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4 history of missions

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4 history of missions

  1. 1. Joshva session four 1 History of MissionsHistory of Missions Session 4Session 4 SOCMSSOCMS Presented by Dr JoshvaPresented by Dr Joshva
  2. 2. Joshva session four 2 ReadingsReadings • W R Shenk Changing Frontiers ofW R Shenk Changing Frontiers of MissionMission • Stephen Neill A History ChristianStephen Neill A History Christian MissionMission • G H Anderson, Mission LegaciesG H Anderson, Mission Legacies • D Bosch Transforming MissionD Bosch Transforming Mission • K S Latourette, A History of ChristianityK S Latourette, A History of Christianity
  3. 3. Joshva session four 3 Looking at the Historical PeriodLooking at the Historical Period Stephen Neil (A History of ChristianStephen Neil (A History of Christian Mission)Mission) • The Conquest of the Roman World (100-500 AD)The Conquest of the Roman World (100-500 AD) • The Dark Age (500-1000)The Dark Age (500-1000) • Early European Expansion (1000-1500)Early European Expansion (1000-1500) • The Age of Discovery (1500-1600)The Age of Discovery (1500-1600) • New Beginnings in East and West (1600-1800)New Beginnings in East and West (1600-1800) • New Forces in Europe and America (1792-1852)New Forces in Europe and America (1792-1852) • The Heyday of Colonialism (1852-1914)The Heyday of Colonialism (1852-1914) • Rome, the Orthodox and the world (1815-1914)Rome, the Orthodox and the world (1815-1914)
  4. 4. Joshva session four 4 Ralph WinterRalph Winter The 25 Unbelievable Years: 1945- 1969. • 0-400 AD Winning the Romans: Evangelizing the0-400 AD Winning the Romans: Evangelizing the empire of the Caesarsempire of the Caesars • 400-800 AD Evangelization of the Barbarians400-800 AD Evangelization of the Barbarians • 800-1200 AD Evangelization of the Vikings800-1200 AD Evangelization of the Vikings • 1200-1600 AD Evangelization of the Saracens /1200-1600 AD Evangelization of the Saracens / MuslimsMuslims • 1600-2000 AD Evangelization of the Ends of the Earth1600-2000 AD Evangelization of the Ends of the Earth (Kenneth Scott Latourette,(Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of Christianity.A History of Christianity. NewNew York: Harper &Brothers, 1953, pp. 181, 221-234).York: Harper &Brothers, 1953, pp. 181, 221-234).
  5. 5. Joshva session four 5 David Barrett (Statistical Point ofDavid Barrett (Statistical Point of View)View) • 30-500 AD The Apostolic Era (Luke and Paul)30-500 AD The Apostolic Era (Luke and Paul) • 500-1750 AD The Ecclesiastical Era (Cosmas500-1750 AD The Ecclesiastical Era (Cosmas Indicopleustes and Francis Xavier)Indicopleustes and Francis Xavier) • 1750-1900 AD The Church Growth era1750-1900 AD The Church Growth era • William CareyWilliam Carey, the "father of modern missions", the "father of modern missions" • Henry VennHenry Venn -- "self-governing, self-supporting, and-- "self-governing, self-supporting, and self-propagating churches"self-propagating churches" • 1900-1990 AD The Global Mission era (1900-1990 AD The Global Mission era (John R. MottJohn R. Mott and Kenneth Grubb)and Kenneth Grubb) • 1990- present The Global Discipling era1990- present The Global Discipling era (Taken from Latourette, Kenneth Scott.(Taken from Latourette, Kenneth Scott. A History of theA History of the Expansion of ChristianityExpansion of Christianity. New York: Harper, 1937-1945.). New York: Harper, 1937-1945.)
