A consistent orientation affords a valuable shortcut through the complexity of modern existence. That is – by being consistent with earlier decisions we can reduce the need to process all the relevant information in future similar situations. Instead, one merely needs to recall the earlier decision and respond consistently.
1.The principles of Commitment and Consistency to manipulate people is held within the initial commitment. 2. After making a commitment, taking a stand or position, people are more willing to agree to requests that are consistent with their prior commitment. Many compliance professionals will try to induce others to take an initial position that is consistent with a behavior they will later request. 3. The drive to be consistent constitutes a highly potent weapon of social influence, often causing us to act in ways that are clearly contrary to our own best interests. Commitment decisions, even erroneous ones, have a tendency to be self-perpetuating because they can &quot;grow their own legs.&quot; That is, people often add new reasons and justifications to support the wisdom of commitments they have already made. As a consequence, some commitments remain in effect long after the conditions that spurred them have changed. This phenomenon explains the effectiveness of certain deceptive compliance practices. 4. To recognize and resist the undue influence of consistency pressures on our compliance decisions, we should listen for signals coming from two places within us: our stomachs and our heart of hearts. Stomach signs appear when we realize that we are being pushed by commitment and consistency pressures to agree to requests we know we don't want to perform. Heart of heart signs are best employed when it is not clear to us that an initial commitment was wrongheaded.
If everyone’s doing it, it must be right. This principle derives from two extremely powerful social forces: social comparison and conformity. We compare our behavior to what others are doing, and if there’s a discrepancy between them and us, we feel pressure to change. In a way, this appeals to peer pressure and popularity as well.
The principle of social proof is so common that it easily passes unnoticed. Subtleness in advertisements. Pepsi has international stars David Beckham , Mariah Carey , Britney Spears , Jennifer Lopez , Janet Jackson and Asian faces like Jay Chou , Aaron Kwok , Jolin Tsai , Rain , Louis Koo , Nicolas Tse , F4 , Faye Wong , and Kelly Chan as their spokespersons. They appeal to our desire to be one of the group. You want to look good, be famous, get rich, JOIN THE GANG! Drink pepsi! the laugh tracks on situation comedies that instruct us not only when to laugh but how to laugh. Seems like a case of if more people are doing something, it is most probably the right thing to do as well. Very often, we are caught in an ethical dilemma when many people in your workplace are cheating on reimbursements from the company. Testimonials or quotes also influence our decisions. Be it books or movies, we often check the reviews to see what the views of others abt this particular book or movie, whether people think it is good or not, before we ourselves decide whether we want to buy the book or watch the show.
(1 of us points behind the class to the windows, and then another person and another while i continue to talk cok. Hopefully they will increasingly turn behind to see wad you all are pointing at.) Ok now let us see how exactly this social validation works. How you can be persuaded to do something without you even being consciously knowing. Now i need you all to look up instead of at your ntbooks if you are, and listen to my instructions. Asks class how many turned when saw the one person, 2 ppl, 3 ppl etc point behind them. Conclude: this is a form of persuasion. I did not ask you to look behind but i led you to look behind by asking my groupmates to point at something behind you. Also, you will find that if only one of them point you might not be distracted but when more of them pointed behind, AND when more of the class looked back, you were ‘forced’ to take a look at what it is too. HOWEVER, even the most trusted groups may exploit social validation. Some churches, for example, practice what is known as “salting the collection plate,” whereby faithful ushers throw several different bills or checks onto the plate before it’s passed around. Even a little salt gets things going. And the heavier the salt, the greater the returns: research shows that salting with tens and twenties brings in more than salting with ones and fives.
the problem comes when we begin responding to social proof in such a mindless and reflexive fashion that we can be fooled by partial or fake evidence. Some examples: Everyone working on the campaign wears a button or sticker at all times; this serves to remind everyone they meet that something is happening. And they give away or sell those buttons and stickers to everyone they encounter to magnify the effect. A bartender, in order to get more ppl to leave him tips can do this. displays a jar full of dollars, ppl will be moved to leave some money in the jar more than if it were not there.
the owners of opera houses in Paris in the 1820s would hire &quot;claquers&quot; to applaud enthusiastically. A company called the Italian Claquers put this advertisement into the Musical Times newspaper, advertising their rates for various kinds of applause.
