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3b theological understanding of mission1

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3b theological understanding of mission1

  1. 1. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Theological UnderstandingTheological Understanding of Missionof Mission Session 3BSession 3B
  2. 2. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts ReferencesReferences  Wilbert R.Shenk.Wilbert R.Shenk. Changing Frontiers ofChanging Frontiers of Mission.Mission.MaryknollMaryknoll  J Andrew KirkJ Andrew Kirk What is Mission?What is Mission? Theological ExplorationsTheological Explorations..  M Thomas Thangaraj.M Thomas Thangaraj. The Common Task.The Common Task. A Theology of Christian Mission.A Theology of Christian Mission.  Lesslie Newbegin. The Open Secret: AnLesslie Newbegin. The Open Secret: An Introduction to the Theology of Mission.Introduction to the Theology of Mission.
  3. 3. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Theology and MissionTheology and Mission  Theology = theos and logos = God andTheology = theos and logos = God and the Word = spoken or written wordthe Word = spoken or written word  Mission is the Mother of TheologyMission is the Mother of Theology (Martin Kahler 1971)(Martin Kahler 1971)  Theology’s tasksTheology’s tasks – critical study, analysis of reality,– critical study, analysis of reality, empowering the poor, apologetics, relating to the world, trainingempowering the poor, apologetics, relating to the world, training leaders (A Kirk)leaders (A Kirk)  Theology’s sourcesTheology’s sources – Bible, tradition, reason, analysis and– Bible, tradition, reason, analysis and action (A Kirk)action (A Kirk)  Theological methodsTheological methods – inquiry, immersion, integrity,– inquiry, immersion, integrity, integration, imagination (A Kirk)integration, imagination (A Kirk)  Theology of MissionTheology of Mission means Validating, correcting andmeans Validating, correcting and establishing on better foundations the motives and actions ofestablishing on better foundations the motives and actions of mission
  4. 4. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Ten Touchstones listed in MissiologyTen Touchstones listed in Missiology 1.1. Missio DeiMissio Dei:: It is God’ missionIt is God’ mission 2. Mission is2. Mission is TrinitarianTrinitarian 3. Witness to the3. Witness to the Kingdom of GodKingdom of God 4. For4. For all peopleall people (all nations)(all nations) 5. Must avoid5. Must avoid reductionsreductions andand dichotomiesdichotomies…………..…………..next slide please!next slide please!
  5. 5. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Ten TouchstonesTen Touchstones (continued)(continued) 6. Continues the6. Continues the sufferings of Christsufferings of Christ 7.7. EcumenicalEcumenical,, inclusiveinclusive,, exclusiveexclusive andand sacrificialsacrificial 8. Done in8. Done in bold humilitybold humility 9. Centrality of the9. Centrality of the local churchlocal church 10.10. Crossing barriersCrossing barriers
  6. 6. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 1. Christian mission is our participation in the Missio Dei: The mission of God. Therefore… a. Christian mission is as great as the redemptive work of God for the world b. It is NOT our mission
  7. 7. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 2. Christian mission is Trinitarian: Therefore… Christian mission is sending and being sent in the power of the Holy Spirit. --The Father sending the Son… --the Father and Son sending the Spirit… --the Church being sent by the Triune God into the world. (Jn. 20:21)
  8. 8. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Missio Dei – Scherer,Missio Dei – Scherer, IRM, 1987, Oct p.511IRM, 1987, Oct p.511 Two modes of missionTwo modes of mission • Verkuyl (Contemporary Missiology 1978)– Missiology is the study of the salvation activities of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit through the world geared toward bringing the Kingdom of God into existence.. Bosch – a movement from God to the world • Tippet – the study of man being brought to God in History – from below – Thomas Thangaraj
  9. 9. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts YHWH Logos = Word Sign word - Language Code word – flesh word -spirit Community of God - Trinity Human Beings
  10. 10. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Hinduism Mission – engaging in this search for God – participating in people’s search!