  6. 6. Joshva session four 6 Concept of Progress in HistoryConcept of Progress in History • History is understood in terms of ProgressHistory is understood in terms of Progress and Development of One stage from theand Development of One stage from the otherother • It is a slow, Progressive, evolutionaryIt is a slow, Progressive, evolutionary accumulation of knowledge from oneaccumulation of knowledge from one generation to the nextgeneration to the next • AUGUSTE COMTE and KARL POPPERAUGUSTE COMTE and KARL POPPER
  7. 7. Joshva session four 7 Hans Kung’s Paradigm Shift in theHans Kung’s Paradigm Shift in the History of MissionsHistory of Missions • The Apocalyptic paradigm of primitiveThe Apocalyptic paradigm of primitive ChristianityChristianity • The Hellenistic paradigm of the patristic periodThe Hellenistic paradigm of the patristic period • The Medieval Roman Catholic paradigmThe Medieval Roman Catholic paradigm • The Protestant paradigmThe Protestant paradigm • The Modern Enlightenment paradigmThe Modern Enlightenment paradigm • The Emerging Ecumenical paradigm (BoschThe Emerging Ecumenical paradigm (Bosch book - 182)book - 182)
  8. 8. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 88 History of Mission?!History of Mission?! 1. God’s Salvation History of Israel1. God’s Salvation History of Israel 2. Jesus’ Movement2. Jesus’ Movement 3. Apostolic Missions3. Apostolic Missions 4. Early Christian Fathers’ Mission4. Early Christian Fathers’ Mission 5. Constantism and Mission - Division of5. Constantism and Mission - Division of Missions – Orthodox and CatholicMissions – Orthodox and Catholic 6. Reformation as mission within the6. Reformation as mission within the churches and Modern Missionarychurches and Modern Missionary MovementMovement 7.Indigenous Missions and Parachurch7.Indigenous Missions and Parachurch MissionsMissions 8. Pentecostal and Charismatic Missions8. Pentecostal and Charismatic Missions
  9. 9. Joshva session four 9 5 Epochs of Redemptive History Concept developed by Ralph Winter
  10. 10. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 1010 Winning the RomansWinning the Romans AD 0-400AD 0-400
  11. 11. Joshva session four 11 Winning the Romans AD 0-400 Early Roman Fresco of St. Paul Bible in Gothic translated by Ulfilas Moving and wandering preachers Unsettled Missionary Movements disturbing/challenging the surrounding contexts economically, politically and socially
  12. 12. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 1212 EmperorEmperor Constantine’s VisionConstantine’s Vision
  13. 13. Joshva session four 13 Winning the Barbarians AD 400-800
  14. 14. Joshva session four 14 Winning the Barbarians AD 400-800 Barbarians destroyed the Roman Empire and accepted Christianity Tribal Culture and religion is community affair – low culture to adopt to high culture of Romans Converted Tribal chief follows mass conversions Christianity as a catalyst in Cultural rebuilding Boniface after chopping down the sacred oak of the thunder god
  15. 15. Joshva session four 15 Winning the Vikings AD 800 - 1200
  16. 16. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 1616 Winning the VikingsWinning the Vikings AD 800 - 1200AD 800 - 1200  Vikings delighted inVikings delighted in • killing people in the churcheskilling people in the churches • burning churchesburning churches • selling monks into slavery.selling monks into slavery.  Anskar (801-854)Anskar (801-854) • ““Apostle of the North”Apostle of the North” • Sadly, no visible, lasting resultsSadly, no visible, lasting results  Though England and the Continent wereThough England and the Continent were devastated by the Vikings, it was not adevastated by the Vikings, it was not a victory for paganismvictory for paganism
  17. 17. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 1717 Conversion of VikingsConversion of Vikings Conversion was a community affair –Conversion was a community affair – Group decision making – MassGroup decision making – Mass movementmovement Royal Initiative – popular movement –Royal Initiative – popular movement – Kings to affirm solidarity and politicalKings to affirm solidarity and political authority through conversionsauthority through conversions Vikings invasions of EnglandVikings invasions of England The religion of the conquered becameThe religion of the conquered became the religion of the Mission workthe religion of the Mission work
  18. 18. Joshva session four 18 Winning the Saracens? AD 1200-1600
  19. 19. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 1919 Winning the Saracens?Winning the Saracens? AD 1200-1600AD 1200-1600 The stain of the Crusades St. Francis of Assisi and the Sultan of Egypt Raymond Lull’s martyrdom in North Africa versus Monastic Missionary Movement (1200-1600) – Jesuit Order as the Most Important event in the missionary History of the Roman Catholic Church Asia, Africa
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  22. 22. Joshva session four 22