Social validation takes advantage of peer pressure to drive human behavior. Poorly applied, however, it can also undermine attempts to curtail deleterious activities, by pointing out their ubiquity: If everyone’s doing it, why shouldn’t I? In this case, the prevalence of litter is such that, instead of following what the poster says and not litter, ppl would tend NOT to heed the authorities on this matter. Thus we have to be careful and avoid getting the wrong effect from advertising!
This saying is provided by a English novelist living in the Victorian Era(1819-1880); this is a very simple concept, it is impossible to successfully persuade a person without the person liking you.
-Everyday we describe relations between people using words like “affinity”, “rapport” and “affection. -”liking” is the word that is used to capture this concept. -We will tend to say “yes” to people we like.
-Studies shown that good looking people tend to get more votes and donations during fund-raising. -During Bondue camp, selling stuff for VSAP showed me that “bimbotic” girls sell much faster than demure girls and guys. Hahahaha….
-Elections: Our near Mr Terminator is the California governor.
-Physical attractiveness- you tend to like a person who is more physically attractive then the other. (relates to the picture) -Similarity : Try walking on the streets and purposely go bang into some insurance agents, then proceed on to fill in their survey forms, they will tend to start talking about you and his personal life; and whenever the agent found out that something is similar between you and him/her, the agent will make use of this point and try to socialise with you, this increases your liking for the agent more and you might EVEN END UP BUYING A PRODUCT FROM HIM/HER….BEWARE~! -Compliments: Insurance Agents also like to compliment you whenever it is possible- main reason is also to increase your liking for him/her. -Cooperation: To allow people to like us by prospects as cooperating partners. Back in the army, when we try to get the men to do things, we tend to blame all the things that need to be done on higher authority even though we support that these things are supposed to be done.
-Right now, we assume that Howard Hunter is stepping down, and the 2 candidates are shown, who will you vote for?
- Conclusion: We will vote for 1), since we are his students, we identify similarity with the Prof as being in the same MPW class.
Generate demand and thus WORTH of an item. ----------------------------------------------
The use of this principle for profit can be seen in such compliance techniques as the “limited number” and “deadline” tactics, where practitioners try to convince us that access to what they are offering is restricted by amt or time respectively. Market product as ‘one-of-a-kind’ or ‘limited editions’ &quot;limited time only&quot; promotions
Eg. We often interrupt an interesting face-to-face conversation to ans the ring of an unknown caller. In such a situation, the caller possesses a compelling feature that the face-to-face partner does not- potential unavailability. If u don’t take the call, u might miss it( and the info it carries) for good. With each unanswered ring, the phone interaction becomes less retrievable. For that reason and for that moment, the call is more desirable than the other conv. ----------------------------------------------------------- Eg. Much stronger emotions when asked to imagine losses as opposed to gains in GPA. (Ketelaar, 1995) Eg. Pamplets advising young women to check for breast cancer through self-examinations are significantly more successful if they state their case in terms of what stands to be lost rather than gained. ----------------------------------------------
Scarcity principle not only applies to commodities. Info. Amram Knishinsky owned a company that imported beef into the U.S. and sold it to supermarkets. Company’s customers were buyers for supermarkets and other retail food sales stuff.
Those who were told about the future scarcity of beef bought more than twice as much.
These customers increased their orders by more than 600 percent. They were influenced by a scarcity double whammy: not only was the beef scarce, but the information that the beef was scarce was itself scarce. especially persuasive.
We value those things that have become recently restricted more than those that were restricted all along. ------------------------------------------------- Product is good not only because other ppl think so, but also that we are in direct competition with those ppl for it. Thought of losing out to a rival frequently turns a buyer form hesitant to zealous. Shoppers at big close-out or bargain sales report being caught up emotionally in the event. joy not in experiencing of a scarce commodity but in the possessing of it.
The scarcity principle holds for 2reasons We know that things tt are difficult to get are typically better than those that are easy to get. As such, we can often use an item’s availability to help us quickly and correctly decide on its quality. usually and efficiently right. ---------------------------------------------------------- As things become less accessible, we lose freedoms. Whenever free choice is limited or threatened, we respond to the loss of freedom by wanting them (along with the goods and services connected to them) significantly more than before.
