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Power, politics and persuasion


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Power, politics and persuasion

  1. 1. Chapter 12: Power, politics and Persuasion Team JAMMED J oshua Wong Weng Yew A ndrew Ling Chee Ming M onica Wai Ying Hua M atthew Pang Sin Zhi E sther Phua Lu En D ong Hyun Seo
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Power , Politics & Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>OB Scholar of the Day – Robert Cialdini </li></ul><ul><li>6 Tendencies of Human Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>– Mainly Related to Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocation , consistency , social validation , liking , authority and scarcity . </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ OB Scholar of the Day” – Robert Cialdini <ul><li>Received his Ph.D from the University of North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>post doctoral training  from Columbia University </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, Dr. Cialdini holds dual appointments at Arizona State University .  He is a W.P. Carey Distinguished Professor of Marketing and Regents’ Professor of Psychology, where he has also been named Distinguished Graduate Research Professor. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Facts about Robert Cialdini <ul><li>Extensive scholarly training in the psychology of influence, together with over 30 years of research into the subject </li></ul><ul><li>expert in the fields of persuasion, compliance, and negotiation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: The act of moving someone by argument, entreaty, or expostulation to a belief, position, or course of action </li></ul>
  6. 6. Books written by Robert Cialdini
  7. 7. Fast Facts <ul><li>Six basic tendencies of human behavior come into play in generating a positive response to a request: reciprocation , consistency , social validation , liking , authority and scarcity . </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of these tendencies can empower consumers and citizens to make better-informed decisions about, for example, whether to purchase a product or vote for legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>The six key factors are at work in various areas around the world as well, but cultural norms and traditions can modify the weight brought to bear by each factor. </li></ul>
  8. 8. “ Pay every debt, as if God wrote the bill” -Ralph Waldo Emerson
  9. 9. Reciprocity <ul><li>Universal norm </li></ul><ul><li>All societies subscribe to a norm that obligates individuals to repay in kind what they have received </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reciprocity <ul><li>The rule is overpowering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hare Krishna society in the 1970s </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Taking disguise to it’s limits but still employing the reciprocity rule as an ally, these Krishna were arrested for soliciting without a license when they pressed candy canes onto Christmas shoppers and then made requests for donations.
  12. 12. Reciprocity - Free samples Free samples carry a subtle price tag; they psychologically indebt the consumer to reciprocate. Here shoppers get complimentary tastes of a new product, green ketchup.
  13. 13. Rejection-then-retreat <ul><li>Would you like to chaperone juvenile detention centre inmates on a day trip to the zoo? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Rejection-then-retreat <ul><li>Would you serve as an unpaid counsellor at the centre for two hours a week for the next two years? </li></ul><ul><li>All said “No” </li></ul><ul><li>But then… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rejection-then-retreat <ul><li>Would you like to chaperone juvenile detention centre inmates on a day trip to the zoo? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Rejection-then-retreat
  17. 17. Reciprocity <ul><li>Letter from a State of Oregon Employee </li></ul><ul><li>“ The person who used to have my job told me during my training that I would like working for my boss because he is a very nice and generous person… I have been working for this same boss for six years now, and I have experienced the same thing. He gives me and my son gifts for Christmas… there is no promotion for the type of job I have and my only choice is to take a test with the state system and reapply to move to another department or maybe find a job in a private department. But I find myself resisting trying to find another job or move to another department… My boss is reaching retirement age and I am thinking maybe I will be able to move out after he retires…” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Application <ul><li>Start with a big request, then lower it. Chances are the other person will be more likely to say yes because they see your concession and want to reciprocate </li></ul><ul><li>Give something to the other person first and create the opportunity for the person to reciprocate </li></ul>
  19. 19. Commitment and Consistency <ul><li>People have a desire to look consistent through their words, beliefs, attitudes and deeds and this tendency is supported or fed from three sources: </li></ul>
  20. 20. Commitment and Consistency <ul><li>1.Good personal consistency is highly valued by society. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Consistent conduct provides a beneficial approach to daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A consistent orientation affords a valuable shortcut through the complexity of modern existence. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Commitment and Consistency <ul><li>Initial Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to be consistent with prior commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation of people by initial commitment </li></ul>
