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Technology and innovation


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Technology and innovation

  1. 1. Technology and Innovation By: Jose Fung
  2. 2. IntroductionThe human species use of technology began with theconversion of natural resources into simple tools.The prehistorical discovery of the ability to controlfire increased the available sources of food and theinvention of the wheel helped humans in travelling inand controlling their environment.
  3. 3. What is technology?Technology is the making, modification, usage, andknowledge of tools, machines,techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization,in order to solve a problem, improve a preexistingsolution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform aspecific function.
  4. 4. What is technology?It can also refer to the collection of suchtools, machinery, modifications, arrangements andprocedures. Technologies significantly affect humanas well as other animal species ability to control andadapt to their natural environments.
  5. 5. What is the meaning of the word?The word technology comes fromGreek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē),meaning "art, skill, craft", and -λογία (-logía), meaning"study of-". The term can either be applied generally orto specific areas: examples include constructiontechnology, medical technology, and informationtechnology.
  6. 6. Technological DevelopmentsRecent technological developments, includingthe printing press, the telephone, andthe Internet, have lessened physical barriersto communication and allowed humans to interactfreely on a global scale.
  7. 7. Technological DevelopmentsHowever, not all technology has been used forpeaceful purposes; the development of weapons ofever-increasing destructive power has progressedthroughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
  8. 8. Can the technologies solve real-world problems?Technology can be most broadly defined as theentities, both material and immaterial, created by theapplication of mental and physical effort in order toachieve some value. In this usage, technology refersto tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems.
  9. 9. Science, engineering and technologyThe distinction between science, engineering andtechnology is not always clear. Science isthe reasoned investigation or study ofphenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principlesamong elements of the phenomenal world byemploying formal techniques such as the scientificmethod. Technologies are not usually exclusivelyproducts of science, because they have to satisfyrequirements such as utility, usability and safety.
  10. 10. Science, engineering and technologyEngineering is the goal-oriented process of designingand making tools and systems to exploit naturalphenomena for practical human means, often (butnot always) using results and techniques from science.The development of technology may draw uponmany fields of knowledge, including scientific,engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historicalknowledge, to achieve some practical result.
  11. 11. Science, engineering and technologyTechnology is often a consequence of science andengineering — although technology as a humanactivity precedes the two fields. For example, sciencemight study the flow of electrons in electricalconductors, by using already-existing tools andknowledge. This new-found knowledge may then beused by engineers to create new tools andmachines, such as semiconductors, computers, andother forms of advanced technology. In thissense, scientists and engineers may both beconsidered technologists; the three fields are oftenconsidered as one for the purposes of research andreference.
  12. 12. What is Innovation?Innovation is the development of new customersvalue through solutions that meet new needs,inarticulate needs, or old customer and market needsin new ways. This is accomplished through different ormoreeffective products, processes, services, technologies,or ideas that are readily availableto markets, governments, and society.
  13. 13. Sources of innovationThere are several sources of innovation. Accordingto Peter F. Drucker the general sources of innovationsare different changes in industry structure, in marketstructure, in local and global demographics, in humanperception, mood and meaning, in the amount ofalready available scientific knowledge, etc.
  14. 14. Sources of innovationAlso, internet research, developing of people skills,language development, cultural background, skype,Facebook, etc. In the simplest linear model ofinnovation the traditionally recognized sourceis manufacturer innovation. This is where an agent(person or business) innovates in order to sell theinnovation. Another source of innovation, only nowbecoming widely recognized, is end-user innovation.This is where an agent (person or company) developsan innovation for their own (personal or in-house) usebecause existing products do not meet their needs.
  15. 15. Sources of innovationIn addition, the famous robotics engineer Joseph F.Engelberger asserts that innovations require only threethings: 1. A recognized need.2. Competent people with relevant technology.3. Financial support.
  16. 16. DiffusionOnce innovation occurs, innovations may be spreadfrom the innovator to other individuals and groups. Thisprocess has been proposed that the life cycle ofinnovations can be described using the s-curveor diffusion curve. The s-curve maps growth ofrevenue or productivity against time. In the earlystage of a particular innovation, growth is relativelyslow as the new product establishes itself.
  17. 17. Diffusion
  18. 18. Smartphones
  19. 19. Technology Power Users
  20. 20. Thanks…