Power, politics and persuasion
Chapter 12: Power, politics and Persuasion Team JAMMED J oshua Wong Weng Yew A ndrew Ling Chee Ming M onica Wai Ying Hua M atthew Pang Sin Zhi E sther Phua Lu En D ong Hyun Seo
Agenda <ul><li>Power , Politics & Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>OB Scholar of the Day – Robert Cialdini </li></ul><ul><li>6 Tendencies of Human Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>– Mainly Related to Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocation , consistency , social validation , liking , authority and scarcity . </li></ul>
“ OB Scholar of the Day” – Robert Cialdini <ul><li>Received his Ph.D from the University of North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>post doctoral training from Columbia University </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, Dr. Cialdini holds dual appointments at Arizona State University . He is a W.P. Carey Distinguished Professor of Marketing and Regents’ Professor of Psychology, where he has also been named Distinguished Graduate Research Professor. </li></ul>
Facts about Robert Cialdini <ul><li>Extensive scholarly training in the psychology of influence, together with over 30 years of research into the subject </li></ul><ul><li>expert in the fields of persuasion, compliance, and negotiation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: The act of moving someone by argument, entreaty, or expostulation to a belief, position, or course of action </li></ul>
Fast Facts <ul><li>Six basic tendencies of human behavior come into play in generating a positive response to a request: reciprocation , consistency , social validation , liking , authority and scarcity . </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of these tendencies can empower consumers and citizens to make better-informed decisions about, for example, whether to purchase a product or vote for legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>The six key factors are at work in various areas around the world as well, but cultural norms and traditions can modify the weight brought to bear by each factor. </li></ul>
“ Pay every debt, as if God wrote the bill” -Ralph Waldo Emerson
Reciprocity <ul><li>Universal norm </li></ul><ul><li>All societies subscribe to a norm that obligates individuals to repay in kind what they have received </li></ul>
Reciprocity <ul><li>The rule is overpowering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hare Krishna society in the 1970s </li></ul></ul>
Taking disguise to it’s limits but still employing the reciprocity rule as an ally, these Krishna were arrested for soliciting without a license when they pressed candy canes onto Christmas shoppers and then made requests for donations.
Reciprocity - Free samples Free samples carry a subtle price tag; they psychologically indebt the consumer to reciprocate. Here shoppers get complimentary tastes of a new product, green ketchup.
Rejection-then-retreat <ul><li>Would you like to chaperone juvenile detention centre inmates on a day trip to the zoo? </li></ul>
Rejection-then-retreat <ul><li>Would you serve as an unpaid counsellor at the centre for two hours a week for the next two years? </li></ul><ul><li>All said “No” </li></ul><ul><li>But then… </li></ul>
Rejection-then-retreat <ul><li>Would you like to chaperone juvenile detention centre inmates on a day trip to the zoo? </li></ul>
Reciprocity <ul><li>Letter from a State of Oregon Employee </li></ul><ul><li>“ The person who used to have my job told me during my training that I would like working for my boss because he is a very nice and generous person… I have been working for this same boss for six years now, and I have experienced the same thing. He gives me and my son gifts for Christmas… there is no promotion for the type of job I have and my only choice is to take a test with the state system and reapply to move to another department or maybe find a job in a private department. But I find myself resisting trying to find another job or move to another department… My boss is reaching retirement age and I am thinking maybe I will be able to move out after he retires…” </li></ul>
Application <ul><li>Start with a big request, then lower it. Chances are the other person will be more likely to say yes because they see your concession and want to reciprocate </li></ul><ul><li>Give something to the other person first and create the opportunity for the person to reciprocate </li></ul>
Commitment and Consistency <ul><li>People have a desire to look consistent through their words, beliefs, attitudes and deeds and this tendency is supported or fed from three sources: </li></ul>
Commitment and Consistency <ul><li>1.Good personal consistency is highly valued by society. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Consistent conduct provides a beneficial approach to daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A consistent orientation affords a valuable shortcut through the complexity of modern existence. </li></ul>
