This chapter presents selected case experiences of Western colonization, imperialism and incursions in Asia & the rise of the new nation states.
Marco Polo- whose travels are recorded in livre des Mervilles du Monde, a book which did much introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. Manifest destiny-a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable(certain to happen)(as if granted by God)White man’s burden-the alleged duty of the white people to manage the affairs of the less developed non white people
Colonization is more related to establishing trade posts for the purpose of business and profit making and was undertaken by the European states in Asia in the 1500 to the 1900 centuries.From colonization to imperialism: the industrial revolution starting in the 2nd half of the 18th century. led to large increase in economic activity in Europe and ultimately resulted in high demand for raw materials as well as a need for markets to sell finished products. Together with increasing competition and tensions among these colonizing countries this resulted in a greater need for control of the colonized arean and a need for dominion building.(sovereignty or control)
What made this colonization by European countries possible?- the discovery of new sea/trade routes to Asia. (Initially by the Portuguese).- all these colonizing countries (Portugal, Spain, Britain, Germany, Netherlands, France), had strongly developed economies, advanced technology, military power with more advanced weaponry and most of all they were all seafaring nations.
1.) Exploitation of Natural and Human Resources. This resulted in deterioration of living standard( becoming and getting worst) and unequal distribution of wealth.2.) Forced Labor. It prevented formal education of the people and forced separation from their families.3.) Monopolistic Economic Policies. Allowing only British (the exclusive possession or control of the supply of or trade.4.) Curtailment of Rights and Freedom. These led to ignorance, illiteracy and limited education5.) Racial and Gender Discrimination. These resulted to injustices and abuse of human rights.
Nationalism- is the sense of nationhood or a state of awakened national consciousness. Nation- is an abstract and racial concept defined as a group of people with a feeling of onenss and belongingness bounded by recognized commonalities.
1. Suez Canal Opening. Nov. 17, 1869. influx of foreign influences &development of outside awareness.2. World Trade. Enable natives to improve their economic status.3. Intellectual Revolution. The rise of intellectuals &professionals among the natives became leaders of change.4. Liberalization. Introduction&exposure to European liberal policies had opened the way to socio-political&economic ideas that reflect the negative aspects of colonial policies.5. Racial Discrimination. The inferior recognition and treatment of the natives made them develop a sense of pride and aspire for recognition, eventually making their own identity.
British Rule In India
In taking up the “White mans’ Burden”, the primary goal of the British system of education in India was to produce a class of English speaking Indians inclined to British ideals.
Mutiny-(an open rebellion against the proper authorities, especially by soldiers against their officer.Reformist- a person who advocates gradual reform rather than revolutionReform-make changes in (something, especially an institution or practice) in order to improve itDeter insurgency- to discouraged those fighting against government
Reformist- a person who advocates gradual reform rather than revolutionHe advocated “satyagraha” or nonviolent resistance. Vindication (show or prove to be right) of truth, not by infliction of suffering on the opponent, but on oneself.Famous for his quote “ An eye for an eye makes the world blind”
The motivation for British intrusion in Malacca was to balance the colonization of the region by the Dutch & to establish & protect trade routes to East Asia &China, by securing the Strait of Malacca (throughway route going to China) and a number of naval bases and trade facilities.
He led the commercial development of the Island by promoting free trade.
Malayan Union is in view of a common citizenship in a new unitary state. Britain was preparing for the future granting of independence to a Malayan Union. Malayan Union was opposed by the ethnic Malays on the issue of common citizenship that would also apply to the ethic Chinese inhabitants. The issue was a major concern for the ethic Malay since the number of ethnic chinese was larger. The ethnic Malay believed that they should have the stake(ownership) on an independent Malaya since they were the original native inhabitants of the territory. Extending common citizenship to the chinese would mean a state largely dominated by the chinese.
Moluccas(Spice Island) was administered at 1st by the East India Company, a commercial agent of the Dutch government until the government took over admininistration.Other natives were compelled to cultivate certain lands by rendering a period of forced labor.Subsequently, a “Liberal policy” allowed Europeans to own real estate and invest in agricultural lands. Eventually because of the natives substandard living conditions, an “Ethical Policy” was adopted to promote the welfare of the people.
Indonesia’s intellectuals who had the privilege of Dutch education too the lead in the advance of a nationalist cause.
In a French response to the persecution of their Catholic missionaries in Vietnam.The French developed an ideology to justify their imperial domination: the ‘civilising mission, is a form of the English ‘white man’s burden’. French imperialists claimed it was their responsibility to colonise undeveloped regions in Africa and Asia, to introduce modern political ideas, social reforms, industrial methods and new technologies. In reality, the mission civilisatrice was a sham. The real motive for French colonialism was profit and economic exploitation. French imperialism was driven by the demand for resources, raw materials and cheap labour.