  23. 23. Joshva session four 23 For Mongols Franciscan not reported properly in China
  24. 24. Joshva session four 24 To the Ends of the Earth AD 1600-2000
  25. 25. Joshva session four 25 To the Ends of the Earth AD 1600-2000 Formation of Systematic Theologies of Mission Heterogeneous theological colouring of Missions
  26. 26. Joshva session four 26 1792-1914: The Great Century (in historian Latourette’s words)  Opened:  William Carey forms Baptist Missionary Society  Ended:  World War I “Imperfect as they were, those nineteenth-century missionaries turned what some thought to be a declining Caucasian religion into the largest and most dynamic religious faith in the world” Ruth Tucker
  27. 27. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 2727 Three eras; four menThree eras; four men  To the coast lands (1792-1910)To the coast lands (1792-1910) – William CareyWilliam Carey – ““Haystack” prayer meetingHaystack” prayer meeting – European dominanceEuropean dominance  To the inland areas (1865-1980)To the inland areas (1865-1980) – Hudson TaylorHudson Taylor – ““Faith” mission agenciesFaith” mission agencies – American dominanceAmerican dominance  Unreached groups (1934- ? )Unreached groups (1934- ? ) – William Cameron TownsendWilliam Cameron Townsend – Donald McGavranDonald McGavran
  28. 28. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 2828 William CareyWilliam Carey Father of ModernFather of Modern MissionsMissions The rebuke to Carey: “When God chooses to win the heathen, He will do it without your help or ours.”
  29. 29. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 2929 Hudson TaylorHudson Taylor China InlandChina Inland MissionMission A Chinese convert: “What! For hundreds of years you have had these glad tidings and only now have come to preach it to us? My father sought after the truth for more than twenty years, and died without finding it. Oh, why did you not come sooner?”
  30. 30. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 3030 A Few Examples from AfricaA Few Examples from Africa and Asiaand Asia
  31. 31. Joshva session four 31 Mission in AfricaMission in Africa • 1490 Portuguese in Kongo Catholic priests appealing1490 Portuguese in Kongo Catholic priests appealing against slave trade to Pope –not successful –Manikongoagainst slave trade to Pope –not successful –Manikongo – a convert king –Traders and clergy tension - Vita– a convert king –Traders and clergy tension - Vita Kimba a convert – Jesus as blackKimba a convert – Jesus as black • 1840 revival with two congregations (The congregation1840 revival with two congregations (The congregation of the Holy Fathers and Missionaries of our Lady ofof the Holy Fathers and Missionaries of our Lady of Africa or the White Fathers)Africa or the White Fathers) • First Protestant Missionaries were freed slaves - NovaFirst Protestant Missionaries were freed slaves - Nova Scotia Sierra Leonians – 1807 West Africa – they spreadScotia Sierra Leonians – 1807 West Africa – they spread Christianity - Samuel Ajayi Crowther -Christianity - Samuel Ajayi Crowther -
  32. 32. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 3232 Great Century ReconsideredGreat Century Reconsidered (Shenck)(Shenck) 1. Formation of Missionary Societies Methodists 1787, Baptists 1792 2. Voluntarism – mission societies and Churches in tension 3. Christendom expanded and dissolved with Christianity, Civilization and Commerce 4. Tension with the State – East India Company refusing to allow missionaries
  33. 33. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 3333 • Strategies of mission – Rufus Anderson: An Indigenous Church led by an Indigenous Pastor (1869) • Henry Venn: Work inductively by starting the local culture bridging between the missionary and local peoples, respecting the people enough to learn from them (1868) • Critique - Church set higher standards in the overseas Missions than back at home • E A Ayandele – Local political leadership, Educational, medical and other social service • R E Speer – The Civilising influence of Missions – Political independence and mission support
  34. 34. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 3434
  35. 35. Joshva session four 35 Post Modern MissionaryPost Modern Missionary MovementMovement Multi-Polar MissionsMulti-Polar Missions
  36. 36. Joshva session four 36 Changes in mission centres (Shenck)Changes in mission centres (Shenck) • Local Missions ariseLocal Missions arise • Christians grew from 902 Millions to 4.3Christians grew from 902 Millions to 4.3 BillionsBillions • In 1800 more than 86 percent Christians areIn 1800 more than 86 percent Christians are European whereas in 1980 half of theEuropean whereas in 1980 half of the Christians are outside North AtlanticChristians are outside North Atlantic HeartlandHeartland • Pentecostal and other CharimaticPentecostal and other Charimatic Movements arise from local cultural andMovements arise from local cultural and ethnic groups in developing countries.ethnic groups in developing countries.
