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Sacrament of holy eucharist


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Sacrament of holy eucharist

  1. 1. HOLY EUCHARIST Josephine R Tarroza Religious Studies Department, School of Liberal Arts Ateneo de Zamboanga University
  2. 2. Definition: <ul><li>It came from the Latin word “ EUCHARISTIEN” which means “thanksgiving” </li></ul><ul><li>Centrepiece of the seven sacraments </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In simple words we call it the “MASS” </li></ul><ul><li>It was patterned after the Jewish Passover in the Old Testament and re-enacts what took place in the Last Supper </li></ul>
  4. 4. BIBLICAL and HISTORICAL BACKGROUND <ul><li>Old Testament: Jewish Passover Meal (Exodus Great Events) </li></ul><ul><li>New Testament: Last Supper ---It was celebrated in the context of the Jewish Passover Meal. </li></ul><ul><li>TODAY: Holy Eucharist ---it is modelled from the Last Supper </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Last Supper at first was celebrated inside Jewish synagogue service. Even the “liturgy of the word” is copied from the said service. </li></ul>
  6. 6. EARLY CHURCH <ul><li>The Holy Eucharist is celebrated every first day of the week. Sunday and called it as the “breaking of the bread” </li></ul><ul><li>From First to Third century , Christians made a secret gathering to avoid persecution. However, when Christianity was recognized as religion at 334 AD the mass language was LATIN through the mandate of Pope Gregory the Great </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In the Middle Ages, Theologians debated on the real presence of Christ in the consecrated Bread and Wine, thus the term “transubstantiation” came about. Later, Eucharistic devotion, benediction, exposition of the Host, and elevation of the host and chalice were practiced. </li></ul><ul><li>Only then in 1962-1965 (the Documents of Vatican II) the mass was celebrated in Vernacular </li></ul>
  8. 8. SACRED SCRIPTURES <ul><li>1 Corinthian 11: 23-26 </li></ul><ul><li>“ For I received from the Lord what I also handed on to you, that the Lord Jesus, on the night he was handed over, took bread and after he had given thanks , broke it and said, “This is my body that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.” This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this , as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me . For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the death of the Lord until he comes...” </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1 Cor 11:27-33 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eucharist must receive in sincerity” </li></ul><ul><li>Matthew 25: 26-28 </li></ul><ul><li>“ While they were eating, Jesus took bread , said the blessing , broke it and giving it to his disciples said, “Take and eat, this is my body.” Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and gave it to them saying; “Drink from it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which will be shed on behalf of many for the forgiveness of sins...” </li></ul>
  10. 10. EXTERNAL SIGNS OF THE SACRAMENT <ul><li>Matter --- Water, Wine, Host, Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Formula: --- “Take this bread all of you and eat it, this is my body which will be given up for you and all men...Take this cup, the cup of the new and everlasting covenant which will be shed for you and for all so that sins maybe forgiven.” </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Minister: </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop and Priest (ORDINARY) </li></ul><ul><li>Deacons and Lay Ministers (EXTRAORDINARY) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Patterned from the solemn actions of Christ at the Last Supper (Matthew 26: 27) <ul><li>He took (Preparation of Gifts) </li></ul><ul><li>Blessed (Eucharistic Prayer) </li></ul><ul><li>Broke (Breaking of the Bread) </li></ul><ul><li>Gave (Communion) </li></ul>
  13. 13. VATICAN II (ON DOCUMENT OF CONSTITUTION ON THE SACRED LITURGY <ul><li>***Some changes in the celebration of the Mass*** </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is celebrated in vernacular </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion of Prayers of the Faithful </li></ul><ul><li>Active Participation of the Laity </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of receiving communion by the hand. Based on the COUNCIL OF TRENT in 1563, it taught that the whole Christ is present in both species and to receive either bread or wine is to receive the whole Christ. </li></ul>
  14. 14. THE NATURE OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST <ul><li>Thanksgiving-sacrament </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice-sacrament </li></ul><ul><li>Communion-sacrament </li></ul><ul><li>Presence-sacrament </li></ul><ul><li>Pledge of future glory (eschatological) </li></ul>
  15. 15. EFFECTS OF THE SACRAMENT <ul><li>Unites us with Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Building up of the Christian community </li></ul><ul><li>Separates us from our sins </li></ul><ul><li>Takes away social or racial differences </li></ul><ul><li>To reconcile and be reconciled to and with the Church </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  16. 16. STRUCTURE OF THE HOLY MASS <ul><li>INTRODUCTORY RITE </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance Hymn </li></ul><ul><li>Greeting </li></ul><ul><li>Penitential Rite </li></ul><ul><li>Gloria </li></ul><ul><li>Opening Prayer </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>2. LITURGY OF THE WORD </li></ul><ul><li>Scripture Readings </li></ul><ul><li>Homily </li></ul><ul><li>The Creed </li></ul><ul><li>Prayers of the Faithful (Intercessions) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>3. LITURGY OF THE EUCHARIST </li></ul><ul><li>A. Preparation of the Gifts </li></ul><ul><li>B. Eucharistic Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Invocation of the Holy Spirit (Epiclesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Last Supper’s Narrative of Institution, Acclamation </li></ul><ul><li>Commemoration (Anamnesis), 2 nd Invocation of the Holy Spirit </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>4. COMMUNION RITE </li></ul><ul><li>Our Father </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer of Deliverance </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer for Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking of the Bread </li></ul><ul><li>Communion </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer after Communion </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>5. CONCLUDING RITE </li></ul><ul><li>Final Blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissal </li></ul>
