Islamic Art


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A Report by Jose Radin L. Garduque
in MAT Soc. Sci. class of Prof. Jonathan Adjijil in Filamer Christian University, Roxas City (First Semester, A.Y. 2013-2014)

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Islamic Art

  1. 1. Islamic Art
  2. 2. Islamic Art: • Historical Context • Aesthetic Consideration • Spiritual Motif • Visual Arts (Painting…) • Architecture • Literature • Theater/Drama • Music • Dance
  3. 3. Islamic Art: Historical Context Islamic Art emerged in 610 A.D. It started in Saudi Arabia and flourished throughout West Asia, North Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia and some parts of Europe. It evolved from Roman, Early Christian, Byzantine, Coptic, Sassanian/Persian, Central Asian, Chinese and Indian influences.
  4. 4. Islamic Art: Historical Context Religious and civic architecture were developed under the Ummayad Dynasty (661-750 A.D.) The Dome of the Rock was constructed in Jerusalem during this period. Abd alMalik introduced a standard coinage that featured Arabic inscriptions, instead of images of monarchs.
  5. 5. Islamic Art: Historical Context Calligraphy began to be used in surface decoration of pottery during the Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 A.D.). Magnificent palaces were built in Spain during the 1300s. Turkish carpets and the use of crescent as the symbol of Islam became dominant during the Ottoman Empire (1300s – 1900s). Nowadays, the carpet industry remains at large!
  6. 6. Islamic Art: Aesthetic Consideration The beauty and uniqueness of Islamic Art outshines in calligraphic designs found in paintings, pottery, textiles/carpets, sculpture and architecture. Such calligraphy are mainly derived from Quranic verses. Other inscriptions include verse of poetry, records of ownership and donation.
  7. 7. Islamic Art: Aesthetic Consideration For most of the Islamic period, majority of coins only showed letterings. No Islamic product has become better known outside the Islamic world than the carpet, more commonly referred to as oriental carpet/rug. Its beauty is emphasized by calligraphic, geometric/batik, landscape & arabesque designs.
  8. 8. Islamic Art: Aesthetic Consideration In painting, Chinese influence include the adoption of bird’s eye view of hilly landscapes or palace buildings. Calligraphy in Islamic pottery were also influenced by the Chinese. When it comes to architecture, the trademark of an Islamic structure includes horseshoeshaped archs and onionshaped domes.
  9. 9. Islamic Art: Spiritual Motif Islamic art is not at all restricted to religious art, but includes all the art of rich & varied cultures of Islamic societies as well. It may include secular elements that are frowned upon by Muslim theologians who are mostly iconoclasts.
  10. 10. Islamic Art: Spiritual Motif Although figurative paintings like depictions of the Prophet Muhammad exist, it is strictly prohibited in Islamic establishments like Mosques. The use of human and animal figures in Islamic art is feared by many Muslims because it can be considered as idolatry.
  11. 11. Islamic Art: Spiritual Motif That is why Islamic Art has focused on calligraphy and arabesque. Arabesque is a form of Islamic art that uses geometrical, floral or vegetal designs in a repetition. It symbolizes the transcendent, indivisible & infinite nature of God. Mistakes in repetitions maybe intentional to prove that only God can show perfection.
  12. 12. Islamic Art: Visual Arts (Painting, Sculpture, Tapestry) Pisa Griffin – largest surviving bronze animal sculpture in Spain
  13. 13. Islamic Art: Visual Arts (Painting, Sculpture, Tapestry) Jami Al-Tawarikh – an artist who created a painting of Muhammad lifting the black stone to the Kaaba
  14. 14. Islamic Art: Visual Arts (Painting, Sculpture, Tapestry) Kiswa – embroidered covering of the Kaaba with expensive and exquisite calligraphy (Quranic texts)
  15. 15. Islamic Art: Architecture Kaaba – located in Al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, it is a cubed-shaped building to which Muslims face during prayers and worship.
  16. 16. Islamic Art: Architecture Al-Masjid al-Haram – the most sacred mosque in Islam built around the Kaaba
  17. 17. Islamic Art: Architecture mosque/masjid – place of Islamic worship, equivalent to church/cathedral
  18. 18. Islamic Art: Architecture minaret – slender tower where the muezzin performs the Islamic call to prayer (adhan/azan)