  11. 11. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts • Mission can no more be claimed by one church or region but six continents collaborating and cooperating together • The first questions in the Old Testament and in the new testament • The concept of Missio Dei emerged in 1952 in the International Missionary Conference at Willingen God’s work in the mission of the church and in the secular history - God’s mission through the church 1952 Missionary Structure of the Congregation – God’s work in the secular world over and above the church (excluded the church) 1960
  12. 12. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Karl Barth – God’s work is only within the Sacred History and inaccessible to secular historical research whereas Cullman – God’s work is discernible in the secular History – (Pachuau Missiology in a pluralistic context IRM 2000) Bornhoeffer – radical interpretation of the Christian Gospel in secular terms –non-religious language in half of the churches’ task in mission and the other half is to witness to their Lord in the midst of the world through an appropriate style of Life – to become like Jesus or to form into his likeness - participating in the suffering of God. Moltmann – identifies life style as Messianic life-style – The life of the Christian is messianically qualified by the Gospel – not a Godless world and a worldless God – life style of the mission community is to become servant like – Moving from Mission for the people to Mission of the people (K C Abraham Liberative Solidarity, 1996)
  13. 13. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Three Focussing affirmation in the theology of Mission • God the Trinity - Our participation in the mission of the Triune God who created the word… • The Body of Christ – The church is the community of God’s people called to witness, live and become the visible mission • Sent into the world – Obedience to participate in the action of the Spirit…
  14. 14. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 3. Christian mission3. Christian mission is centered onis centered on witness to thewitness to the comingcoming KingdomKingdom of God;of God; the good news of Jesus Christ; the mystery of the ages, now made known.
  15. 15. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts a. Mission concerns aa. Mission concerns a kingdomkingdom communitycommunity b. Good news is forb. Good news is for poorpoor, disenfranchised,, disenfranchised, unreachedunreached,, excluded…excluded… c. Good news involvesc. Good news involves preachingpreaching andand healinghealing andand liberatingliberating (Lk.(Lk. 4:16-30)4:16-30) Therefore…
  16. 16. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 4.4. The Good News is forThe Good News is for allall peoplepeople ((panta ethne)panta ethne) and all ofand all of creation.creation. Therefore…Therefore…
  17. 17. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts All peopleAll people have the right to hear and see thehave the right to hear and see the coming of the Kingdom in power andcoming of the Kingdom in power and glory.glory. This GospelThis Gospel reconcilesreconciles all peoplesall peoples
  18. 18. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts For God so loved theFor God so loved the wholewhole world…world…
  19. 19. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 5. Christian mission must5. Christian mission must avoidavoid reductionismsreductionisms andand dichotomiesdichotomies thatthat have misrepresented the witness of thehave misrepresented the witness of the Kingdom in the past:Kingdom in the past: *evangelism versus social action *local versus global * peace versus proclamation (…as if Christ were divided!)
  20. 20. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 6. Christian mission involves continuing6. Christian mission involves continuing thethe sufferingssufferings of Christ for the World.of Christ for the World.  Success therefore, isSuccess therefore, is measured asmeasured as faithfulness,faithfulness, notnot productproduct
  21. 21. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 7.7. Christian mission must be:Christian mission must be: a. Our model is Jesus, the paradigmatic mission of God. b. All four will be costly and misunderstood. *ecumenical (both global and all churches), *inclusive (“that all may believe”) *exclusive (mission is “in Christ”), and *sacrificial (“unless a seed dies”).
  22. 22. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 8. Christian mission must be done in8. Christian mission must be done in boldbold humilityhumility (listening, repenting, doing),(listening, repenting, doing), representing inrepresenting in whatwhat is done,is done, whowho wewe represent.represent. Therefore….Therefore….
  23. 23. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Mission begins withMission begins with confessionconfession andand compassioncompassion and continues withand continues with clarityclarity andand confidence.confidence.
