Here I am trying to conceptualize HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT in Health Industry in context of nursing personnel.
your suggestions are welcome. In order to make my next try to be better than this one.
thank you !!!
coceptualizing Human resource management in health industry
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
BY STUDENT NURSE BHUSHAN R. JOSHI
(IV YEAR BASIC BSC NURSING)
“People are often unreasonable and self-centered. Forgive
If you are kind, people may accuse you of ulterior motives.
Be kind anyway.
If you are honest, people may cheat you. Be honest anyway.
If you find happiness, people may be jealous. Be happy
The good you do today may be forgotten tomorrow. Do
Give the world the best you have and it may never be
enough. Give your best anyway.
For you see, in the end, it is between you and God. It was
never between you and them anyway.”
• Number of personals works in a hospital,
• Human resource is treasure and most important than
all other resources, as it converts all other resources
in productive one,
• is the only source which can think and have brain
which is self sufficient,
• These Human Resources in organizations are well
known as “Employees “or “Talent”.
• Undoubtedly, Human Resources or the Employees
are the backbone of any organization.
Health care industry is world’s largest industry
• It is no more the era of charity, either by
social organization, or government.
• This has earning potential and there is felt
need to maximize the use of resources to
build surplus to support the needy.
“Human resource management is the effective
use of human resources in
order to enhance organizational
It is an art and science which controls workers,
employees; and also known as man management,
personnel management, industrial relationship or
industrial management. .
Evolution of HRM
why we felt need of HRM:
• Rapid industrialization in country
• labor legislation
• growing pressure of trade unionism
• new outlook and techniques of progressive management
• Human resource management is comparatively new and rapidly
growing profession in India.
Human resource management
strategic human resource management
Period Status Emphasis
1920-1939 Clerical Statutory,
1940-1969 Administrative Introduction of
1970-1989 Managerial Regulatory
1990-continuing executive Human values,
Table (A): evolution of hospital HRM functions in India
VARIOUS FEATURES OF HRM INCLUDE:
• It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all
• Its focus is on results rather than on rules.
• It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.
• It encourages employees to give their best to the
• It is all about people at work, both as individuals and
• It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to
produce good results.
• It helps an organization meet its goals in the future
by providing for competent and well-motivated
• It tries to build and maintain cordial relations
between people working at various levels in the
• It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge
and inputs drawn from psychology, economics, etc.
Human Resource Management: Objectives
• help the organization reach its goals.
• ensure effective utilization and maximum
development of HRM
• ensure respect for human beings and identify and
satisfy the needs of individuals.
• achieve and maintain high morale among
• provide the organization with well-trained and well-
• increase to the fullest the employee's job
satisfaction and self-actualization.
• develop and maintain a quality of work life.
• develop overall personality of each employee in its
• enhance employee's capabilities to perform the
• inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and
Human Resource Management: Functions
In order to achieve the above objectives, Human
Resource Management undertakes the following
1.Human resource or manpower planning.
2. Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel.
3. Training and development of employees.
4. Appraisal of performance of employees.
5. Taking corrective steps such as transfer from
one job to another.
6. Remuneration of employee.
7. Social security and welfare of employees.
8. Setting general and specific management
policy for organizational Relationship.
9. Collective bargaining, contract
negotiation and grievance handling.
10. Staffing the organization.
11. Aiding in the self-development of
employees at all levels.
12. Developing and maintaining motivation for
workers by providing incentives.
13. Reviewing and auditing manpower management
in the organization
14. Potential Appraisal, Feedback Counseling.
15. Role Analysis for job occupants.
16. Job Rotation.
17. Quality Circle, Organization development and
Quality of Working Life.
The scope of HRM
• Personnel aspect
• Welfare aspect
• Industrial relations aspect
VARIOUS OPERATIVE HR PROCESSES:
•Job Design (JD)
- Job description
- Job specification
JOB DESIGN (JD)
JD can be defined as the function of arranging tasks duties and
responsibilities in to an organizational unit of work for the
purpose of accomplishing a certain objective.
