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What is Mission
Trying to understand Mission
Session 1
Joshva
Amy Carmichael
"I know not what to say about
the mission. I feel as a farmer
does about his crop;
sometimes I think the se...
Go to the ReferencesGo to the References
• Mission - An act of sending, especially to
perform some function; a flight with...
Critique of these definitionsCritique of these definitions
 If everything is mission, nothing is missionIf everything is ...
Mission was defined asMission was defined as
 Sending of Missionaries to a particular placeSending of Missionaries to a p...
Traditional understanding ofTraditional understanding of
mission as Expansionismmission as Expansionism
 Mission was seen...
Colonial agenda in MissionColonial agenda in Mission
 The conquest of other religionsThe conquest of other religions
(Rut...
Four Impure Motives of MissionFour Impure Motives of Mission
 Cultural (Transfer of Superior Culture)Cultural (Transfer o...
Theological Motives of MissionTheological Motives of Mission
 The motive of conversion (decision andThe motive of convers...
Mission Lunatic??!Mission Lunatic??!
 Schultz – In our missionary outreach weSchultz – In our missionary outreach we
rese...
Instrumental perspective on
Mission
God
church
Pocketpc.ico
Means
People
Missionary----Gospel ----- Proclamation ----- Peo...
Reflecting on MissionReflecting on Mission
 Mission as ? The word Mission is found in theMission as ? The word Mission is...
Mission in Different ContextsMission in Different Contexts
Mission companion/partners
personal context - Divided, taking s...
In Mission – Am I Making Sense to
different age groups?
YouthChildren
Adults
Women
Outsider
Crisis – Danger and OpportunityCrisis – Danger and Opportunity
 Church in Crisis – as a sign beingChurch in Crisis – as a...
c. Migration of people of many faiths –c. Migration of people of many faiths –
devotees of other faith becomesdevotees of ...
Mission according to BoschMission according to Bosch
 Christian faith is intrinsically Missionary – UniversalChristian fa...
Contd…Contd…
 No division between foreign mission and HomeNo division between foreign mission and Home
MissionMission
 D...
Mission
Creative
Tension
Church with
others missio Dei
Mediating
Salvation
Quest for
Justice
Evangelism
Liberation
Common
...
Holistic Mission
Plurality of Mission
Prophetic Liberative
Nourishes
Culture
Building
Communities
Proclamation
Development...
Five Marks of Mission – AnglicanFive Marks of Mission – Anglican
understandingunderstanding
►To Proclaim the Good News of ...
Nine statements of Mission –Nine statements of Mission –
Methodist UnderstandingMethodist Understanding
►Telling the good ...
►Sharing the task of education; social andSharing the task of education; social and
spiritual developmentspiritual develop...
Prophetic
Liberative
Nourishes
Culture
Building
Communities
Development-
oriented
Dialogic
Plurality
of
Mission
Evangeliza...
SugirtharajahSugirtharajah
 Conversion to ReorientationConversion to Reorientation
Evangelising the Evangelizer and conve...
For me Mission meansFor me Mission means
Being and Becoming a Christian –Being and Becoming a Christian –
Gandhi: If Chris...
UbuntuUbuntu
 Against his background Tutu brings a theologyAgainst his background Tutu brings a theology
that "seeks to r...
Engaging with people in search (meanings) for God,Engaging with people in search (meanings) for God,
for life and for neig...
Words related to MissionWords related to Mission
 SendingSending
 CommissioningCommissioning
 ProclaimingProclaiming
 ...
Mission includesMission includes
 An Action of emptyingAn Action of emptying
 A Process of learning andA Process of lear...
Mission - signpostsMission - signposts
 Incarnation – solidarity with victimsIncarnation – solidarity with victims
 Cros...
1. David J. Bosch,1. David J. Bosch, Transforming MissionTransforming Mission
Paradigm Shifts in Theology of MissionParadi...