  37. 37. Joshva session four 37
  38. 38. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 3838 Prior to Pilot PointPrior to Pilot Point Pentecostal MissionPentecostal Mission Northeast: Association of Pentecostal Churches of AmericaNortheast: Association of Pentecostal Churches of America – 1897, India1897, India – 1901, Cape Verde Islands1901, Cape Verde Islands West: Church of the NazareneWest: Church of the Nazarene – 1904, Spanish mission in Los Angeles1904, Spanish mission in Los Angeles – 1906, India1906, India South: Holiness Church of ChristSouth: Holiness Church of Christ – 1903, Mexico1903, Mexico – 1907, Swaziland1907, Swaziland South: Pentecostal MissionSouth: Pentecostal Mission – 1902, Cuba1902, Cuba – 1903, Guatemala1903, Guatemala – 1904, India1904, India
  39. 39. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 3939 ChangingChanging PerceptionsPerceptions Overview ofOverview of Black MissionsBlack Missions
  40. 40. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4040 About 155 were identified in 19983 . Possibly 400 serve today, far less than 1 percent of the 118,600 US foreign missionaries4 . African Americans are about 13 percent of the US population ..  Perhaps 70 African American global missionaries served between 1790 and 18201 .  Perhaps another 600 served in Africa between 1820 and 19802 . 1 Marilyn Lewis, www.urbana.org/_articles.dfm?Recordid=230 2 Sylvia Jacobs, “African Missions and the Af-Am Christian Churches,” p. 22, Encyclopedia of Af-Am Religions, 1993. 3 Jim Sutherland, Ph.D. dissertation, www.RMNI.org/dissertation, p. 5 4 Barrett and Johnson, World Christian Trends, AD 30-AD 2200, c. 2001, p. 421
  41. 41. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4141 Sources: Lerone Bennett, Jr., Before the Mayflower, 5th ed., 1982; Sylvia Jacobs, “African Missions and the African American Christian Churches,” 1983; U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/income00/incxrace.html AME AMEZ CME Nat. Bapt. Conv. Reconstruction
  42. 42. Joshva session four 42 Sources: Wilbur Harr, “The Negro as an American Protestant missionary in Africa,” 1945. Sylvia Jacobs, “African Missions and the African American Christian churches,” 1993; Marilyn Lewis, “Overcoming obstacles: The broad sweep of the African American and Missions,” 2001; Wm. Seraile, “Black American Missionaries,” 1972; U.S. Census Bureau, “Historical income tables—households, Table H-5, 1967-2000”
  43. 43. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4343 Outstanding AfricanOutstanding African American MissionariesAmerican Missionaries John Marrant by 1775 had somehow preached the Gospel to the Cherokee, Creek, Catawar and Housaw Indians. George Liele by 1791 had established a church of 350 in Jamaica, despite persecutions. Prince Williams established a church in the Bahamas in 1790 that spawned 164 other Baptist churches. He pastored from age 70 to 104. Lott Carey in 1821 was the first African American missionary to Africa. He went to escape racism and to serve his motherland. He was sent by Baptists and the American Colonization Society, established to return Blacks to Africa. Sources: Sylvia Jacobs, Marilyn Lewis, Alan Neely, Wm. Sereile, Wycliffe Translators
  44. 44. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4444 Dr. William SheppardDr. William Sheppard Dr. Wm. Sheppard went to the Congo in 1821, becoming head of the American Presbyterian Congo Mission among the Bakuba tribe, going 1200 miles inland. He build churches, day schools and homes for children rescued from slavery. His wife published the first book and hymnal in the Bakuba language. Sources: Wilbur Harr, Sylvia Jacobs, John Hendrick and Winifred Vass
  45. 45. History of Medical MissionHistory of Medical Mission Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4545
  46. 46. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4646 Dr. Aaron McMillanDr. Aaron McMillan Dr. Aaron McMillan was a physician and Nebraska legislator before going with the Am. Board of Commissioners in 1929 to head an Angolan hospital. He trained assistants, treated over 80,000 patients and performed over 3,000 surgeries during his medical ministry1 . 1 Wilbur Harr, 1945. “The Negro as an American Protestant missionary in Africa”. Ph.D. dissertation, microfilm, University of Chicago, pp 54-55.