  24. 24. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 9. The9. The local churchlocal church is the missionary presenceis the missionary presence in each context, and the sending body.in each context, and the sending body.  The local church isThe local church is aa missionmission outpost…outpost…
  25. 25. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts ……and localand local churches are tochurches are to taketake initiativeinitiative for they are giftedfor they are gifted and empoweredand empowered for mission.for mission.
  26. 26. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts 10. Christian mission means10. Christian mission means crossingcrossing barriersbarriers There is a differenceThere is a difference betweenbetween locallocal ministryministry andand missionmission
  27. 27. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts AA new contextnew context where two-thirds of thewhere two-thirds of the world’s Christians are not westerners.world’s Christians are not westerners. Therefore,Therefore, wewe need toneed to rememberremember past lessons andpast lessons and learnlearn from peoplefrom people who arewho are poorer,poorer, less educatedless educated and whoand who suffersuffer “in“in Christ.”Christ.”
  28. 28. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Theology must beTheology must be expressedexpressed.. What does thisWhat does this mean formean for you…you… for your church…for your church… for ourfor our churches?churches?
  29. 29. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts What does it mean, for example, toWhat does it mean, for example, to keepkeep peacemakingpeacemaking andand proclamationproclamation together?together?
  30. 30. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts What does it mean to sacrifice for theWhat does it mean to sacrifice for the poorest and most needy?poorest and most needy?
  31. 31. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other pptsJoshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts What would it mean to proclaimWhat would it mean to proclaim anan exclusiveexclusive message which ismessage which is inclusiveinclusive?? Confucius sees theConfucius sees the nailmarks in thenailmarks in the hands of Jesus.hands of Jesus.
  32. 32. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts UniversalityUniversality Jesus as the Universal, Unique and Absolute Saviour. He is the truth, the way and the life. John 14:6;Acts 4:12; 1 Corinthians 3:11; 1 Timothy 2:5; 1 John 5:12 Christocentric universe Ecclesiocentric Universe Theocentric Universe Culturalcentric Universe
  33. 33. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts ApproachesApproaches  ExclusiveExclusive  InclusiveInclusive  PluralisticPluralistic  Kraemer stated, I propose to set the religionsKraemer stated, I propose to set the religions including Christianity, in the light of the Personincluding Christianity, in the light of the Person of Jesus Christ, who is the Revelation of Godof Jesus Christ, who is the Revelation of God and alone has the authority to criticize – I mean,and alone has the authority to criticize – I mean, to judge discriminately and with completeto judge discriminately and with complete understanding – every religion and everythingunderstanding – every religion and everything that is in man or proceeds from him (Kraemerthat is in man or proceeds from him (Kraemer H,H, Why Christianity of All Religions?Why Christianity of All Religions? (1962)(1962)
  34. 34. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Critique of KraemerCritique of Kraemer  Fixing the narrative and thus idolising itFixing the narrative and thus idolising it  Absolutising the languageAbsolutising the language  Not showing an interest in aNot showing an interest in a multicultural contextmulticultural context  Claims and counterclaims lead toClaims and counterclaims lead to confrontationsconfrontations  Creating ignorance about ChristianityCreating ignorance about Christianity
  35. 35. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts  H Kraemer - Any revelation can only beH Kraemer - Any revelation can only be effectively discerned in the light of the specialeffectively discerned in the light of the special revelation of Jesus Christ (Religion and therevelation of Jesus Christ (Religion and the Christian Faith, London: Lutterworth Press 1956Christian Faith, London: Lutterworth Press 1956 232).232).  D’Costa argues that Kraemer does not onlyD’Costa argues that Kraemer does not only neglect the dynamic nature of religion as well asneglect the dynamic nature of religion as well as the creative interaction between beliefs andthe creative interaction between beliefs and practice because of his emphasis on thepractice because of his emphasis on the totalitarian nature of religion (Theology andtotalitarian nature of religion (Theology and Religious Pluralism, Gavin D’Costa 1986).Religious Pluralism, Gavin D’Costa 1986).
