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Felsi assignment.

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Felsi assignment.

  1. 1. TOPIC: FEATURES OF GOOD SOCIAL SCIENCE TEXT BOOK. SUBMITTED BY: FELSIYA MARY .A OPTION: SOCIAL SCIENCE. ROLL NO. 40 Introduction: Social Science, which can be defined as Value (what people prefer), Characteristics (who people are) Human behaviour (what people do) “Social science is, in its broadest sense, the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence the world around us” (Economic and Social Research Council) Specifically, study of Social Science cont… Subjects Anthropology, Communication studies, Criminology, Economics, Geography, History, Political science, Psychology, Social studies, and sociology ethnicity and gender, employment and leisure, recreation & tourism, population health, lifestyle & wellbeing Objectives: 1) to facilitate the understanding of human behaviour 2) It seeks to find explanation to unexplained social 3) To identify functional relationship existing in a social phenomena. 4) To find out the natural laws that regulate or direct social phenomena 5) To standardize the society concept, e.g. culture, generation gap, social distance etc. 6) To formulate solution to social problems. Objectives of social research cont. 7) To maintain social organization, remove social tension, misconception 8) Helps clarify doubts and correct misconceptions about facts of life Definitions of Social Studies In 1992, the Nat ional Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) adopted the following definition of “social studies”: Social studies are the integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civic competence. Within the school program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology, as well as appropriate content from the humanit ies, mathematics, and natural sciences. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned
  2. 2. decisions for the public good as cit izens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world. (NCSS Task Force on Standards for Teaching and Learning in the Social Studies, 1993, p. 213) The NCSS, the professional organization of social studies educators, has played an essential role since 1921 (www.ncss.org). The NCSS definition seems to be a good place to start our discussion of how to teach social studies in an elementary school classroom. The existence of an “official” definition is somewhat mislead ing because authorities in the field have long debated the dimensions of an appropriate definit ion of social studies (Barr, Barth, & Shermis, 1977; Barth & Shermis, 1970; Dougan, 1988; Evans, 2004; Griffith, 1991). The NCSS definition states the topics covered in social studies and clarifies the purposes of social studies teaching and learning. Barth (1993) provides a simpler definition of social studies: Social studies is the interdisciplinary integrat ion of social science and humanities concepts for the purpose of practicing problem solving and decision making for developing citizenship skills on critical social issues. I think this is a useful definition. It emphasizes the ultimate goal of social studies teaching—to help students think critically and to use what they know to be active citizens. I have a definition, too: Social studies are the study of people. Social studies should help students acquire knowledge, master the processes of learning, and become active citizens. A closer look at my definition and a discussion of those provided by the NCSS and Professor Barth should bring social studies into sharper focus. Social Studies Is the Study of People: People are the domain of social studies. This includes people as nearby as family and as far away as those who live in the most distant nations. It includes people living now, those who lived long ago, and those who will live in the future. Social studies have the potential to be the best part of the school day because it is when children connect with other people. As children learn about others, they will be fascinated by differences among cultural groups, while at the same time they will find the commonalities that create a shared sense of humanity. It is a complex task to teach about people, and informat ion must come from many fields of study. The NCSS definition points out that it is the various disciplines of the social sciences and humanit ies that provide the content for what is taught during social studies. While history and geography should serve as the core of social studies, it is imperative that the other social sciences are not neglected; rather, they should be a significant part of every social studies program. The other social sciences are anthropology, economics, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology. The humanities (literature, the performing arts, and the visual arts) are an important part of social studies, too (Eisner, 1991). The arts serve two functions. First, they help children better understand the people, places, and ideas they study. Stories, songs, dances, plays, paintings, statues, and other works of art allow students to become acquainted with the people who created them. Second, children can show us what they know by expressing themselves through the arts. As Barth (1993) points out, social studies involve integrat ion of the social sciences and the