44 yrs. After the 1st arrival of Spaniards in the philippines, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi founded the 1st Spanish Colony at Cebu in 1565. The capital was moved to Manila in 1571.Spain introduce an “encomienda system” which entrusted parcels of land to certain Spaniards to develop the land and exercise some control over the inhabitants of the land. The system alongside the Catholic church’s resettlement plan was a scheme to lead the inhabitants to their submission to the government and church authority.Male natives were drafted to render “polo y servicio” or a period of forced labor in government projects. Trade monopolies were conducted by the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade and the (Royal Philippine Company), a charter or the Spanish government.
At 1st , Filipino intellects played an active role in the Propaganda Movement
Treaty of Paris or Peace of Paris was the signing on Great Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, US as agreement to stop the war.The proclamation reads in part:Finally, it should be the earnest wish and paramount aim of the military administration to win the confidence, respect, and affection of the inhabitants of the Philippines by assuring them in every possible way that full measure of individual rights and liberties which is the heritage of free peoples, and by proving to them that the mission of the United States is one of benevolent assimilation substituting the mild sway of justice and right for arbitrary rule
Foreign incursion into China by the British, France, Russia, the US, Portugal and the NetherlandsBritain was basically the biggest intruder. The British imperialism was fueled by the industrial revolution and population increase.There was high demand in Britain for trade in silk, tea, and porcelain from China. This largely paid for in silver bullion and resulted in a major trade deficit between China and Britain. Britain then replaced payments in silver by barter trade in opium and created generation of Addicts in China.___________________________________________Like a weakened prey down on its legs, Chinawa being “carved up’ for the taking. China was forced to give concessions which opened the country to more western opportunist and foreign governments using coercion( the action of persuading someone by using force or treat) in their interest.
The Chinese responded to the call by indiscriminately assaulting all foreigners into frightening them to leave China. The governments of the foreigners responded by force compelling China to yield.
Nationalism- patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.Democracy -a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives:Socialism- a political and economic theory of social organization which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.Abdicate - renounce one's throne:
The daimyo-were the powerful territorial lords in pre-modern Japan who ruled most of the country from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, "dai” literally means "large", and "myō" stands for meaning private land.The Emperor placed Japan on thepathe of rapid modernization by adopting Western ideas and systems with the inputs of hired foreign experts in different areas of specialization. By adopting western advanced technologies, japan became a modern competitor and state with a a well developed industrial sector and a strong military, combined with wishes and need for expansionism. Japan was never colonized or victim of western imperialism but instead became an imperialist country itself, conquering Korea, manchuria and during the second world war, much of south east asia.
Vi. east&west in a world civi.
Presented By: JosephineV. Hanrath
Marco Polo - Italian merchant
Asia “land of opportunities & luxuries”
They saw themselves as rulers in their “manifest
destiny” and as missionaries taking on the “white man’s
The Emperialist Approach
1.) Divide and Conquer. Took advantage of the political
conflicts, manipulate local rulers.
2.) Enculturation. Adapt Western Culture (thru
3.) Cross. Convert Christian religion
4.) Sword. Control by military conquest.
Colonial Policies and
1.) Exploitation of Natural and Human Resources
2.) Forced Labor
3.) Monopolistic Economic Policies
4.) Curtailment of Rights and Freedom
5.) Racial and Gender Discrimination
European Colonization also brought in
The Propagation of Christianity
The consolidation and delimitation of territorial boundaries
And the development of Nationalism (would not have been
possible without colonization)
Nationalist & the Indian National
The development of nationalism in the
region can be attributed to the ff.
circumstances & Events:
1. ) Suez Canal Opening. Nov. 17, 1869. influx of foreign influences
&development of outside awareness.
2..) World Trade. Enable natives to improve their economic status.
3. ) Intellectual Revolution. The rise of intellectuals &professionals
among the natives became leaders of change.
4.) Liberalization. Introduction & exposure to European liberal
5.) Racial Discrimination. The treatment of the natives made them
In 1858, British government
ruled India directly with
proclaimed as “ Empress
Sepoy- counter-part soldier were
the 1st to resist their British
oppressor in the “Sepoy mutiny”
in May 10, 1857.
Nationalist causes took stride w/
Indian reformist & protests by
boycotts & civil disobedience led by
Rowlatt Act of 1919- anti-
sedition law (to deter insurgency by
curtailing many civil liberties &
imprisoning suspected instigators).
Mohandas Gandhi (reformist-lawyer)
Was the prime moving
spirit of the Nationalist
cause and the Indian
National Congress w/c had
the agenda for
The granting of Indian Independence was thought to be Britain’s
graceful exit from the negative publicity it received from the
Dharasana salt factory incident.
Web Miller- American journalist
August 15, 1947- Indian Independence
India was partitioned on August 14, 1947 w/ the inception of a
new state of Pakistan for the Muslim.
