. 66. Measuring cup Purpose: Traditionally comes in an 8 fluid ounce size, it is used to measure either dry or liquid ingredients
  67. 67. Measuring spoon Purpose: Typically sold in a set that measures dry or wet ingredients in amounts from 1/4 teaspoon (1.25 ml) up to 1 tablespoon (15 ml)
  68. 68. Meat grinder Purpose: Operated with a hand-crank, this presses meat through a chopping or pureeing attachment
  69. 69. Meat tenderiser Purpose:
  70. 70. Melon baller Purpose: Small scoop used to make smooth balls of melon or other fruit, or potatoes.
  71. 71. Mezzaluna Purpose: To finely and consistently chop/mince foods, especially herbs.
  72. 72. Mortar and pestle Purpose: To crush food, releasing flavours and aromas
  73. 73. Nutcracker Purpose: To crack open the hard outer shell of various nuts.
  74. 74. Oven glove Purpose: To protect hands from burning when handling hot pots or trays.
  75. 75. Pastry bag Purpose: To evenly dispense soft substances (doughs, icings, fillings, etc.).
  76. 76. Pastry blender Purpose: Cuts into pastry ingredients, such as flour and butter, for blending and mixing while they are in a bowl. It is made of wires curved into a crescent shape and held by a rigid handle.
  77. 77. Pastry brush Purpose: To spread oil, juices, sauce or glaze on food.
  78. 78. Peeler Purpose:
  79. 79. Potato masher Purpose:
  80. 80. Rolling pin Purpose: A long, rounded wooden or marble tool rolled across dough to flatten it.
  81. 81. Scales Purpose:
  82. 82. Sieve Purpose:
  83. 83. Spider Purpose: For removing hot food from a liquid or skimming foam off when making broths
  84. 84. Sugar thermometer Purpose: Measuring the temperature, or stage, of sugar
  85. 85. Tomato knife Purpose: Used to slice through tomatoes.
  86. 86. Tongs Purpose: For gripping and lifting. Usually used to move items on hot surfaces, such as barbecues, or to select small or grouped items, such as sugar cubes or salad portions.
  87. 87. Whisk Purpose: To blend ingredients smooth, or to incorporate air into a mixture, in a process known as whisking or whipping
  88. 88. Wooden spoon Purpose: For mixing and stirring during cooking and baking
  89. 89. Zester Purpose: For obtaining zest from lemons and other citrus fruit
  90. 90. PRACTICE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROCEDURES
  91. 91. HAZARDS - Hazard is a term used to describe something that has the potential to cause harm or adverse effects to individuals, organizations property or equipment
  92. 92. Types of workplace hazards 1) Safety hazards - Inadequate and insufficient machine guards, unsafe workplace conditions, unsafe work practices. 2) Biological hazards - Caused by organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites
  93. 93. 3) Chemical hazards -Solid, liquid, vapor or gaseous substances, dust, fume or mist. 4) Ergonomic hazards: -Anatomical, physiological, and psychological demands on the worker, such as repetitive and forceful movements, vibration, extreme temperatures, and awkward postures arising from improper work methods and improperly designed workstations, tools, and equipment.
  94. 94. 5. Physical hazards: -Noise, vibration, energy, weather, electricity, radiation and pressure 6) Psychological hazards: - Those that are basically causing stress to a worker. This kind of hazard troubles an individual very much to an extent that his general well- being is affected
  95. 95. PERSONAL SAFETY 1) Clean up spills as soon as they occur. 2) Learn to operate equipment properly, always use guards and safety devices. 3) Wear clothing that fits properly; avoid wearing jewellery, which may get caught in equipment. 4) Use knives and other equipment for their intended purpose only. When walking in the kitchen, carry knives close to your side with the point side. 5) Keep exits, aisles and stairs clear and unobstructed.
  96. 96. Personal Safety (continuation…) 6) Always assume pots and pans are hot; handle them with dry towels. 7) Position pot and pan handles out of the aisles so that they do not get bumped. 8) Never leave a pan of oil unattended; hot fat can ignite when overheated. 9) Warn people when you must walk behind them, especially when carrying a hot pan.
  97. 97. FIRE SAFETY -Fire safety refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage, alert those in a structure to the presence of an uncontrolled fire in the event one occurs, better enable those threatened by a fire to survive, or to reduce the damage caused by a fire.