  3. 3. humanit ies. A good social studies unit of study should pull informat ion and ideas from several different fields. What is a text-book? A text-book is a specially written which contains selective and systematic knowledge. Every care is taken for coherence and sequence. It is made to simple to the degree that suits the intended learner. It is not a bare statement of knowledge but is armed with various teaching- learning devices to fulfil the desired instructional role. A text-book differs from ordinary book mainly on the score that it combines within it teaching-learning techniques and motives. Instructional materials for pupils: Text book: The text book, in fact constitutes an inseparable part of any system of education today. Even in the most developed countries, where a variety of teaching-learning tools and techniques are available in the class-rooms, text books continue to enjoy their rightful place. In a developing country like ours where even the minimum essential requirements of a class rooms are hardly provided, the need for quality text books cannot be over emphasised. As far social studies are concerned, the text book is an aid which is considered indispensable to all methods for the study of social studies. In school work in social studies the text book remains after the teacher, the learners, chief aid and support.... A well – chosen text- book can always be a useful adjunct to the efforts of the teacher and a reassurance to the pupil. In the USA, text books are used in social studies from the earliest classes, but in European schools, social studies text- books are rarely in use in primary classes. In Indian schools, text-books are in use from the earliest to the highest classes and all our lessons are based on text-books. Text books- Indispensable in Social studies. Good text- books are indispensable for the study and teaching of social studies for various reasons. 1. To help the teacher: Text-book provides useful guidelines along which the teacher can plan his day-to-day teaching; it serve as a reference book while actually teaching in the class- rooms; provides suggestions for some assignments; suggests activities to be taken up in the class-room and outside It can be used to aid the teacher who has run out of new ideas. 2. To help the pupil:
  4. 4. For the pupil, a text book is the most accessible guide, a dependable reference book and all-time companion. The pupil makes use of the text book to prepare them in advance for learning in the class room; revises and reinforces the class room learning; does assignments at home; prepares for the examination; reads for pleasure; and seeks guidance and references for further studies. 3. To give the minimum essential knowledge at one place: A text –book can be constant standby of the social studies teacher, as it gives the minimum knowledge at one place. All teachers are not in a position to dig up facts. Some mature, well- trained experienced teachers may find it possible to dispense to use their outlines and thus find it possible to dispense with a basal text-book, but most teachers cannot and should not do it. 4. To help in self teaching: The tradition of imparting education through the instrument of lecturing has high value especially when the teacher is armed with special gifts i.e. inspiring of the gifted and encouraging the weak students, etc. The efficacy of the text-book lies in making self-teaching a possible through printed materials. Thus, a good text-book can prove an insurance against illiteracy at home which is normal in the case of many children. 5. To provide logical and comprehensive material: A good text-book provides material in a systematic and comprehensive form. That is why it sets a standard of minimum essential to be achieved by pupil categories. It gives the beginner a grasp of new matter. It also gives direction for further studies to enthusiastic pupils. 6. To ensure uniformity of a good standard: The text –book provides a highway for carrying better practices to all schools. Some sorts of uniformity of good standard are ensured. The text-book furnishes a common basis on which to master the process of reading analysing outlining and summarising. It thus, furnishes a common laboratory in which to develop study skills. 7. To provide base from which both the teacher and pupils may start and continue to work: The text-book contains the minimum essential knowledge and can, thus, provide a point of departure for a mere comprehensive link. Further, it provides the common ground which both the students and teachers may explore together. Also, it can focus attention on the same issues- events, sequences and circumstances and serves well as a rallying point. 8. To provide both conformation and sustenance: The text-book is supposed to contain the facts which are carefully sifted and examined. Thus, it can confirm the knowledge obtained elsewhere. ‘It is related that even Lord Acton, when preparing his famous lectures on
  5. 5. modern history, would be found writing with a pedestrian text-book of European history at his elbow to ensure presumably that inspiration did not lead him beyond the bounds the recorded fact.’ 9. To rectify the limitation of the class room situation in most of the Indian schools: There are some limitations of class room situation in our country which warrant the use of social science text books.  A large number of students in each class, creating congestion  Lengthy course and teachers worried about finishing the prescribed syllabus within the specified period.  Extremely divergent opinion regarding historical, political and social events  Non- availability of other teaching aids and devices which are indispensable for effective instruction. 10. To ensure intellectual rapprochement of peoples: Good social studies text-books can coordinate the activities can bring about the intellectual rapprochement of people. They can serve as organs of national co-ordination. Criteria for a good social studies text-book: A text-book only an aid or tool. To be helpful and useful, it must contain all the qualifications of an aid or tool. A good social studies text-book must satisfy the following criteria: 1. It should help in achieving the purposes of teaching social studies: It should assume special responsibility toward the promotion of some national goals like secularism and national integration as also to recognise and get rid of what is undesirable and antiquated. The book through it content, style of presentation, exercises, and illustrations, should provide the understandings which are necessary for the promotion of the national goals. 