Both Jinnah&Gandhi became the “father of Independence”
for their respective nation.
British Rule in Malacca
1786, Francis Light established the 1st British colony of
Georgetown in Penang, Malacca, now Malaysia
1819,Thomas Stamford Raffles became the 1st European
British, explored what is now island of Singapore
Francis Light Thomas Stamford Raffles
Transition to Independence
Malayan Union April 1, 1946 was
made by the British
United Malays National
Organization (UMNO) was formed by
Onn Jaafar in a reaction to the
The British replaced the Malayan Union
with the Federation of Malaya on
February 1, 1948
Malayan Independence on Aug. 31,
Sabah, Sarawak,&Singapore joined the
federation to form Malaysia on Sept
In 1619, 1st Dutch colony was established by Jan Pieterzoon
Coen in Batavia w/c is now Jakarta in Indonesia.
Moluccas (Spice Island) was administered at 1st by the East
In Lieu of land taxes, the Dutch government introduced a
“Cultivation System” w/c required native farmers to devote
one-fifth of their land for export crops.
The 1st Nationalist organization, the “Budi Utomo”
(Noble Endeavor) was organized Wahidin
Sudirohusodo on May 20, 1908.
The date has been designated as a “Day of National
2 Leading activist, Ahmed Sukarno and
Mohammad Hatta founded the Partai
Nasional Indonesia (PNI)
Declared Indonesian Independence on
August 17, 1945 with Sukarno President
and HattaVice President.
Netherlands only recognized Indonesian
independence on December 27, 1949
French Rule in Indo-China
Saigon was invaded on
Feb. 17, 1859 by order of
the French King
The French then pursued
expansionist policy that in
consolidated under what
was called Indochine
Spanish Rule in the Philippines
Miguel Lopez de
Legaspi founded the 1st
Spanish Colony at Cebu in
entrusted parcel of land to
Polo y servicio, or a
period of forced labor in
Resistance to Spanish
“Propaganda Movement” from 1880 to 1895 w/ Jose Rizal
as one of its prominent active and influential members.
He was executed on Dec. 30, 1896 & recognized later as
“National Hero” of the Philippines and the “Pride of the
The Philippine Revolution led by Andres Bonifacio broke-out on
Aug. 26, 1896 & ended in Emiilio Aguinaldo’s declaration of
Philippine independence on June 12, 1898
US in a war against Spain.
By virtue of “Treaty of Paris”, Spain ceded the Philippines to the
US after 333 yrs. of rule in the country.
US President William McKinley proclaimed his so called
“Benevolent Assimilation” to justify US occupation in the
disguise of American design for the country.
Nov. 15, 1945, inauguration of Commonwealth government&
initiation of the 1st Filipino President in the country.
Nationalista Party succeeded in securing from the US Congress.
July 4, 1946, definite date for Philippine Independence.
Foreign Incursions in China
To overcome their trade deficit&
intentionally flooded the market
w/opium to ensure the demand from
Around 2,000 tons of opium was
being exported to China yearly &
addiction reaching 10million
British insistence to continue
exporting opium into China against
Chinese government prohibition led
to the so-called “Opium Wars”,
ending w/ China’s defeat.
Anti-foreign sentiments heightened in the
“Boxer Rebellion” instigated by the Chinese
The Empress called upon the Chinese people to
expel all foreigners from China.
Nationalist Physician Dr. Sun Yat Sen (1866-1925)
founded the Nationalist party “Koumintang”
(KMT) & led the nationalist revolution against the
Manchu dynasty on Oct. 10, 1911.
His revolution was based on the “Three Principles
of the people”: (1) Nationalisms, (2)
Democracy and (3) Socialism.
The boy Emperor Pu-yi was forced to abdicate on
Feb. 12, 1912, ending the dynasty rule in China in
place of a republic.
Foreign Incursion in Japan
Japan seclusion period ended on
July, 1853 when the US navy led
by Mathew Perry forced open
Japan’s port to world trade.
The daimyos were dismayed w/
the dictatorship govt. for its weak
response to foreign incursions, the
dictator was forced by the daimyos
Imperial rule was fully restored on
January 3, 1868 to the
The process of colonization’s seems to follow a pattern where the
European countries start out by looking for strategic trading post in
Asia, followed by expansion of their activities to such a level that they
need increasing control over the territory for business and trade, for
some colonizers combined with their policy to impose their culture and
conversion to their religion/Christianity.The need for more control
then leads to imperialism/building dominion and state control often
with violence and military intervention, repression of the local
population, causing exploitation, depletion of raw materials, forced
labor and disrupting local culture, local economy, creating local
poverty.This evokes resentment among the local population and the
birth of nationalism and the cry for independence, which in the end the
colonizers can no longer control.