Techniques of job design
Scientific Techniques: observing past performances.
Job Enlargement: Adding more duties to a job(Horizontal Loading)
Job Rotation: Shifting from one job to another periodically
Job enrichment: increasing authority and responsibility for planning
Group Technique: job designed so that a group of individuals can
This includes the systematic analysis of the job and the
characteristics of the desired job holders. The information
collected through a Job Analysis is of three forms;
Describes tasks, responsibilities and service conditions
requirements, abilities, educational qualifications, special
Personal specification: needed to perform the job effectively.
Physical and mental skills, training, experience.
Human Resource Planning
Program to Meet
• We have found the gap, how do we fill this
• How much time should we spend on
identifying the right person?
• Lets follow the trail of what it takes to hire a
new team member in an organization.
• HR planning is a continuous activity in any
organization because people come and go.
• As estimation of the future requirements of
manpower in a hospital, department wise, by
specialization, by grade, etc. is made by
applying many simple and complex statistical
•Employee turnover index
= number leaving in year / average number employed x 100
= number of man hours lost / total possible men hours
worked x 100
•Employee stability index
= number of employee exceeding one year’s service/number
of employee employed one year x 100
•Accidents index of frequency
= number of lost time accidents/number of man hour worked
*100,000 is the number of working hours in average working
• Process of locating,
identifying, and attracting
• Can be for current or future
• Critical activity for some
• What sources do we use for
Job posting Advertising
Intranet Job Placement Agencies
Succession plans Internet
Colleges and Universities
• It is a systematic
process of selecting
suitable person to
a particular job.
In other words,
Selection is choosing
an individual to hire
from all those who
have been recruited/
Methods of Selection
• Application Evaluation: choosing the most appropriate
person through evaluating the applications
• Interviews: this is to face a meeting with a member/s
of the management.
E.g.: One on one interviews, Panel interviews,
• Tests: E.g.: Knowledge Tests, Aptitude Tests, Practical
Tests, and IQ Tests.
• Background Investigations: assessing the
appropriateness of an applicant by investigating into
his/her family, financial positions, Residential
Background, criminal background etc.
• Medical Tests
The Effectiveness of Interviews
• Prior knowledge about an applicant
• Attitude of the interviewer
• The order of the interview
• Negative information
• The first five minutes
• The content of the interview
• The validity of the interview
• Structured versus unstructured interviews
Common Types of Interviews
– Most Latitude
– Questions are open ended
– This can get you into trouble
• Behavioral Description
– As about a situation you have experienced.
process of appointing the person selected for a
• letters of appointments will be prepared,
• employment contracts will be signed
• new employee will be sent in for a probationary
period. (Probationary period: the time period
where the newly appointed employee will have
to work till he/she is made permanent)
introducing an employee to the company, job and
staff in a systematic way.
• This is the last in the series of activities
• Ensures that the selection of the right man for
the right job, as a principle, is followed
• incumbents need to be put through an
intensive training programme in various
• This helps in proper placement
C) Development of human resources
•Training and Development
(E) Management of industrial relations
• Integration of management practices that
includes a formal review of employee
–How often should this take place?
• Includes establishing performance standards
and reviewing the performance
• Means to ensure organizational goals are
If Performance Falls Short
• Coach and develop
• Out the Door
What deficiencies, if any,
does job holder have in
terms of skills, knowledge,
abilities, and behaviours?
What behaviours are
Is there a
goals of the
What tasks must
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
• Training is the act of increasing the knowledge
and skills of an employee, for doing a
• It is necessary
-to improve and maintain standards
-develop necessary attitude in trainees
-equips the trainee with skills and knowledge
- enhance efficiency to achieve targets.
