SPA Project


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By Jeffrey Lau, Joshua Li and Tramy Tse
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SPA Project

  1. 1. Producer Responsibility Scheme (Plastic Shopping Bags Levy)<br />Community College of City University Division of Social StudiesAssociate Degree of Social Science in Public Administration and ManagementDSS20002 Social Policy and Administration<br />Lau Jeffrey (52224761)Li Chun Hei Joshua (52224054)TseSiu Mei (52248119)<br />Mr. Benny H.P. TODate of Presentation: 7-Mar-2011<br />
  2. 2. Background<br />Government Proposal<br />Civic Engagement<br /><ul><li>Public Consultation</li></ul>Policymaking Theories<br />Policymaking Model<br />Content<br />
  3. 3. Background<br />Environmental Levy on Plastic Shopping Bags<br />
  4. 4. Difficult to deal with waste plastic bags<br />It is difficult to be decomposed<br />Releases dioxin when burned<br />The Reason Behind…<br />
  5. 5. Indiscriminate use of plastic bags<br />Eight billion plastic bags are disposed each year<br />3.3 plastic bags are disposed per person a day<br />Landfill will be saturated<br />The Reason Behind…<br />
  6. 6. Voluntary waste reduction activitiesare ineffective<br />Bring Your Own Bag (1993)<br />No Plastic Bags Please (1999)<br />The Reason Behind…<br />
  7. 7. Time Line<br />Product Eco-responsibility (Plastic Shopping Bags) Regulation is passed<br />2002<br />2004<br />2006<br />2008<br />2010<br />2009<br />2003<br />2001<br />2005<br />2007<br />1993...<br />Proposed Legislation for the Implementation of Producer Responsibility Schemes<br />Sustainable Development - Making Choices for Our Future (2004)<br />Public Consultation on the Environmental Levy on Plastic Shopping Bags<br />“Bring Your Own Bag” Scheme<br />The 2007/2008 Budget<br />A First Sustainable Development Strategy in Hong Kong (2005)<br />Legislative Council on Product Eco-responsibility Bill<br />Implementation of Environmental Levy Scheme<br />Policy Framework for the Management of Municipal Solid Waste (2005-2014)<br />
  8. 8. Encourage city citizens to reduce and recycle<br />Examine charging for waste disposal under the "Polluter Pays" principle directly<br />Sustainable DevelopmentMaking Choices for Our Future (2004)<br />
  9. 9. Exhaustion of existing landfill space in Hong Kong within the next decade<br />Apply the “user pays” principle to reduce volumes of waste for disposal.<br />A First Sustainable Development Strategy in Hong Kong (2005)<br />
  10. 10. Clear and socially acceptable objectives for solid waste management<br />Apply the "user-pays principle" to reduce volumes of waste for disposal. <br />A Policy Framework for the Management of Municipal Solid Waste 2005-2014 (2005)<br />
  11. 11. Implementation of Producer Responsibility Schemes (PRS’s) in Hong Kong<br />Introduced an imposition of fee, tax or levy on plastic bags<br />Finance recycling programs or to deter indiscriminate use<br />Proposed Legislation for the Implementation of Producer Responsibility Schemes (2006)<br />
  12. 12. The Department has completed its study, and put forward specific proposals.  <br />Expected that the relevant Bill will be introduced into this Council within the year.<br />The 2007-08 Budget(2007)<br />
  13. 13. A Proposal on the Environmental Levy on Plastic Shopping Bags (May 2007)<br />Public Consultation (May to July 2007)<br />Meetings<br />Telephone Interviews<br />Public Affairs Forum<br />Consultation Session<br />Receive Written comments<br />Public Consultation<br />
  14. 14. In 2008, the Bills introduced to LegCo<br />In April of 2009, Product Eco-responsibility (Plastic Shopping Bags) Regulation is passed<br />In July of 2009, Environmental Levy Scheme is now in effect<br />Legislative Process<br />
  15. 15. Government Proposal<br />
  16. 16. Meaning of plastic shopping bags<br />Made wholly or partly of plastic<br />With a handle or any other carrying device<br />Exclude the bags with prepackaged goods<br />Levy on Plastic Shopping Bags<br />50 cents per plastic shopping bag<br />Details<br />
  17. 17. Meaning of prescribed retailers<br />5 or more qualified retail outlets in Hong Kong<br />at lease one qualified retail outlet in Hong Kong with more than 200 square meters floor area<br />Sell the following kinds of goods in the outlets<br />any food or drink<br />any medicine or first-aid item<br />any personal hygiene or beauty product<br />Details<br />
  18. 18. Civic Engagement<br />
  19. 19. Government has taken the initiative to involve citizens in all stages of policy development <br />Identification of problems<br />Clarification of values and interests<br />Development of policy alternatives<br />Prioritization of proposals<br />Definition<br />