1 what is mission (2)
1 what is mission (2)
1 what is mission (2)
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1 what is mission (2)

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1 what is mission (2)

  1. 1. What is Mission Trying to understand Mission Session 1 Joshva
  2. 2. Amy Carmichael "I know not what to say about the mission. I feel as a farmer does about his crop; sometimes I think the seed is springing, and then I hope; a little time blasts all, and my hopes are gone like a cloud. ...I preach every day to the natives, and twice on the Lord's Day constantly, besides other itinerant labours; and I try to speak of Jesus Christ and Him crucified, and of Him alone; but my soul is often dejected to see no fruit."
  3. 3. Go to the ReferencesGo to the References • Mission - An act of sending, especially to perform some function; a flight with specific purpose such as bombing and so on – Page 951 of The Chambers Dictionary.
  4. 4. Critique of these definitionsCritique of these definitions  If everything is mission, nothing is missionIf everything is mission, nothing is mission (Neill 1959)(Neill 1959)  The Specture of Panmissionism (FreytagThe Specture of Panmissionism (Freytag 1961)1961)
  5. 5. Mission was defined asMission was defined as  Sending of Missionaries to a particular placeSending of Missionaries to a particular place (Ohm 1962)(Ohm 1962)  Activities by MissionariesActivities by Missionaries  The geographical area where missionaries workThe geographical area where missionaries work  Propagation of the gospel (Muller 1987)Propagation of the gospel (Muller 1987)  Expansion of the reign of GodExpansion of the reign of God  Conversion of the heathenConversion of the heathen  Founding of the New ChurchFounding of the New Church
  6. 6. Traditional understanding ofTraditional understanding of mission as Expansionismmission as Expansionism  Mission was seen as colonialMission was seen as colonial expansion (Kirk, 1999)– Westernexpansion (Kirk, 1999)– Western mission as business operationmission as business operation  Occupation of the fields – Cyprian:Occupation of the fields – Cyprian: Salus extra ecclesiass non estSalus extra ecclesiass non est (E73:21) – No salvation outside(E73:21) – No salvation outside the church (Cardoze 2002)the church (Cardoze 2002) Carlos F Cardoze, Orlandi – Mission an Essential Guide. Nashville: Abington Press 2002
  7. 7. Colonial agenda in MissionColonial agenda in Mission  The conquest of other religionsThe conquest of other religions (Rutti 1972) – Conquistadores(Rutti 1972) – Conquistadores Portuguese and Spanish (Kirk) –Portuguese and Spanish (Kirk) – Roman emperor and PopeRoman emperor and Pope integration as God’s reignintegration as God’s reign  Authority with the sender (churchAuthority with the sender (church or sponsoring institutions) –or sponsoring institutions) – Apostolate (Roman CatholicApostolate (Roman Catholic traditions – Kirk)traditions – Kirk)
  8. 8. Four Impure Motives of MissionFour Impure Motives of Mission  Cultural (Transfer of Superior Culture)Cultural (Transfer of Superior Culture)  Romantic Motive (Tour to exotic countries)Romantic Motive (Tour to exotic countries)  Imperialist (colonial authorities)Imperialist (colonial authorities)  Ecclesiastical Colonialism (to exportEcclesiastical Colonialism (to export Churches’ own confession and order toChurches’ own confession and order to other territories)other territories)  Verkuyl (1978)Verkuyl (1978)
  9. 9. Theological Motives of MissionTheological Motives of Mission  The motive of conversion (decision andThe motive of conversion (decision and commitment) – saved soulscommitment) – saved souls  Eschatological motive (reign of God as aEschatological motive (reign of God as a future reality without present realities)future reality without present realities)  Plantatio ecclesial (church planting) –Plantatio ecclesial (church planting) – need for gathering a communityneed for gathering a community  The philanthropic – issues of justice andThe philanthropic – issues of justice and improved society (Freytage)improved society (Freytage)
  10. 10. Mission Lunatic??!Mission Lunatic??!  Schultz – In our missionary outreach weSchultz – In our missionary outreach we resemble a lunatic who carries the harvestresemble a lunatic who carries the harvest into his burning barn (1930) – many do notinto his burning barn (1930) – many do not proclaim the Gospel rather individualismproclaim the Gospel rather individualism and the values of the West – ‘Intra-muros’and the values of the West – ‘Intra-muros’ – the outcome of the mission is– the outcome of the mission is determined by what happens inside thedetermined by what happens inside the church not outside in the mission field.church not outside in the mission field.
