Viewing is a process that supports oracy and literacy, and is a part of an integrated language arts program.
Viewing: understanding visualimages and connectingthem to accompanyingspoken or written words. What can you see?
It involves interpreting the images for which words stand and connecting visual images in videos, computer programs, and websites with What can you determine accompanying about the weather? printed or spoken words.
VIEWING enhances listening skills when students attend to nonverbal communication and visual elements of performance, video, television, film, and multimedia presentations. enhances reading when students attend to visuals accompanying print (e.g., charts, diagrams, illustrations); specific textual techniques (e.g., layout, colour, symbols); and the assumptions, perspectives, and quality of a variety of media (e.g., photos, plays, video).
Viewing was not a skill that was taught untilrecently• Students can learn to “read” the pictures, the diagrams, and the tables, maps and charts.• These skills will provide them with increased information about the material.• Many materials today can not be accurately interpreted without the graphics.• Many books relate stories that are incomplete without the pictures
Visually Representing in the Classroom• There are many • ways to represent ideas visually. • – Presentation can be done by • Drawing • Photographs • Formatting information with a word processing program • Video • Multimedia • WebPages – and web based correspondence
Understands and Interprets The student understands and interprets visual images messages, and meanings (visual representation) analyzes and Critiques The student analyzes and critiques the significance of visual images, messages, and meanings
1. Start by asking students to look quietly for a moment at the work of art.2. Begin the discussion with questions that allow students to make multiple observations and interpretations.3. Ask students to support their interpretations by citing evidence in the picture.
4 . Depending upon the discussion, moreleading questions can be asked.5. If introducing outside information, askstudents whether the new information affectstheir interpretations.6. Students can help summarize thediscussion.
TEACHERS ROLE Teachers should guide students in constructing meaning through creating and viewing non-print texts.The teacher serves as facilitator, focusing the discussion, recapping student observations, modeling vocabulary, and generating additional thoughts.Select and use the appropriate strategies and the language.
Beforeo Prepare to viewo Consider what they know and need to know about topic.o Formulate questions before viewingo Set purpose(s) for each type of viewingsituation
DuringO Anticipate and predict the presentations messageand meaning.O Associate what is being said with personalexperience and make connections.O Identify the key idea or main point.O Make notes to assist recall of the main idea(s)expressed or the point of the presentation.
O Determine the difference between fact andunderlying message portrayed in visuals andbetween real or imaginary imagesO Use pragmatic, textual, syntactic, semantic, graphphonic and other cues (e.g., the visual elements andtechniques used) to construct and confirm meaning
AfterO Recall and summarize main points, importantdetails, and techniques employed .O Relate what was seen to personal experience orneeds .O Analyze and evaluate what was seen (includingelements, techniques, and overall effect) (e.g., critiquea video or drama review)O Draw conclusions about the perspective and valuesfound in what was seen.
O Express and support personal reactions to andopinions of the presentationO Identify the strategies used to influence anaudience (e.g., exaggeration, one-sided view of agroup, jolts)O Seek additional information from other sources asneeded or desired.
Defining Visual Literacy•The ability to interpret the meaning ofvisual images. Giorgis (1999)•The ability to construct effectivevisuals in order to convey ideas toothers. Valmont (2003) and Heinich (1999)
Visual Literacy should begin with Picture BooksChildren need others to ask the right questions to spur on the skills of viewing.• Why do you think that was put in the picture?• What does the picture tell us?• What do you see?• What is happening?• TALK ABOUT IT!
Critical viewing Just as in reading, writing, and speaking, viewing entails giving attention to facts, relationships, inferences, and to critical analysis.
Critical viewing Viewer carefully to comprehend and evaluate information presented by television, video recordings, and other visual media .
Seeing – Thinking Activities (STAs)• Most teachers are familiar with Directed Reading Thinking Activities –DR-TAs• STAs are the same sort of activity only using visuals for the “reading”.• STAs strengthen visual literacy skills and making predictions from available information.• There are four types of STAs – Simple – Single-frame – Alternative ending – Multiple frame
Simple Seeing Thinking Activity Reveals bits of information as guesses are made. What do you think this could be?
What is happening now? What will happennext?Group discussion at this point aboutpossibilities.
Evaluate the predictions. Discuss otheralternatives.
Picture Book Studies:Select various picture books or illustrations for viewing.Through guided discussion, talk about the author or illustrators style, art work, and other interesting details.
Gallery Walks: The teacher or students construct displays or representations about various aspects of a topic. Usually a student acts as the curator at each display site and responds to any questions about the display.
Drama and Puppet Plays: presented by a professional troupe or informally staged by peers, drama and puppetry are powerful vehicles for developing students critical viewing skills.
Videos, Films, Television, CD-ROMs, and Internet to help students analyze the visual texts that students experience outside the classroom. used to extend students vocabulary and experiences help students develop lifelong critical thinking and viewing skills.
Assessment for Learning Questions Level of Viewing based on the video[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eBPo0t69bi4]
1.What did the lady ask for?o Bookso Timeo Food and drinks
2. I can tell the reaction of the librarian from:o Her body languageo Her tone of voiceo Her gestureo The words she used
3. How can you describe the librarian’sreaction?o Disapprovingo Shockedo happyo Indifferent
6. What was the intention of using ablond lady in the commercial?7. Would the humor aspect be lost iftheblond lady was replaced by:(i) dark haired a dark‐lady(ii) a (blond) male
8. What connection does thecommercial want to make between ablond lady and the Mercedes Benz car?