Commitment and Consistency <ul><li>Initial Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to be consistent with prior commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation of people by initial commitment </li></ul>
Social Validation <ul><li>Being surrounded by social proof </li></ul><ul><li>Social comparison and conformity </li></ul>
Social Validation <ul><li>Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Laugh tracks on situation comedies </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Testimonials </li></ul>
Social Validation <ul><li>If poorly applied, it can also undermine attempts to curtail deleterious activities, by pointing out their ubiquity </li></ul>
“ Friendships begin with liking or gratitude roots that can be pulled up. ” George Eliot (An English Novelist)
Liking <ul><li>“Affinity” , “Rapport” and “Affection” all describe a feeling of connection between people, but the simple word “liking” captures the concept and has become the standard designation in the social literature. </li></ul><ul><li>People prefer to say “yes” to those they like. </li></ul>
Liking <ul><li>In a 1993 study conducted by Peter H. Reingen of Arizona State University and Jerome B. Kernan, now at George Mason University, good-looking fundraisers for the American Heart Association generated nearly twice as many donations (42 versus 23 percent) as did other requesters. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970s researchers Michael G. Efran and E.W.J. Patterson of the University of Toronto found that voters in Canadian federal elections gave physically attractive candidates several times as many votes as unattractive ones. </li></ul>
Liking Arnold Schwarzenegger won the historic California recall election Tuesday after voters agreed to recall Gray Davis just 11 months after the Democrat had begun his second term……
Liking <ul><li>Who will you vote for to be the next upcoming SMU President? </li></ul>VS 1) 2)
Liking <ul><li>Thomas Menkhoff , Practice Associate Professor of Organisational Behaviour Singapore Management University (2001–Present) </li></ul><ul><li>Audrey Chia , Associate Professor of Management and Organisation, NUS Business School. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: We will vote 1) because we identify similarity with 1); most of us do not even know who is 2). </li></ul>
Authority <ul><li>Define authority </li></ul><ul><li>Authority vs Power </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate right </li></ul>
Authority <ul><li>Milgram Experiment </li></ul><ul><li>65% administered the highest voltage </li></ul><ul><li>None challenged the authority of the experimenter </li></ul>
Authority <ul><li>Obedience to the dictates of genuine authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul>
Authority <ul><li>Meaningful defense against unwanted influence </li></ul><ul><li>Is this authority truly an expert? </li></ul><ul><li>How truthful can we expect this expert to be? </li></ul>
Scarcity – Less is Best <ul><li>Scarcity Principle: </li></ul><ul><li>Items and opportunities become more desirable to us as they become less available or rare. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived scarcity will generate demand </li></ul>
Scarcity - Loss is Worst <ul><li>The more something becomes scarce, the more people are afraid of losing something. </li></ul><ul><li>More motivated by the thought of losing something than by the thought of gaining something of equal value. </li></ul>*don’t wait! – last chance to look at this slide before it’s gone!
Scarcity and Exclusivity of information <ul><li>Information that is exclusive is more persuasive </li></ul><ul><li>Study by Amram Knishinsky: </li></ul><ul><li>company’s customers were called on the phone by a salesperson and asked for a purchase in 1 of 3 ways. </li></ul>
<ul><li>1. One set of customers heard the standard sales presentation before being asked for their orders. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Same was done for the 2 nd set of customers plus information that shortage of imported beef was anticipated. </li></ul>
<ul><li>3. received what (1) & (2) had, including the claim that the scarce supply news came from the company's exclusive contacts. </li></ul>
Evaluation Do the six key factors in the social influence process operate similarly across national boundaries? Yes, but with some exceptions. The citizens of the world are human, after all, and susceptible to the fundamental tendencies that characterize all members of our species. Cultural norms, traditions and experiences can, however, modify the weight that is brought to bear by each factor.
Recollection <ul><li>Reciprocation: “I help you, you help me” </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency: “Uncle, you better keep your word, hor” </li></ul><ul><li>Social Validation: “Everybody do I do lah” </li></ul><ul><li>Liking: “ I like you, I do for you” </li></ul><ul><li>Authority: “Gahmen says, so confirmed correct ” </li></ul><ul><li>(Government) </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity: “ So few left, chiong ah” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>Do you think we look alike?