  11. 11. Instrumental perspective on Mission God church Pocketpc.ico Means People Missionary----Gospel ----- Proclamation ----- People ---- Conversion
  12. 12. Reflecting on MissionReflecting on Mission  Mission as ? The word Mission is found in theMission as ? The word Mission is found in the New Testament only once in Acts 12:25New Testament only once in Acts 12:25  Evangelion – to announce the good newsEvangelion – to announce the good news (evangelism)(evangelism)  Martyria - to bear witness (IMC 1952)Martyria - to bear witness (IMC 1952)  Oikumene – to become one in/with ChristOikumene – to become one in/with Christ (ecumenism) – Koinonia (fellowship) (IMC 1947)(ecumenism) – Koinonia (fellowship) (IMC 1947)  Kerygma – to preach (IMC 1947)Kerygma – to preach (IMC 1947)  Didache – to teach (IMC 1947)Didache – to teach (IMC 1947)  Diakonia – to serve (1967 Hoekendijk)Diakonia – to serve (1967 Hoekendijk)
  13. 13. Mission in Different ContextsMission in Different Contexts Mission companion/partners personal context - Divided, taking sides, listening… Context of the people local andContext of the people local and nationalnational Global Context Neo-Liberal values, Economic disparity, concentration of wealth Nationalism, fundamentalism, terrorism
  14. 14. In Mission – Am I Making Sense to different age groups? YouthChildren Adults Women Outsider
  15. 15. Crisis – Danger and OpportunityCrisis – Danger and Opportunity  Church in Crisis – as a sign beingChurch in Crisis – as a sign being spoken against - Kraemerspoken against - Kraemer  Crisis is the combination of danger andCrisis is the combination of danger and opportunity - Koyamaopportunity - Koyama  What is this Crisis? What mission has toWhat is this Crisis? What mission has to do with this crisis? -do with this crisis? - a.a. The advance of science, technology andThe advance of science, technology and secularizationsecularization b.b. Dechristianization of the WestDechristianization of the West
  16. 16. c. Migration of people of many faiths –c. Migration of people of many faiths – devotees of other faith becomesdevotees of other faith becomes missionaries and aggressive missionmissionaries and aggressive mission d. Subjugation of people of colour, casted. Subjugation of people of colour, caste and raceand race e. Divided World –Rich and Poor – Angere. Divided World –Rich and Poor – Anger and frustration - reluctanceand frustration - reluctance f. Western ecclesial ways, theologies andf. Western ecclesial ways, theologies and practices were no more predominant andpractices were no more predominant and normative.normative.