  47. 47. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4747 Dr. Michael JohnsonDr. Michael Johnson Dr. Johnson serves with World Gospel Mission in Kenya, East Africa. He works in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, and trains surgical residents at Kenyatta National Hospital. He has a street ministry (The Least of These) to care for abandoned and orphaned children of Nairobi. Kay, his wife, runs development projects in rural Kenya.
  48. 48. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 4848 Collaborative Missions TodayCollaborative Missions Today Mission Partners Working inMission Partners Working in the Local Initiativesthe Local Initiatives
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  51. 51. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 5151 Discussion on the History ofDiscussion on the History of Mission studiesMission studies
  52. 52. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 5252 Looking at the HistoryLooking at the History of Missionof Mission God’s Ongoing activity in the WorldGod’s Ongoing activity in the World through missionariesthrough missionaries Expansion and Fall of ChristendomExpansion and Fall of Christendom around the worldaround the world Mission from Uncivilized to theMission from Uncivilized to the CivilizedCivilized Revolutions?Revolutions? Evolutions?Evolutions?
  53. 53. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 5353 Issues in the History of MissionIssues in the History of Mission • Conversion of Kings and Tribal leaders ledConversion of Kings and Tribal leaders led to massto mass • Mass conversion by Force or by bread orMass conversion by Force or by bread or by social serviceby social service • Conversion of groups as expression ofConversion of groups as expression of liberation from oppressionliberation from oppression • Through education, interaction andThrough education, interaction and rhetoric individual intellectuals convertedrhetoric individual intellectuals converted • Through adaptation, syncretism,Through adaptation, syncretism, enculturation, people were converted.enculturation, people were converted.
  54. 54. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 5454 Issues continued…Issues continued… Islamization and Christianization wasIslamization and Christianization was in conflict.in conflict. Colonialization and ChristendomColonialization and Christendom revisitedrevisited Migration, Movement of peopleMigration, Movement of people through continents, Wars andthrough continents, Wars and Refugees led to spread of ChristianityRefugees led to spread of Christianity
  55. 55. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 5555
  56. 56. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 5656 History from whoseHistory from whose perspective?perspective? Missionaries or from Converts or fromMissionaries or from Converts or from non-convertsnon-converts Dominant readings – wives or women inDominant readings – wives or women in mission secondary readingsmission secondary readings People at the margins are often neglectedPeople at the margins are often neglected From West to Rest – Orthodox or otherFrom West to Rest – Orthodox or other denominationsdenominations Indigenous Mission often unrecognisedIndigenous Mission often unrecognised Small movements versus Mass movementsSmall movements versus Mass movements Successful versus failures in MissionsSuccessful versus failures in Missions
  57. 57. Joshva session fourJoshva session four 5757 History of MissionHistory of Mission With what viewsWith what views Ethno Centric/West-centric/Sponsor-Ethno Centric/West-centric/Sponsor- centric viewscentric views Heroic or Victors viewsHeroic or Victors views Teleological viewsTeleological views Progressive viewsProgressive views Evolutionary viewsEvolutionary views Revolutionary viewsRevolutionary views
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