  20. 20. Committee Engagement<br />Participation within the Advisory Committee<br />Meeting within the Advisory Council<br />Public Engagement<br />Participation with the public<br />Public Fora<br />Classification<br />
  21. 21. Actor<br />Institutional Arrangement<br />Process<br />Result<br />Elements<br />
  22. 22. Government Officials and Civil Society Actors<br />Background<br />Attitudes towards Civic Participation<br />Actor<br />
  23. 23. Functions and Powers<br />Stakeholder Representation<br />Institutional Arrangement<br />
  24. 24. Common Aims<br />The level of transparency in the process<br />The amount of accountability<br />Process<br />
  25. 25. Brings improved policy quality<br />Higher degree of legitimacy to the policy<br />Result<br />
  26. 26. Citizen (Agree)<br />Legislative Council (Agree)<br />Environmental Advisory Committee (Agree)<br />Manufacturers of plastic bags (Disagree)<br />Retailers (Disagree)<br />Environmental Groups (Agree)<br />Public Consultation<br />
  27. 27. Plastic Shopping Bag Levy Fees Poll Proposal<br />66.2% of respondents support the Environmental Levy on Plastic Shopping Bags Levy<br />Accounting for 55.9% of all respondents supported the phased implementation of the Levy Fee<br />1,102 telephone interviews successfully conducted<br />Citizen (Agree)<br />
  28. 28. Legislative Council Panel on Environmental Affairs(立法會環境事務委員會)<br />Consistent with the “Polluter Pays” Principle<br />The abuse of plastic shopping bags is very serious implemented as soon as possible<br />Levy income Green Fund to support environmental protection<br />Levy reduced to the amount of $0.1 to $0.2<br />Legislative Council (Agree)<br />
  29. 29. Advisory Committee Environment (環境諮詢委員會)Waste Management Team (廢物管理小組)<br />Proposed:<br /><ul><li>As soon as possible
  30. 30. Simple implementation</li></ul>Advisory Council on Environment(ACE)<br /><ul><li>Implementation review after one year
  31. 31. Extending the scheme to other retail stores </li></ul>Environmental Advisory Committee(Agree)<br />
  32. 32. Hong Kong Plastic Bags Manufacturers Association香港塑料袋業廠商<br />Compare with other single-use (e.g. Paper bags)<br />Not environmentally friendly<br />Public  widely re-use Plastic bags<br />Suggestion:<br /><ul><li>Separation and recycling of plastic bags </li></ul>Manufacturers of Plastic Bags(Disagree)<br />
  33. 33. The Hong Kong Retail Management Association香港零售管理協會<br />Unfair only targeted on large chain supermarkets, convenience stores and personal health and beauty stores<br />Questioned effectiveness of the proposal<br />Citizen: Get free plastic shopping bags from other retailers not under regulation <br />Suggestion:<br /><ul><li>Continue through voluntary measures</li></ul>Retailers (Disagree)<br />
  34. 34. Concerned on the use of levy income<br />Doubts  Effectiveness and long-term benefits<br />Environmental Groups (Agree)<br />
  35. 35. Policymaking<br />
  36. 36. Policy Making Process in Hong Kong<br />Some of the Problems Faced<br />Policy Making Model<br />Policymaking <br />
  37. 37. Policymaking Process<br />Theories<br />
  38. 38. Christiane Miethe (HKDF)<br />Problem / Issue  Policy / Law <br />Decision-makers<br />Policymaking Process<br />
  39. 39. Generally 4 stages<br />Agenda Setting<br />Policy formulation<br />Policy implementation<br />Policy Evaluation<br />Examine the policy-making process in HK<br />Use case studies to illustrate (PRS)<br />Shortcomings & Benefits<br />Hong Kong Policymaking Process<br />
  40. 40. Start of Producer Responsibility Scheme (2004)<br />First Stage<br />Problem perceive by decision makers<br />Agree to solve this issue through actions<br />Factors affect the agenda<br />E.g. Pressures due to crisis or actors<br />Process (Agenda Setting)<br />
  41. 41. Major Actor<br />Chief Executive<br />Decide government policies / executive order<br />Secondary Actors<br />Authorities of Civil Service & Secretaries<br />Powers limited & report to Chief Executive<br />Article 54: assist the Chief Executive in policy-making<br />Actors (Agenda Setting)<br />
  42. 42. Tertiary actors<br />Affect ExCo & Chief Executive<br />Choose which voices to listen<br />E.g. <br />Civil Service<br />Interest Groups<br />International Actors<br />Lawmakers<br />Media<br />Actors (Agenda Setting)<br />
  43. 43. Second stage<br />Process of using normative and empirical methods of defining a policy goal<br />Exploring alternatives to achieve the goal<br />Choosing a preferred policy solution that will become the basis of a public policy plan<br />Policy Formulation<br />
  44. 44. Consultation of experts & public<br />Seek advice and encourage public participation<br />Make government decisions more transparent<br />Encourage public to interact with government<br />Encourage discussion & awareness<br />Policy Formulation<br />