  21. 21. Liturgical Seasons/Cycle
  22. 23. <ul><li>Western Christian liturgical calendars are based on the cycle of the Roman or Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church , including Protestant calendars since this cycle pre-dates the Protestant Reformation . Generally, the liturgical seasons in Western Christianity are Advent, Christmas, Ordinary Time (Time after Easter, and Ordinary Time (Time after Pentecost). </li></ul>
  23. 24. Advent <ul><li>The first season of the liturgical year, beginning four Sundays before Christmas and ending on Christmas Eve. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically observed as a &quot;fast&quot;, its purpose focuses preparation for the coming Christ. Although often conceived as awaiting the coming of the Christ-child at Christmas, the modern lectionary points the season more toward eschatological themes --awaiting the final coming of Christ, when &quot;the wolf shall live with the lamb&quot; (Isaiah 11:6) and when God will have &quot;brought down the powerful from their thrones, and lifted up the lowly&quot; (The Magnificat, Luke 1:52)--particularly in the earlier half of the season. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>This period of waiting is often marked by the Advent Wreath, a garland of evergreens with 4 candles. Although the main symbolism of the advent wreath is simply marking the progression of time, many churches attach themes to each candle, most often 'hope', 'faith', 'joy', and 'love'. </li></ul><ul><li>Color: Violet/Purple (commonly used), or in some traditions Blue. On the third Sunday of Advent, also called Gaudete Sunday, Rose/Pink is used in some places. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Christmas <ul><li>Christmastide begins on the evening of Christmas Eve (December 24) and ends on the Feast of the Epiphany on January 6. Christmas Day itself is December 25. </li></ul><ul><li>The 12-day length of the Christmas season gives rise to &quot;The Twelve Days of Christmas&quot;; despite what retailers and the media might have one believe, the Twelve Days begin on Christmas Day , instead of ending on it. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>The Roman Catholic calendar has the Christmas liturgical season continuing to the feast of the Baptism of Our Lord (the old octave day of Epiphany), which in pre-Vatican II calendar was fixed on January 13. </li></ul><ul><li>Color: White or Gold </li></ul>
  27. 28. Ordinary Time (&quot;Time after Epiphany&quot; and &quot;Septuagesima&quot;) <ul><li>&quot;Ordinary&quot; comes from the same root as our word &quot;ordinal&quot;, and in this sense means &quot;the counted weeks&quot;. In the Roman Catholic Church and in some Protestant traditions, these are the common weeks which do not belong to a proper season. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>It consists of either 33 or 34 Sundays, depending on the year. In the modern Roman rite, the first portion of Ordinary Time extends from the day following the Feast of the Baptism of Christ until the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday (the beginning of Lent). </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>This first instalment has anywhere from three to eight Sundays, depending on how early or late Easter falls in a given year. In other rites, including Protestant ones, Ordinary Time may start as early as the day after Epiphany or as late as the day after Christmas. </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>The terminology of &quot;Ordinary Time&quot; replaces the older language of the Seasons of &quot;Time After Epiphany&quot; and &quot;Septuagesima&quot; (pre-Lenten season), which are still in use by traditional Catholics and other Catholics who attend the ancient, pre-Vatican II Mass known as the Tridentine Rite. Some Protestant rites also use the older terminology. </li></ul><ul><li>Color: Green. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Lent <ul><li>Lent is a major fast taken by the Church to prepare for Easter. It begins on Ash Wednesday and ends at the beginning of the Easter Vigil , at the conclusion of Holy Week. </li></ul><ul><li>There are forty days of Lent , counting from Ash Wednesday through the Easter Triduum, but not including Sundays. The final week of Lent is known as Holy Week, which begins on Palm Sunday . The final three days of Lent are known as the Easter Triduum. </li></ul><ul><li>Color: Violet. In some traditions, Rose may be used on the 4th Sunday of Lent. </li></ul>