2. It should be child centred: A good text-book on social studies should be suitable to the age, ability and interests of pupils. It should be primarily addressed to pupils of a particular age group and of a particular society. Just as the world of child expands in concentric as he grow, so his text-book must reflect the stage he has reached. 3. It should contain fluent narration: Instead of a bare outline of a series of cut and dried facts, there should be chatty, descriptive and brightly coloured details and lot of explains of why things happen. There should not only be, ‘what’ of people and events but also ‘how’ and ‘why’ ‘where’ and ‘when’ of them. The book should not only give the result but also the long tedious and doubtful struggles that produce the results. 4. It should have a clear and self explanatory arrangement:
  6. 6. It should have a detailed table of contents and material should be arranged under headings to be easily comprehended by the pupils. 5. It should open up various avenues of thought and study: Social studies should never be something that comes out of a book. The social studies text-book should make it evident that what is given in the book is only a beginning. It should create interest and help to develop that interest by suggestions as to how the matter given in the book may be followed up and developed. 6. The language of the text-book should be suitable for the ‘reading age’ of the pupils. The text-book for the younger children should be especially written in simple sentences so as to establish an effective communication with them. The language used should be also being accurate and appropriate so that it helps in enriching children’s language. 7. It should be well-illustrated: The abstract concepts presented in the text-book should be illustrated through visual aids, such as, photographs, maps, time lines. Pictures, picture- diagrams, etc. The book should be attractive, inviting, a pleasure to look at and read. 8. It should be simple and interesting, and attractive enough to take the form of a self- study reader: Pupils should be able to take advantages of the text-book with the least help from the teacher and parents. The text-book should give exercises at the end of a unit/topic to enable the pupils to focus their attention on the right points in the discussion for concentrated study. 9. It should be free from indoctrination: It should present a comparative view of the ideas of different people expressed on a particular phase of life. It should not contain superficial and misleading generalisation like ‘the British are all children of perfidious Albinos’ It should not contain too much of nationalism as it tends to be dogmatic, and conclusive and official. 10. It should provide proper and adequate exercise and suggestions for activities etc. At the end of each chapter. The exercise should flow from the main text, supplement and complement it. Exercise must include a variety of items so that the following purposes are achieved. 11. It must be up to date: Social studies are an area of the curriculum whose content, emphasis and treatment are undergoing modification in the light of new excavations and researches, new events and movements. It is therefore, essential that the social studies text-book is frequently revised so as to eliminate those things which no longer hold good and to add those which have to play a significant role. The textbook must contain the latest information, the result of recent research for nothing but harm could result from perpetuating mistakes and
  7. 7. stereotyped views. The sources from which the information is drawn should be authentic. 12. It should help in developing international understanding: It should emphasise cultural relations between the nations of the world and the contribution of different nations to the pool of world civilisation. 13. It should contain references for further study and references for collateral reading. This will motivate the interested pupils to pursue their studies further. 14. It should also cater to the needs of backward pupils. This can be done by giving small but leading questions at the end of every sub-topic. 15. It should promote group effort. It should contain suggestions for group projects with every topic. Assignments with divisions may be suggested which could be jointly attempted by the groups. It should contain suggestions on constructing models, preparing charts, etc. 16. It should contain a subject index at the end. This is specially required for the text-book for higher classes. Index can be helpful in developing independent study habits in our pupils. It will help in forming a habit of making references and comparisons in pupils and facilitating a combination of topics with chronological approach. Conclusion: Basic text- books are likely to be widely used for the years to come. It is essential that the teacher knows the proper use of text-book. Text-book is a store-house of basic information, which contains narrative details. Therefore let us love to read books, specially the books that give us knowledge, and the books that sustains, and inspires us to live life meaningfully. Let our life become a text-book, as teachers let us leave the legacy. Let others read our book of life as the ‘footprints on the sand of our times’. Thank you. References:  The teaching of Social studies- by S.K.Kochhar.

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