  45. 45. Third stage<br />Two approaches<br />Top-down <br />Understand the implementation of policy through means of discovering the goals & strategies<br />Bottom-up<br />Lowest level  upper level to acquire better information<br />Policy Implementation<br />
  46. 46. High technical process<br />Whether meet the goals or not<br />Officials make changes if defect<br />Diverse of people’s comments<br />Policy Evaluation<br />
  47. 47. Properly done  Allow learning<br />Provide feedback for improving future policy<br />E.g. Second stage of plastic bags levy<br />Offer experience <br />Deal with same issues in the future<br />Apply similar solution to similar policy area<br />Policy Evaluation<br />
  48. 48. Any Problem Faced?<br />
  49. 49. Agenda<br />Although emphasis on transparency<br />Often remain mysterious <br />Policy Formulation<br />Consulted by experts’ concern<br />Process dominated by secretary<br />Problem<br />
  50. 50. Plastic Bags Levy<br />Official Reason<br />Reduce amount of waste disposal<br />Reduce treatment cost<br />Schedule delay<br />Settle companies & markets <br />Cannot find new locations / Land<br />Opposition of real estate<br />Problem<br />
  51. 51. Policymaking Model<br />
  52. 52. Incrementalism (Muddling through)<br />The “Three streams Model”<br />Policymaking Models<br />
  53. 53. Charles Lindblom<br />Incrementalism<br />More political & feasible<br />Change bit by bit<br />Affect less interest groups per policy<br />Less amount of operating procedures in bureaucracy<br />Shorter period of time & cost<br />Incrementalism<br />
  54. 54. Plastic big levy  Incrementalism<br />Share similar values & goals<br />E.g. Reduce use of plastic bags & landfill<br />Limited analysis <br />Values and goals are not so different<br />Analysis always agree on the policy<br />Neglect other alternatives <br />Policy based on overseas experiences<br />E.g. Taiwan, Denmark, Australia, Ireland<br />Incrementalism<br />
  55. 55. John Kingdon<br />Indicates reasons in particular time<br />Problem got into official agenda<br />Solutions selected<br /> Three streams<br />Problem, policy & politics<br />Run parallel & independently <br />Window of opportunity opens<br />Three streams converge allows policy to change<br />The “Three streams Model”<br />
  56. 56. “Three Streams Model”<br />– Plastic bag is difficult to dispose<br />– Indiscriminate use of plastic bags <br />– Not enough landfill<br />Problem Stream<br />– Citizens tend to agree the reduction use of plastic bags<br />– Green groups started promotion and launch BYOB<br />Window opens tostructure decision agenda:Three stream converge<br />PoliticalStream<br />PolicyStream<br />A lot of solutions are proposed by bureaucrats<br />
  57. 57. The Application of Plastic Shopping Bags Levy on Policymaking Model<br />Further Discuss the Civic Engagement later<br />Conclusion<br />
  58. 58. Reference<br />Environmental Protection Department. (2007). A Proposal on An Environmental Levy on Plastic Shopping Bag. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, Environmental Protection Department Web site:<br />Council for Sustainable Development. Sustainable Development: Making Choices for Our Future. (2004). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.<br />Sustainable Development Unit. First Sustainable Development Strategy in Hong Kong.(2005). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.<br />Environmental Protection Department.A Policy Framework for theManagement of Municipal Solid Waste 2005-2014. (2005). HongKong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.<br />
  59. 59. Reference<br />Environmental Protection Department. (2006). Proposed Legislation for Implementation of Producer Responsibility Schemes.Retrieved March 1, 2011 from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, Legislative Council Web site:<br />Tang, H. The 2007-08 Budget. (2007). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.<br />Environmental Protection Department. (2007). Public Consultation Report on the Proposal on An Environmental Levy on Plastic Shopping Bags, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.<br />Legislative Council, (2008). Product Eco-Responsibility Ordinance.Hong Kong: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government.<br />
  60. 60. Reference<br />House, V. W. (1987). A Proposal on An Environmental Levy on Plastic Shopping Bag. In Models Of Policy Making. Retrieved March 5, 2011 from University of Minnesota Department of Applied Economics and the University of Minnesota Libraries, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association Web site:<br />Hong Kong Democratic Foundation (2007). A Description and Critical Review of: The Policy-Making Process in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Democratic Foundation.<br />
  61. 61. MMXI<br />The End<br />