  36. 36. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Inclusive ApproachInclusive Approach  In this approach people believe that all non-In this approach people believe that all non- Christian religious truth belongs ultimately toChristian religious truth belongs ultimately to Christ. It holds together two convictions: theChrist. It holds together two convictions: the God’s grace is operating in all religions of theGod’s grace is operating in all religions of the world that are searching for salvation and theworld that are searching for salvation and the uniqueness of the manifestation of God’s graceuniqueness of the manifestation of God’s grace in Christ which makes a universal claim as thein Christ which makes a universal claim as the final way of salvation - Alan Race, Christiansfinal way of salvation - Alan Race, Christians and Religious Pluralism: Patterns in Christianand Religious Pluralism: Patterns in Christian Theology of Religions, 1983Theology of Religions, 1983
  37. 37. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Acts 10:35[1]; 14:16f and 17:22-31Acts 10:35[1]; 14:16f and 17:22-31 [1][1] Truly I perceive that God shows no partiality, but in everyTruly I perceive that God shows no partiality, but in every nation any one who fears him and does what is right is acceptablenation any one who fears him and does what is right is acceptable to him (10:35).to him (10:35). Karl Rahner points out the two principles that have to be kept together which are: the necessity of Christian faith and the universal salvific will of God’s love (Karl Rahner, Theological Investigations, Vol 6, p.391, 1961-84). He outlines four theses– first, he writes, Christianity understands itself as the absolute religion, intended for all men, which cannot recognise any other religion besides itself as of equal right (Vol 5, p.118, 1966);
  38. 38. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts secondly, he emphasises on the universal salvific will of God revealed in Christ. Thus for him a non-Christian religion can be recognised as a lawful religion (although only in different degrees) without thereby denying the error and depravity contained in it (Vol 5, p.121);  thirdly he argues that a non Christian cannot be considered as a person deprived of salvific grace, living totally sinful and depraved condition, untouched in any way by God’s grace and truth. Those non-Christians who have accepted God’s grace in the depths of their hearts are called by Rahner as ‘anonymous Christians’ (vol 5 p.132);  fourthly for him the church is the tangible sign of the faith, hope and love made visible, present and irreversible in Christ.
  39. 39. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Critical remarksCritical remarks  Not all religions are sparkedNot all religions are sparked revelationsrevelations  Anonymous Christ tooAnonymous Christ too  Name GameName Game  Jesus the Christ?Jesus the Christ?  Christ not exclusively possessed byChrist not exclusively possessed by ChristiansChristians
  40. 40. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Pluralistic ApproachPluralistic Approach  Tolerance needs to be seen as a Christian moralTolerance needs to be seen as a Christian moral imperative and as a Christian theological necessity.imperative and as a Christian theological necessity. Hocking argues the relation between religionsHocking argues the relation between religions must take increasingly the form of a commonmust take increasingly the form of a common search for truth (W E Hocking, Rethinkingsearch for truth (W E Hocking, Rethinking Missions, 1932, p.47). In the tolerant pluralismMissions, 1932, p.47). In the tolerant pluralism knowledge of God is partial in all faiths, includingknowledge of God is partial in all faiths, including the Christian and Christianity is the anticipation ofthe Christian and Christianity is the anticipation of the essence of all religion and so containsthe essence of all religion and so contains potentially all that any religion has (W E Hockingpotentially all that any religion has (W E Hocking Living Religions and a World Faith, 1940, p.249).Living Religions and a World Faith, 1940, p.249).