  17. 17. Mission according to BoschMission according to Bosch  Christian faith is intrinsically Missionary – UniversalChristian faith is intrinsically Missionary – Universal Impact – Ultimate Truth (Stackhouse 1988)Impact – Ultimate Truth (Stackhouse 1988)  Looking at the World from a Christian Perspective –Looking at the World from a Christian Perspective – reforms, analysis and appraisalreforms, analysis and appraisal  Dynamic relationship between God and the World –Dynamic relationship between God and the World – God’s self communication in JesusGod’s self communication in Jesus  Recognition of the tension between Divine providenceRecognition of the tension between Divine providence and human Confusionand human Confusion  Church as Missionary existence – Universal Gospel withChurch as Missionary existence – Universal Gospel with Universal ProclamationUniversal Proclamation  Church as sacrament and sign – mediation and pointerChurch as sacrament and sign – mediation and pointer
  18. 18. Contd…Contd…  No division between foreign mission and HomeNo division between foreign mission and Home MissionMission  Difference between Mission and MissionsDifference between Mission and Missions  The whole church bringing the whole gospel toThe whole church bringing the whole gospel to the whole worldthe whole world  Participating in the struggles of people – God’sParticipating in the struggles of people – God’s yesyes  EvangelismEvangelism  God’s No to the world –not merely a politicalGod’s No to the world –not merely a political religionreligion
  19. 19. Mission Creative Tension Church with others missio Dei Mediating Salvation Quest for Justice Evangelism Liberation Common Witness Ministry by (Whole) People of God Witness to people of Other Living Faiths Action in Hope Theology David Bosch’s Transforming Mission Additions by Norman E Thomas to Bosch – Contextualization, and Inculturation, dialogue in Classic Texts
  20. 20. Holistic Mission Plurality of Mission Prophetic Liberative Nourishes Culture Building Communities Proclamation Development- oriented Participatory Dialogic and interactive Developed from WCC’s Statements 1980 -2005 You are the light of the world Unity
  21. 21. Five Marks of Mission – AnglicanFive Marks of Mission – Anglican understandingunderstanding ►To Proclaim the Good News of the KingdomTo Proclaim the Good News of the Kingdom ►To teach, baptise and nurture new believersTo teach, baptise and nurture new believers ►To respond to human need by lovingTo respond to human need by loving serviceservice ►To seek to transform unjust structures ofTo seek to transform unjust structures of societysociety ►To strive to safeguard the integrity ofTo strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and sustain and renew the life ofcreation and sustain and renew the life of the earth.the earth. ----Andrew Walls and Cathy Ross Mission in the 21----Andrew Walls and Cathy Ross Mission in the 21stst Century.Century.
  22. 22. Nine statements of Mission –Nine statements of Mission – Methodist UnderstandingMethodist Understanding ►Telling the good news of Jesus ChristTelling the good news of Jesus Christ ►Calling people to faith in Jesus Christ andCalling people to faith in Jesus Christ and Christian discipleshipChristian discipleship ►Building partnerships with other churchesBuilding partnerships with other churches and groups who share some of our missionand groups who share some of our mission aims.aims. ►Caring for individual people andCaring for individual people and communitiescommunities ►Caring for the earthCaring for the earth
  23. 23. ►Sharing the task of education; social andSharing the task of education; social and spiritual developmentspiritual development ►Struggling for a just worldStruggling for a just world ►Being alongside the poorBeing alongside the poor ►Becoming friends with people of differentBecoming friends with people of different cultures and faithscultures and faiths
  24. 24. Prophetic Liberative Nourishes Culture Building Communities Development- oriented Dialogic Plurality of Mission Evangelization conversion
  25. 25. SugirtharajahSugirtharajah  Conversion to ReorientationConversion to Reorientation Evangelising the Evangelizer and conversionEvangelising the Evangelizer and conversion within the traditionwithin the tradition  Revival to RevitalisingRevival to Revitalising Recovering some forgotten aspects –Recovering some forgotten aspects – compassionate Godcompassionate God  Sharing to distribution – of wealthSharing to distribution – of wealth Critical remark on Sugirtharajah – inward looking alone is not holistic mission – witnessing an aspect of mission
  26. 26. For me Mission meansFor me Mission means Being and Becoming a Christian –Being and Becoming a Christian – Gandhi: If Christians would really liveGandhi: If Christians would really live according to the teachings of Christ, asaccording to the teachings of Christ, as found in the Bible, all of India would befound in the Bible, all of India would be Christian today.Christian today.