• PRE ENTRY TRAINING
• ORIENTATION TRAINING
• POST ENTRY TRAINING
• IN SERVICE EDUCATION
• FORMAL AND INFORMAL TRAINING
Kinds of training
Advantages of training
• Training develops employees versatility
• It reduces the waste and spoilage
• It improves the efficiency
• It brings confidence in employees
• It improves quality if work
• Training enables employee to adjust according
to changed situations
• It reduces supervisory burden
• Process of
effective pay structure
• Designed to attract
• Provide an incentive
to work hard
• Structured to ensure
that pay levels are
perceived as fair
Factors That Influence Compensation
Kind of job
(F) Maintenance of human
• Welfare Administration
• Health and safety
(G) Integration of human
• Building morale
• Indirect financial rewards
• Designed to enrich employees’ lives
• Vary widely in scope
• Costs range from 30% to 40% of payroll costs
Health and Safety
• Employers are responsible for ensuring a
healthy and safe work environment
• Employees are required for follow instructions
and any legal requirements
• Workplace violence is a growing concern
• Relationship between union and employer
• Union functions as the voice of employees
• Collective bargaining is a process to negotiate terms
and conditions of employment
• Bargaining produces a written document called a
(G) Integration of human resource
• Building morale
CATEGORIES OF NURSING
PERSONNEL INCLUDING JOB
DESCRIPTION OF ALL LEVELS
CRITERIA ESSENTIAL DESIRABLE
Knowledge of needs of patients
with long-term conditions
Aware of accountability of own
role and other roles in a nurse
Knowledge of health promotion
Awareness of clinical
governance issues in primary
Knowledge of patient group
directions and associated policy
Ability to identify determinants
on health in the local area
Knowledge of public health
issues in the local area
Awareness of local and national
Awareness of issues within the
wider health economy
Clinical skills –
care, minor surgery
and ability to
support patients to
skills, both written
to patients and
Gets on well with
people at all levels
Ability to work core
Flexibility for cover
Membership of a
Positive role model
• Most of the hospital today is following the S.I.U.(
staff inspection unit) norms. In this the post of
the Nursing Sisters and the Staff Nurses has been
clubbed together and the work of the ward sister
is remained same as staff nurse even after
• It is recommended that 45% posts added for the
area of 365 days working including 10% leave
reserve (maternity leave, earned leave, and days
off as nurses are entitled for 8 days off per month
and 3 National Holidays per year when doing 3
1. General Ward
2. Special Ward - (
pediatrics, burns, neuro
surgery, cardio thoracic,
neuro medicine, nursing
home, spinal injury,
emergency wards attached
3. Nursery 1:2
4. I.C.U. 1:1(Nothing mentioned
about the shifts)
5. Labour Room 1:l per table
6. O.T. Major - 1 :2 per table
Minor - 1:l per table
a. Casualty main
attendance up to 100
patients per day thereafter
b.for every additional
attendance of 35 patients
c. gynae/ obstetric
d. thereafter every
additional attendance of 15
3 staff nurses for 24 hours,
·3 staff nurses for 24 hours,
NAME OF THE DEPARTMENT
· Blood bank
· Pre anaesthetic
· Cardio lab
· Bronchoscopy lab
· Vaccination anti rabis
· Family planning
· Central sample collection centre
· V D centre
The norms are based on Hospital Beds.
•Chief Nursing Officer :1 per 500 beds
•Nursing Superintendent :1 per 400 beds or above
•D.NS. :1 per 300 beds and 1 additional for evcry 200
•A.N.S. :1 for 100-150 beds or 3-4 wards
•Ward Sister :1 for 25-30 beds or one ward. 30% leave
•Staff Nurse :1 for 3 beds in Teaching Hospital in general
ward& 1 for 5 beds in Non-teaching Hospital +30% Leave
•Extra Nursing staff to be provided for departmental research
•For OPD and Emergency :1 staff nurse for 100 patients (1 :
100 ) + 30% leave reserve
•For Intensive Care unit: (I.C.U.)- 1:l or (1:3 for each shift )
+30% leave reserve.
•It is suggested that for 250 beded hospital there should be One
Infection Control Nurse (ICN).