  41. 41. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts John HickJohn Hick  His intention is not to destroy religious particularity, butHis intention is not to destroy religious particularity, but to view different types of religious experience ato view different types of religious experience a complementary and not mutually exclusive. It is thecomplementary and not mutually exclusive. It is the question of the relative validity or adequacy of thequestion of the relative validity or adequacy of the images of God which are alive in the different traditions.images of God which are alive in the different traditions.  The God whom our minds can comprehend is a humanThe God whom our minds can comprehend is a human image, inadequate and incomplete, of what is ultimatelyimage, inadequate and incomplete, of what is ultimately indefinable. Difference in doctrine and theologicalindefinable. Difference in doctrine and theological statements reflect difference in the historical and culturalstatements reflect difference in the historical and cultural factors bound up in religious belief. The absoluteness offactors bound up in religious belief. The absoluteness of the experience is the basis for the absoluteness of thethe experience is the basis for the absoluteness of the language (Hick in A Race, p.89).language (Hick in A Race, p.89). J Hick, God has ManyJ Hick, God has Many Names, 1980Names, 1980
  42. 42. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts CritiqueCritique  Religious narratives evil or good?!Religious narratives evil or good?!  Religions are destructiveReligions are destructive  Narrative and ExperienceNarrative and Experience  Narrative and TruthsNarrative and Truths  Many Truths and no truth???Many Truths and no truth???
  43. 43. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Reign of GodReign of God  Four Views – the eschatological (future); theFour Views – the eschatological (future); the spiritual (mystical); the political (earthlyspiritual (mystical); the political (earthly empire); the ecclesiastical (Christendom)empire); the ecclesiastical (Christendom) (Viviano 1988; Driver 1993 – cf W R Shenk(Viviano 1988; Driver 1993 – cf W R Shenk Changing Frontiers of Mission)Changing Frontiers of Mission)  Messianic resurgence against hopelessnessMessianic resurgence against hopelessness oppression point to a hope and promise ofoppression point to a hope and promise of reign of God (Ooesterwal 1973)reign of God (Ooesterwal 1973)  Kant – Imminent religious experience andKant – Imminent religious experience and Schweitzer – Objective messianic KingdomSchweitzer – Objective messianic Kingdom into which one entersinto which one enters
  44. 44. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Reign of God and MissionReign of God and Mission  Vision of Mission as fulfilling God’sVision of Mission as fulfilling God’s mission – Reign of God as purpose,mission – Reign of God as purpose, goal and aim of mission.goal and aim of mission.  God’s reign disturbs and triggerGod’s reign disturbs and trigger reactions 1. exposes egocentricreactions 1. exposes egocentric structure of human nature andstructure of human nature and behaviour 2. challenges humanbehaviour 2. challenges human motivation and character at themotivation and character at the deepest levels by unmasking thedeepest levels by unmasking the nature of power against God.nature of power against God. (Individualistic or communitarian)(Individualistic or communitarian)
  45. 45. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Mission in Reign of GodMission in Reign of God  RealizationRealization  InvitationInvitation  ExpectationExpectation  SalvationSalvation  ParticipationParticipation  ProclamationProclamation  RecreationRecreation
  46. 46. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Work of the Holy SpiritWork of the Holy Spirit  Gen 1:2b Spirit of God on WatersGen 1:2b Spirit of God on Waters  John 1:32 Spirit descendingJohn 1:32 Spirit descending  Luke 24:45; Acts 1:8 Coming ofLuke 24:45; Acts 1:8 Coming of Spirit for continuation of messianicSpirit for continuation of messianic missionmission  Acts 2 Joel’s prophesyActs 2 Joel’s prophesy  Spirit is God’s life Mt 3:11 judges,Spirit is God’s life Mt 3:11 judges, purifies and blends together partspurifies and blends together parts
  47. 47. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Spirit of God in MissionSpirit of God in Mission  The Spirit is God so involved in the worldThe Spirit is God so involved in the world (immanence – to remain within) that we(immanence – to remain within) that we need constantly to be amazed andneed constantly to be amazed and challenged by God’s presencechallenged by God’s presence (transcendence – being surpass and(transcendence – being surpass and independent of physical being) [Bevans,independent of physical being) [Bevans, 1998, IBMR].1998, IBMR].  Spirit prior agency in missionSpirit prior agency in mission Before and after JesusBefore and after Jesus Jesus as the face of the Spirit –Jesus as the face of the Spirit – Mystery Yet to understandMystery Yet to understand