  32. 35. The Easter Triduum consists of: <ul><li>Holy Thursday or Maundy Thursday </li></ul><ul><ul><li>at the evening worship service or Mass of the Lord's Supper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some churches who celebrate this day as Maundy Thursday engage in the ritual of ceremonial footwashing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Color: White. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Good Friday </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the celebration of His passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color: Varies: No color, Red, or Black are used in different traditions. (Where colored hangings are removed for this day, liturgical color applies to vestments only.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Roman Catholic rite, a crucifix (not necessarily the one which stands on or near the altar on other days of the year) is ceremoniously unveiled. (And in pre-Vatican II, other crucifixes were to be unveiled, without ceremony, after the Good Friday service.) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Holy Saturday </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commemoration of the day Christ lay in the Tomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color: None </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Easter Vigil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held after sunset of Holy Saturday, or before dawn on Easter Day, in anticipation of the celebration of the resurrection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color: White, often together with Gold. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Easter <ul><li>The date of Easter varies from year to year, but is set to be close to the date of Jesus' resurrection, which the holiday recognizes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Easter season extends from the Easter Vigil through Pentecost Sunday on the Catholic and Protestant calendars. On the calendar used by traditional Catholics, Eastertide lasts until the end of the Octave of Pentecost </li></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>Ascension is the fortieth day of Easter, always a Thursday. Pentecost is the fiftieth. </li></ul><ul><li>Color: White or Gold, except on Pentecost, on which the color is Red. </li></ul>
  37. 41. Ordinary Time (&quot;Time after Pentecost&quot; and &quot;Kingdomtide&quot;) <ul><li>Ordinary Time resumes after the Easter Season , on Pentecost Monday, and ends on the Saturday before the First Sunday of Advent . </li></ul><ul><li>The first Sunday after Pentecost is Trinity Sunday and in many traditions the last Sunday of Ordinary Time is the Feast of Christ the King . </li></ul>
  38. 43. <ul><li>Before the Roman liturgical calendar was reformed at the Second Vatican Council, the Sundays in this part of the year were listed as &quot;Sundays after Pentecost&quot; by Roman Catholics; the Eastern Orthodox and some Protestants still adhere to this terminology. </li></ul>
  39. 44. Variations during this season include: <ul><li>In the traditional Catholic calendar, Christ the King is the last Sunday in October rather than the final Sunday before Advent. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Catholic and some Anglican traditions the feast of Corpus Christi occurs eleven days after Pentecost. </li></ul>
  40. 45. <ul><li>Most Western traditions celebrate All Saints' Day on November 1st or the Sunday following. The liturgical color is White. </li></ul><ul><li>In some Protestant traditions, especially those with closer ties to the Lutheran tradition, Reformation Sunday is celebrated on the Sunday preceding October 31st , commemorating the purported day Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenburg. The liturgical color is Red , celebrating the Holy Spirit's continuing work in renewing the Church. </li></ul>
  41. 46. LITURGICAL MATERIALS <ul><li>The alb (from the Latin Albus , meaning white ), one of the liturgical vestments of the Roman Catholic , Anglican and many Protestant churches </li></ul><ul><li>It is an ample white garment coming down to the ankles and usually girdled with a cincture . It is simply the long linen tunic used by the Romans . In Early Medieval Europe it was also normally worn by secular clergy in non-liturgical contexts. </li></ul>
  42. 48. <ul><li>A chasuble is a contemporary Eucharistic vestment that combines features of the chasuble and alb. In the Roman Catholic Church , it was first adopted in France, though without official approval. </li></ul><ul><li>In France it is no longer fashionable. But it has been officially approved in some countries such as the Philippines and in Hawaii . </li></ul><ul><li>It is always white in colour. A stole of the colour appointed for the Mass of the day is worn outside it, in place of the normal white alb and coloured chasuble </li></ul>
  43. 50. <ul><li>Stole </li></ul><ul><li>The word stole derives via the Latin stola , from the Greek στολή ( stolē ), &quot;garment&quot;, originally &quot;array&quot; or &quot;equipment&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Also symbolizes the sign of Christ yoke. </li></ul>
  44. 51. <ul><li>It consists of a band of colored cloth, formerly usually of silk , about seven and a half to nine feet long and three to four inches wide, whose ends may be straight or may broaden out. </li></ul>
  45. 53. <ul><li>A cruet (also called a caster) , is a small flat-bottomed vessel with a narrow neck. Cruets often have an integral lip or spout, and may also have a handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruets are normally made from glass, ceramic, or stainless steel. Used to place the wine and water during the mass </li></ul>
  46. 55. <ul><li>A ciborium (plural ciboria ; Latin from the Ancient Greek κιβώριον (kibōrion) is a vessel, normally in metal. </li></ul><ul><li>It was originally a particular shape of drinking cup in Ancient Greece and Rome, but later used to refer to a large covered cup designed to hold hosts for, and after , the Eucharist , thus the equivalent for the bread of the chalice for the wine. </li></ul>
  47. 57. <ul><li>Chalice ; a wine-cup, especially one used in religious services. </li></ul><ul><li>A cup or goblet for the consecrated wine of the Eucharist. A bowl-shaped drinking vessel; especially the Eucharistic cup </li></ul>
  48. 59. <ul><li>A paten , or diskos , is a small plate, usually made of silver or gold, used to hold Eucharistic bread which is to be consecrated . </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally used during the service itself, while the reserved hosts are stored in the Tabernacle in a ciborium . </li></ul>
  49. 61. <ul><li>Source: ,, </li></ul>