  22. 22. Social Validation <ul><li>Being surrounded by social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Social comparison and conformity </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Validation <ul><li>Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Laugh tracks on situation comedies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonials </li></ul>
  24. 24. Experiment
  25. 25. “ Nothing draws a crowd like a crowd.” P. T. Barnum
  26. 26. Social Validation
  27. 27. Social Validation <ul><li>If poorly applied, it can also undermine attempts to curtail deleterious activities, by pointing out their ubiquity </li></ul>
  28. 28. “ Friendships begin with liking or gratitude roots that can be pulled up. ” George Eliot (An English Novelist)
  29. 29. Liking <ul><li>“Affinity” , “Rapport” and “Affection” all describe a feeling of connection between people, but the simple word “liking” captures the concept and has become the standard designation in the social literature. </li></ul><ul><li>People prefer to say “yes” to those they like. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Liking <ul><li>In a 1993 study conducted by Peter H. Reingen of Arizona State University and Jerome B. Kernan, now at George Mason University, good-looking fundraisers for the American Heart Association generated nearly twice as many donations (42 versus 23 percent) as did other requesters. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970s researchers Michael G. Efran and E.W.J. Patterson of the University of Toronto found that voters in Canadian federal elections gave physically attractive candidates several times as many votes as unattractive ones. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Liking Arnold Schwarzenegger won the historic California recall election Tuesday after voters agreed to recall Gray Davis just 11 months after the Democrat had begun his second term……
  32. 32. Liking <ul><li>Elements that increase liking </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Compliments </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul>
  33. 33. Liking <ul><li>Who will you vote for to be the next upcoming SMU President? </li></ul>VS 1) 2)
  34. 34. Liking <ul><li>Thomas Menkhoff , Practice Associate Professor of Organisational Behaviour Singapore Management University (2001–Present) </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey Chia , Associate Professor of Management and Organisation, NUS Business School. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: We will vote 1) because we identify similarity with 1); most of us do not even know who is 2). </li></ul>
  35. 35. Authority <ul><li>Define authority </li></ul><ul><li>Authority vs Power </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate right </li></ul>
  36. 36. Authority <ul><li>Milgram Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>65% administered the highest voltage </li></ul><ul><li>None challenged the authority of the experimenter </li></ul>
  37. 37. Authority <ul><li>Obedience to the dictates of genuine authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul>
  38. 38. Authority <ul><li>Meaningful defense against unwanted influence </li></ul><ul><li>Is this authority truly an expert? </li></ul><ul><li>How truthful can we expect this expert to be? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Scarcity – Less is Best <ul><li>Scarcity Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>Items and opportunities become more desirable to us as they become less available or rare. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived scarcity will generate demand </li></ul>
  40. 40. “ Limited number” “ deadline”
  41. 41. Scarcity - Loss is Worst <ul><li>The more something becomes scarce, the more people are afraid of losing something. </li></ul><ul><li>More motivated by the thought of losing something than by the thought of gaining something of equal value. </li></ul>*don’t wait! – last chance to look at this slide before it’s gone!
  42. 42. Scarcity and Exclusivity of information <ul><li>Information that is exclusive is more persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Study by Amram Knishinsky: </li></ul><ul><li>company’s customers were called on the phone by a salesperson and asked for a purchase in 1 of 3 ways. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>1. One set of customers heard the standard sales presentation before being asked for their orders. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Same was done for the 2 nd set of customers plus information that shortage of imported beef was anticipated. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>3. received what (1) & (2) had, including the claim that the scarce supply news came from the company's exclusive contacts. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Scarcity- Optimizing Conditions <ul><li>Newly scarce items </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul>
  46. 46. Scarcity- Weapon of Influence <ul><li>Power comes from 2 major sources </li></ul><ul><li>1.weakness for shortcuts </li></ul><ul><li>2.human response to diminishing personal control </li></ul>
  47. 47. Persuasion Clip <ul><li>Click me. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Evaluation Do the six key factors in the social influence process operate similarly across national boundaries? Yes, but with some exceptions. The citizens of the world are human, after all, and susceptible to the fundamental tendencies that characterize all members of our species. Cultural norms, traditions and experiences can, however, modify the weight that is brought to bear by each factor.
  49. 49. Recollection <ul><li>Reciprocation: “I help you, you help me” </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: “Uncle, you better keep your word, hor” </li></ul><ul><li>Social Validation: “Everybody do I do lah” </li></ul><ul><li>Liking: “ I like you, I do for you” </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: “Gahmen says, so confirmed correct ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Government) </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity: “ So few left, chiong ah” </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>Do you think we look alike?