  48. 48. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Holy Spirit and MissionHoly Spirit and Mission  Babel and KoinoniaBabel and Koinonia  Shown as leader Jesus’ baptism, temptation,Shown as leader Jesus’ baptism, temptation, inauguration of ministry, resurrection…inauguration of ministry, resurrection…  Spirit precedes and follows JesusSpirit precedes and follows Jesus  No Mission without Holy Spirit (Lk 24:49; ActsNo Mission without Holy Spirit (Lk 24:49; Acts 1:4) equipping and empowering as the spirit1:4) equipping and empowering as the spirit of Jesus (2 Cor 3:8;47-10)of Jesus (2 Cor 3:8;47-10)  Holy spirit holds together two poles of God’sHoly spirit holds together two poles of God’s saving act - Christological and eschatologicalsaving act - Christological and eschatological
  49. 49. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Contextual Understanding ofContextual Understanding of MissionMission  ContextualizationContextualization relates Gospel andrelates Gospel and the church to athe church to a local contextlocal context
  50. 50. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Mission asMission as adaptation;adaptation; accommodation;accommodation; indigenization;indigenization; contextualization;contextualization; InculturationInculturation Roberto De Nobili (1577-1656 A.D.) Francis Xavier Henry Martin
  51. 51. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts
  52. 52. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts
  53. 53. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts
  54. 54. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Caring not role modeled: ReligionCaring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-IIsans caring-II If I am at prayer…I will not leave my prayer and go to help someone…I don’t think it is important. If I leave my god and my karma and help someone then my god will get angry…my karma will be lost…
  55. 55. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Did god role model healing?Did god role model healing? There is no such example of God role modeling healing
  56. 56. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers
  57. 57. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body.
  58. 58. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation.
  59. 59. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Three Functions ofThree Functions of ContextualizationContextualization  1. To communicate the Gospel in1. To communicate the Gospel in word and deed; to establish theword and deed; to establish the church in ways that make sense tochurch in ways that make sense to the people within their local context;the people within their local context; to present Christianity that meetsto present Christianity that meets people’s deepest needs and topeople’s deepest needs and to penetrate their worldview; to allowpenetrate their worldview; to allow them to follow Christ and to remainthem to follow Christ and to remain within their own culture. (Whitemanwithin their own culture. (Whiteman 1999)1999)
  60. 60. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts To offendTo offend  2. To offend for the right reasons not2. To offend for the right reasons not for the wrong ones… propheticallyfor the wrong ones… prophetically and constructively critique theand constructively critique the oppressive structures and behaviouroppressive structures and behaviour patterns within a particular culturepatterns within a particular culture Andrew Walls: not for the adoptionAndrew Walls: not for the adoption of a new culture but from theof a new culture but from the transformation of mind towards thattransformation of mind towards that of Christ.of Christ.
  61. 61. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Mission in reverseMission in reverse  To Develop contextualizedTo Develop contextualized expressions of the Gospel so that theexpressions of the Gospel so that the Gospel itself will be understood inGospel itself will be understood in was the universal church has neitherwas the universal church has neither experienced nor understood before;experienced nor understood before; to expand our understanding of theto expand our understanding of the kingdom of God… The challenge iskingdom of God… The challenge is creating a community that is bothcreating a community that is both Christian and true to its own culturalChristian and true to its own cultural heritage.heritage.