  98. 98. Common Fire Hazards Some common fire hazards are: • Electrical systems that are overloaded resulting in hot wiring or connections, or failed components • Combustible storage areas with insufficient protection • Combustibles near equipment that generates heat, flame, or sparks • Candles • Smoking (Cigarettes, cigars, pipes, lighters, etc.) • Equipment that generates heat and utilizes combustible materials
  99. 99. Common Fire Hazards • Flammable liquids • Fireplace chimneys not properly or regularly cleaned • Cooking appliances - stoves, ovens • Heating appliances (wood burning stoves, furnaces, boilers, portable heaters) • Electrical wiring in poor condition • Batteries • Personal ignition sources - matches, lighters • Electronic and electrical equipment • Exterior cooking equipment – BBQ
  100. 100. ELECTRICAL SAFETY TIPS 1. Shut off power to the circuit you’re working on and verify it’s off (treat all electrical as having power even after shutting off power). 2. Wear rubber gloves. 3. Wear rubber shoes with rubber soles. 4. Use tools with insulated handles. 5. Keep yourself dry. 6. Keep the area around you dry. 7. Wear safety glasses. 8. Never handle electric switch with wet hands.
  101. 101. Electrical Safety Tips (continuation…) 9. Always report frayed electrical cords and ungrounded electrical cords. 10. Use tools with insulated handles. 11. Keep yourself dry. 12. Keep the area around you dry. 13. Wear safety glasses. 14. Never handle electric switch with wet hands. 15. Always report frayed electrical cords and ungrounded electrical cords.
  102. 102. RULES AND REGULATION IN KITCHEN LABORATORY 1. Get permission to use the kitchen. 2. Never run, rush around or throw anything in the kitchen. 3. Work quietly; avoid unnecessary chat so that the instruction s can be heard. 4. All accidents and breakages must be reported at once. 5. A high level of personal hygiene is expected; wash hands before starting, always wear an apron, have hair tied back and roll up sleeves.
  103. 103. RULES AND REGULATION IN KITCHEN LABORATORY 6. Do not move around the kitchen with hot objects e.g. frying pans, boiling water. 7. Keep saucepan handles away from the edges of cookers and work surfaces. 8. Use oven gloves to remove hot dishes from the oven. 9. Make sure all appliances are turned off after use. 10. Sharp knives are dangerous be careful using them. 11. Never touch plugs or electrical equipment with wet hands.
  104. 104. RULES AND REGULATION IN KITCHEN LABORATORY 12. The kitchen is provided with fire blankets and fire extinguishers. 13. Keep units tidy at all times, all used cutlery should be placed on a plate and all waste put in the correct bin 14. Handle food as little as possible. 15. Never dip fingers into food, never lick fingers during cooking. Use a clean spoon each time you taste.
  105. 105. RULES AND REGULATION IN KITCHEN LABORATORY 16. Never sit in kitchen work surfaces. 17. Each unit must be left clean, cookers cleaned and sinks empty and washed. 18. Wash and dry all dishes, cutlery, etc., after use and return them to their correct unit. 19. All kitchen cloths must be hung on the clotheshorse after use. 20. Push chairs in under the table after cooking.
  106. 106. STANDARD TABLE OF WEIGHT AND MEASURE
  107. 107. STANDARD TABLE OF WEIGHT AND MEASURE 1 tablespoon (T or tbsp) = 3 teaspoon ( t or tsp. ) 2 tablespoon = 1/8 cup 4 tablespoon = ¼ cup 5 1/3 tablespoon = 1/3 cup ¾ cup plus2 tablespoons = 7/8 cup 16 tablespoon = 1 cup( c. ) 2 cups = 1 pint 4 cups = 1 quart 16 ounces = 1 pound
  108. 108. COMMON UNITS OF WEIGHT 1 pound ( lb.) = 463.59 grams 1 ounce = 28.35 grams 1 kilogram ( kg. ) = 2.21 pounds 1 gram = .035 ounces 1 medium orange = ¼ to ½ cup ( slice ) 1 medium apple = 1 cup slice 14 oz. can condensed milk = 1 ¼ cups 14 oz, can evaporated milk = 1 2/3 cups
  109. 109. 1 lb. brown sugar = 2 ¼ cups (packed) 1 lb. confectioner sugar = 3 ½ cups 1 lb. confectioner sugar = 2 ½ cups 1 lb. nuts = 4 ½ cups 1 lb. dried nuts = 2 cups 5 whole eggs = 1 cup 12 egg yolks = 1 cup 8 egg whites = 1 cup
  110. 110. COMMON UNITS OF VOLUME 1 bushel (bu ) = 4 pecks 1 peck (pk ) = 8 quarts 1 gallon (gal.) = 4 quart 1 quart = 2 pints = 964.4 milliliters 1 teaspoon ( tsp. or t.) = 4.9 milliliters
  111. 111. 1 teaspoon ( tsp. or t.) = 4.9 milliliters 1 tablespoon (T. or tbsp. ) = ½ fluid ounce 14.8 milliliters 15 ounces raisins = 3 cups 1 pound dates = 2 ½ - 3 cups ½ pint whipping cream = 2 cups whipped creams
  112. 112. KNIFE SKILLS
  113. 113. Holding the Knife The way you hold the knife will be determined in part by the way your knife and your hand fit one another. The grip you choose will also be determined according to the task at hand. Delicate cutting or shaping techniques will call for greater control, involving fingertips more than the fist. Coarser chopping and cutting tasks require a firmer grip and more leverage.