  27. 27. UbuntuUbuntu  Against his background Tutu brings a theologyAgainst his background Tutu brings a theology that "seeks to restore the oppressor's humanitythat "seeks to restore the oppressor's humanity by releasing and enabling the oppressed to seeby releasing and enabling the oppressed to see their oppressors as peers under God." This istheir oppressors as peers under God." This is his ubuntu theology, so named after an Africanhis ubuntu theology, so named after an African idea of community. Tutu shows that humanidea of community. Tutu shows that human beings are defined not by their race but by theirbeings are defined not by their race but by their createdness in God's image, which brings valuecreatedness in God's image, which brings value and dignity to all people. That imago Dei thusand dignity to all people. That imago Dei thus breaks down racial barriers. Tutu declares "webreaks down racial barriers. Tutu declares "we can be human only in ... community, in koinonia,can be human only in ... community, in koinonia, in peace."in peace."
  28. 28. Engaging with people in search (meanings) for God,Engaging with people in search (meanings) for God, for life and for neighbours through Christfor life and for neighbours through Christ -Vivekananda: You are all Sons of God,-Vivekananda: You are all Sons of God, immortal spirit. "Know", he declared, "theimmortal spirit. "Know", he declared, "the Kingdom of Heaven is within you." "I and myKingdom of Heaven is within you." "I and my Father are one." Dare you stand up and say,Father are one." Dare you stand up and say, not only that "I am the Son of God", but I shallnot only that "I am the Son of God", but I shall also find in my heart of hearts that "I and myalso find in my heart of hearts that "I and my Father are one"? That was what Jesus ofFather are one"? That was what Jesus of Nazareth said. He never talks of this world andNazareth said. He never talks of this world and of this life.of this life.
  29. 29. Words related to MissionWords related to Mission  SendingSending  CommissioningCommissioning  ProclaimingProclaiming  ConvertingConverting  BuildingBuilding  SponsoringSponsoring  SupportingSupporting  PersuadingPersuading  PromotingPromoting Being Participating Liberating Listening Humanising Sharing Witnessing Accepting Receiving
  30. 30. Mission includesMission includes  An Action of emptyingAn Action of emptying  A Process of learning andA Process of learning and listeninglistening  Content – good newsContent – good news  Effect – transformed livesEffect – transformed lives  People – all no barriersPeople – all no barriers  Place – any wherePlace – any where  Culture – dignity restoredCulture – dignity restored  Method – prophetic, dialogicMethod – prophetic, dialogic  Means – community basedMeans – community based  Reflection – critical improvementReflection – critical improvement  Institution - supportiveInstitution - supportive  Relationship – reign of GodRelationship – reign of God Does not include Fixed doctrines Rejection Ethno-centric attitude Superiority complex Denominationalism Fundamentalism Exclusive dualism Allurement Monetary persuasion Offensive words Proselytising
  31. 31. Mission - signpostsMission - signposts  Incarnation – solidarity with victimsIncarnation – solidarity with victims  Cross – Kenosis – self emptyingCross – Kenosis – self emptying  Resurrection – message of joy, hope andResurrection – message of joy, hope and victory – Crucified and risen (theosis)victory – Crucified and risen (theosis)  Ascension – inaugurated eschatology –Ascension – inaugurated eschatology – living between ascension and parousialiving between ascension and parousia  Pentecost –spiritual communityPentecost –spiritual community  Parousia – triumph of God in the retun ofParousia – triumph of God in the retun of ChristChrist
  32. 32. 1. David J. Bosch,1. David J. Bosch, Transforming MissionTransforming Mission Paradigm Shifts in Theology of MissionParadigm Shifts in Theology of Mission 2. J. Andrew Kirk,2. J. Andrew Kirk, What is Mission?What is Mission? Theological ExplorationsTheological Explorations 3. Wendy Robins and Gillian Hawney,3. Wendy Robins and Gillian Hawney, TheThe Scandal of the Cross, Evangelism andScandal of the Cross, Evangelism and Mission Today,Mission Today, London USPG, 1992.London USPG, 1992. 4. T V Philip, Edinburgh to Salvador:4. T V Philip, Edinburgh to Salvador: Twentieth Century Ecumenical MissiologyTwentieth Century Ecumenical Missiology ISPCK,1999.ISPCK,1999.

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