  19. 19. Islamic Art: Architecture ablution facilities – include fountains/faucets where Muslims wash themselves and shoe shelves/racks where they place their footwear before entering the mosque
  20. 20. Islamic Art: Architecture musallah – the prayer hall inside the mosque where Muslims perform their prayers, worshipping and listening to sermons
  21. 21. Islamic Art: Architecture qibla wall – set perpendicular to the location of Kaaba in Mecca so Muslims face it during worship & prayer
  22. 22. Islamic Art: Architecture mihrab – a niche at the center of qibla wall indicating the direction of Mecca
  23. 23. Islamic Art: Architecture minbar – pulpit for the speaker of sermon
  24. 24. Islamic Art: Architecture Quba Mosque – oldest Mosque located in Medina
  25. 25. Islamic Art: Architecture Dome of the Rock – mosque in Jerusalem where Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven
  26. 26. Islamic Art: Architecture Hagia Sophia – cathedral converted into mosque in Turkey
  27. 27. Islamic Art: Architecture Great Mosque of Cordoba – mosque converted into church in Spain
  28. 28. Islamic Art: Architecture Great Mosque of Xian – first mosque in China established during the Tang Dynasty
  29. 29. Islamic Art: Architecture Taj Mahal – great Islamic tomb in India
  30. 30. Islamic Art: Architecture Sehan – Islamic courtyard/garden adjacent to some mosque, a representation of paradise
  31. 31. Islamic Art: Literature Quran/Koran – holiest book of Islam, believed to be the word of God revealed by Archangel Gabriel to Muhammad for a period of 23 years (609 632 A.D.)
  32. 32. Islamic Art: Literature Surah – Chapters of the Quran
  33. 33. Islamic Art: Literature Bismillah – “In the Name of Allah/God,” an opening phrase of every Surah
  34. 34. Islamic Art: Literature Hadith – book that contains the life and sayings of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
  35. 35. Islamic Art: Literature Shahadah – the first pillar of Islam wherein a believer declares “La Illaha ill Allah, Muhamadar Rasul Allah” (There is no god but God, Muhammad is the Prophet of God)
  36. 36. Islamic Art: Literature Arabian Nights (A Thousand and One Nights) – compilation of folk tales by Persian Queen Scheherazade
  37. 37. Islamic Art: Literature Shanameh – national epic of Iran written by Ferdawsi
  38. 38. Islamic Art: Literature Hay ibn Yagdhan – first fictional Arabic novel written by Ibn Tufail
  39. 39. Islamic Art: Literature adhan/azan – the Islamic “Call to Prayer”
  40. 40. Islamic Art: Theater/Drama Moro-Moro – depicts battle between Muslims and Christians
  41. 41. Islamic Art: Theater/Drama Tazieh – portrays martyrdom of Imam Hussein
  42. 42. Islamic Art: Music *Some Muslims believe that only vocal music is permissible (halal) and that instruments are forbidden (haram), but other Muslims contend that instruments are lawful – like daff, zarb, rebab, etc.
  43. 43. Islamic Art: Music Hamd – song in praise of Allah
  44. 44. Islamic Art: Music Naat – a song in praise of Muhammad
  45. 45. Islamic Art: Music Nasheed – traditional religious song (e.g. Talaal Badru Alayna, a 1400 year old nasheed sung by the people of Medina upon the prophet’s arrival to their city)
  46. 46. Islamic Art: Dance Singkil - this dance takes its name from the bells worn on the ankles of the Muslim princess. Perhaps one of the oldest of truly Filipino dances, the Singkil recounts the epic legend of the "Darangan" of the Maranao people of Mindanao.
  47. 47. Islamic Art: Dance Vinta - Also called Pangalay ha Pattong, this dance is named for the picturesque boat with colorful sails which glide across the Sulu Sea. Central to this dance are the Royal Couple who each balance atop a pair of swaying bamboo poles, simulating their ride aboard a vinta.
  48. 48. Islamic Art: Dance Katsudorotan - depicts a royal manner of "walking" among the Maranao people who live mainly around Lake Lanao. Ladies of the royal court perform this stately dance in preparation for an important event. The bright colors and flowing handkerchiefs add to the drama of the dance.
  49. 49. Islamic Art: Dance Sema - performed by dervishes (equivalent to monks) by whirling their bodies to repetitive circles as symbolic imitation of the planets in the solar system
  50. 50. Islamic Art: Music Dhikr/Zikr – worship dance of Sufi Muslims
  51. 51. Islamic Art A Report by Jose Radin L. Garduque in MAT Soc. Sci. class of Prof. Jonathan Adjijil in Filamer Christian University, Roxas City (First Semester, A.Y. 2013-2014)
  52. 52. Salam!