  114. 114. Four basic grips used with a chef’s Knife  Grip the handle with all four fingers and hold the thumb gently but firmly against the blade’s spine.
  115. 115.  Grip the handle with all four fingers and hold the thumb gently but firmly against the side of the blade.
  116. 116.  Grip the handle with three fingers, rest the index finger flat against the blade on one side, and hold the thumb on the opposite side to give additional stability and contro.l
  117. 117.  Grip the handle overhand, with the knife held vertically – this grip is used with a boning knife for meat fabrication tasks
  118. 118. The Guiding Hand Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2
  119. 119.  One of the classic positions for the guiding hand is illustrated in figure 1. The fingertips are tucked under slightly and hold the object, with the thumb held back from the fingertips. The knife blade then rests against the knuckles, preventing the fingers from being cut.
  120. 120.  When you peel or trim foods, cut them into tournées, or flute them, you may find yourself holding the food in the air, above the cutting surface. In that case, the guiding hand holds and turns the food against the blade to make the work more efficient. Be sure that the food, your hands, and your knife handle are very dry.
  121. 121.  Certain cutting techniques, such as butterflying meats or slicing a bagel in half, call for the guiding hand to be placed on top of the food to keep it from slipping, while the cut is made into the food parallel or at an angle to the work surface. Holding your hand flat on the upper surface of the food with a little pressure makes these cuts safe to perform.
  122. 122.  The guiding hand is also used to hold a carving or kitchen fork when disjointing or carving cooked meats and poultry in front of customers. The tines of the fork can be laid flat on the surface of the food or inserted directly into the item to hold it in place as it is carved.
  123. 123. PRECISION CUTS Why food need to be cut into pieces of uniform shape and size? 1. Evenly cut items look more attractive 2. they cook evenly so your dishes have the best possible flavor, color, and texture. 3. Unevenly cut items give an impression of carelessness that can spoil the dish’s look.
  124. 124. Trimming and Peeling 1. Trimming tasks- include removing root and stem ends from fruits, herbs, and vegetables. 2. Peeling tasks- can be done using a rotary peeler if the skin is not too thick; carrot, potato, and similar skins are easy to remove with a peeler. Remember that these peelers work in both directions.
  125. 125. Basic and Advanced Cuts  Chopping  mincing,  shredding (chiffonade),  julienne  bâtonnet,  dice,  paysanne or fermière,  lozenge, r  ondelle, oblique or roll cuts  tourné.
  126. 126. CHOP  Coarse chopping is generally used for mirepoix or similar flavoring ingredients that are to be strained out of the dish and discarded.  It is also appropriate when cutting vegetables that will be puréed.
  127. 127. MINCE  Mincing is a very fine cut that is suitable for many vegetables and herbs. When mincing herbs, rinse and dry well, and strip the leaves from the stems.
  128. 128. CHIFFONADE  The chiffonade cut is done by hand to cut herbs, leafy greens, and other ingredients into very fine shreds.  Chiffonade is distinct from shredding, however, in that the cuts are much finer and uniform. This cut is typically used for delicate leafy vegetables and herbs.
  129. 129. SHRED OR GRATE  Shredded or grated items can be coarse or fine, depending upon the intended use. Foods can be shredded with a chef’s knife, a slicer, shredding tools and attachments, a mandolin or box grater.