  62. 62. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts ResistanceResistance  From those who fear ofFrom those who fear of SyncretismSyncretism  From the mission sponsors andFrom the mission sponsors and denominational leadersdenominational leaders  From the church and their leaders locallyFrom the church and their leaders locally Contextualization –transforms the contextContextualization –transforms the context (prophetic); expands our understanding of(prophetic); expands our understanding of the Gospel (hermeneutic); changesthe Gospel (hermeneutic); changes missionaries (personal) [Whiteman]missionaries (personal) [Whiteman]
  63. 63. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Justice and PeaceJustice and Peace  Justice for Poor, for people at theJustice for Poor, for people at the margins…margins…  Economic Structural change? Blaming eachEconomic Structural change? Blaming each other? Not sharing the resources anyway!other? Not sharing the resources anyway! Nature or God to be blamed?Nature or God to be blamed?  Justice is based on supreme Value ofJustice is based on supreme Value of human personality. We are all born withhuman personality. We are all born with reciprocal rights and obligations (Morrisreciprocal rights and obligations (Morris Ginsberg)Ginsberg)  Only Faith in God leads to Justice (Kirk) –Only Faith in God leads to Justice (Kirk) – not a social contract or secular motivationnot a social contract or secular motivation but through missions only Justice possiblebut through missions only Justice possible
  64. 64. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Justice in MissionJustice in Mission  God is just (Mic 6:8; Isa 58:6; Ps 72:1-4)God is just (Mic 6:8; Isa 58:6; Ps 72:1-4)  Justice is harmony through rightJustice is harmony through right relationship (Lev 25:8ff; Liberate allrelationship (Lev 25:8ff; Liberate all Lev25:13,23,35; 39-41)Lev25:13,23,35; 39-41)  Jubilee means release (Ex 21:2-6; 23:10f;Jubilee means release (Ex 21:2-6; 23:10f; Deut 15:1-18; Jer 34:8-12; Neh 5:1-13)Deut 15:1-18; Jer 34:8-12; Neh 5:1-13) Jubilee is liberationJubilee is liberation  Nazereth Manifesto (Luke 4:16-19) EarlyNazereth Manifesto (Luke 4:16-19) Early church and economic practice (Acts 2:44f)church and economic practice (Acts 2:44f) concern for poor, end is hereconcern for poor, end is here  Value of life, no private owner,Value of life, no private owner, responsibility before Godresponsibility before God
  65. 65. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Mission and JusticeMission and Justice  Knowing God of Justice – no peaceKnowing God of Justice – no peace without justice (Jer 6:14; Isa 57:21)without justice (Jer 6:14; Isa 57:21)  Proclaiming the Gospel of JusticeProclaiming the Gospel of Justice  Making preferential option for theMaking preferential option for the poorpoor  Overcoming materialismOvercoming materialism  Practical guide – minimum wage, fairPractical guide – minimum wage, fair trade, cancellation of debt, equitabletrade, cancellation of debt, equitable distribution of wealth…distribution of wealth…
  66. 66. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Critical Approaches to MissionCritical Approaches to Mission particularly of Bosch’sparticularly of Bosch’s  Lack of emphasis on women’s role in missionLack of emphasis on women’s role in mission and missiologyand missiology  Indigenous spirituality and ecological concernsIndigenous spirituality and ecological concerns neglectedneglected  Reference to the third world mission writers isReference to the third world mission writers is missingmissing  Context is given a secondary place and soContext is given a secondary place and so from above approach is therefrom above approach is there  Post colonial, post modern approachesPost colonial, post modern approaches emerge, Globalisation, pentecostalism,emerge, Globalisation, pentecostalism, teleevangelism, cross cultural issues (teleevangelism, cross cultural issues (JohnJohn RoxboroghRoxborogh 2001, After Bosch…)2001, After Bosch…)
  67. 67. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts EschatonEschaton
  68. 68. Joshva Raja's slides and also from touchstones, other ppts Conversion and BaptismConversion and Baptism

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