  130. 130. JULIENNE & BÂTONNET  Julienne and bâtonnet are long, rectangular cuts. Related cuts are the standard pommes frites and pommes pont neuf cuts (both are names for French fries) and the allumette (or matchstick) cut. The difference between these cuts is the final size. 1/4 x 1/4 x 2 to 2 1/2 inches (6 x 6 x 50 to 60 millimeters )
  131. 131. DICE CUTS  Dicing is a cutting technique that produces a cube- shaped product. Different preparations require different sizes of dice - fine (brunoise), small, medium, and large dice.  The term brunoise is derived from the French verb, brunoir (to brown), and reflects the common practice of sautéing these finely MEDIUM DICE 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 inch (12 x 12 x 12 millimetres) SMALL DICE1/4 x 1/4 x 1/4 inch (6 x 6 x 6 millimetres)
  132. 132. PAYSANNE & FERMIÈRE CUTS  Cuts produced in the paysanne (peasant) and fermière (farmer) style are generally used in dishes intended to have a rustic or home- style appeal. When used for traditional regional specialties, they may be cut in such a way that the shape of the vegetable’s curved or uneven edges are still apparent in the finished cut. PAYSANNE 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/8 inch (12 x 12 x 4 millimeters)
  133. 133. DIAMOND/LOZENGE CUTS  The diamond, or lozenge, cut is similar to the paysanne and is most often used to prepare a vegetable garnish. Instead of cutting batonnet, thinly slice the vegetable, then cut into strips of the appropriate width. LOZENGE Diamond shape, 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/8 inch (12 x 12 x 4 millimeters)
  134. 134. RONDELLES Rounds  The basic round shape can be varied by cutting the vegetable on the bias to produce an elongated or oval disk or by slicing it in half for half- moons. If the vegetable is scored with a channel knife, flower shapes are produced. RONDELLE Cut to desired thickness, 1/8 to 1/2 inch (4 to 12 millimeters)
  135. 135. DIAGONAL AND BIAS CUTS  This cut is often used to prepare vegetables for stir- fries and other Asian-style dishes because it exposes a greater surface area and shortens cooking time.
  136. 136. OBLIQUE OR ROLL CUTS Oblique  It refers to a vegetable cut, reflects the fact that the cut sides are neither parallel nor perpendicular. The effect is achieved by rolling the vegetables after each cut. This cut is used for long, cylindrical vegetables such as parsnips, carrots, and celery.
  137. 137. TOURNÉ  Turning vegetables (tourner in French) requires a series of cuts that simultaneously trim and shape the vegetable. The shape may be similar to a barrel or a football. This cut is one of the most demanding, time- consuming, and exacting cuts. Approximately 2 inches (50 millimeters) long with seven faces
  138. 138. PERFORM MISE EN PLACE
  139. 139. Mise en Place • French culinary term that means “everything in its place.” This culinary term refers to purchasing, preparing, and pre- measuring all the ingredients necessary for a dish before you start cooking. • Mise en place makes the actual process of cooking more efficient and helps prevent the cook from making mistakes or discovering missing ingredients at a crucial moment.
  140. 140. Steps: 1) Read the entire recipe. Determine which ingredients and equipment you will need and have them nearby. 2) Prepare the workspace. • Start with a clean kitchen. • Empty the dishwasher and remove unnecessary items off the counter tops.
  141. 141. 3) Do the work. • Preheat the oven, prepare pans, etc. • Chop, dice, grate, and sift; pre-measure ingredients and put into small bowls. • Set the bowls on a tray to easily transport them to the cooking area. 4) Clean as you go. This is the most important step!
  142. 142. MENU
  143. 143. Menu - A list of the foods that may be ordered at a restaurant. - The food that may served at a meal. Menu Courses 1) Appetizer 2) Soups 3) Salad 4) Main Course 5) Desserts 6) Beverage
  144. 144. Appetizer -foods or drinks served at the beginning of the course which are served to whet the appetite are called appetizer. Loaded Baked Potato Dip Fontina-Stuffed, Bacon-Wrapped Dates Hot Corn and Cheese Dip
  145. 145. Soups -These are liquid foods prepared by boiling meat, vegetables, and others. Vegetable clear soup Delicious Ham and Potato Soup Leek Potato Mushroom Cheddar Soup Chicken and Leek Soup
  146. 146. Salads -These are dishes of vegetables, pasta, or green herbs served with dressing/s, served sometimes with chopped cold meat, fish, and thick. Corn Salad Mixed Salad With Lotus Root Pomegranate and Kiwi Salad
  147. 147. Main Course - This is the chief part of the whole courses which contains the heaviest and usually the most expensive item on the menu. The main course usually consists of meat, poultry, or fish dish, except on a vegetarian menu. Grilled squid with special filling,fresh tomato, basil & olive oil Braised beef brisket in red wine sauce
  148. 148. Desserts - These include sweets like pastries, cakes, puddings, fruits, and others at the close of a lunch or a supper.
  149. 149. Beverage - This refers to drinks like tea, coffee, milk, chocolate, soft drinks, juice, wine and other beverage.

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