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  1. 1. ignatius joseph n estroga
  2. 2. so what are these?• small group of related words within a sentence or a clause• functions as a unit and includes a head (or headword), which determines the type or nature of the phrase• Cannot stand as a sentence; no subject and predicate• Adds richness and detail and sometimes acts as an overload or confusion to a sentence ignatius joseph n estroga
  3. 3. furthermore…• Cannot stand as a sentence; no subject and predicate• Adds richness and detail and sometimes acts as an overload or confusion to a sentence ignatius joseph n estroga
  4. 4. ignatius joseph n estroga
  5. 5. • Nouns are used to build noun phrases• functions as an object of a preposition, subject, direct object and an object complement.Ex. my father, the fish, a sound of music, an apple a day 1.My girlfriend is happy. (NP as a subject) 2.The boy throws the trash. (NP as direct object) 3.I call my pal a stubborn. (NP as an object complement) ignatius joseph n estroga
  6. 6. • Verbs are used to build verb phrases and acts as the predicate of the sentenceEx. teaches the student, read a novel, drink water1.Our adviser may be going away for a little while. (VP acts as the predicate of the sentence) ignatius joseph n estroga
  7. 7. • Adjectives are used to build adjectival phrases.• Adjectival phrases always occur inside noun phrases or as predicate adjectives.Ex. tall dark and handsome, black and white 1. Jeremiah bought a orange and green ] bowtie. (AP occurs inside a noun phrase) 2. The dancers were slender and graceful. (AP occur as predicate adjectives) ignatius joseph n estroga
  8. 8. • Adverbs are used to build adverbial phrases.• modify verbs, adjectives and the extra adverb is called an intensifierEx. So slowly, very much, too harshly 1. He scored the goal very quickly. (AdvP modify the verb scored in the sentence, the word very is the intensifier) ignatius joseph n estroga
  9. 9. • Prepositions are used to build prepositional phrases.• used either adjectivally to modify nouns or adverbially to modify verbs, adjectives, or clauses.Ex. on the floor, into the pool, to the audience ignatius joseph n estroga
  10. 10. 1. The man in the house rented it. (PP modifies a noun adjectivally)2. He went in the arena.(PP modifies a verb adverbially)3.Dad was happy about the goal.(PP modifies an adjective adverbially)4. On reflection, I believe that she was correct. (PP modifies a clause adverbially) ignatius joseph n estroga
  11. 11. • Gerundive phrases may function in any way in which nouns may function: as subjects, objects, objects of a preposition, or even nouns functioning as adjectives• may contain gerunds, adjectives, objects, adverbs or other main verb elements.Ex. Falling the exam, missing the chance ignatius joseph n estroga
  12. 12. 1. Dad talked about winning the game.( GP acts as the object of a preposition)2. Winning the game was his goal.(GP acts as the subject of the sentence) ignatius joseph n estroga
  13. 13. • Participles are root verbs with an "ed, en or ing" suffix. In the case of the past participial, the form may be irregular.• may contain objects and other elements that might occur with main verbs.• function as adjectivesEx. walking away, bended knees, broken-hearted fool ignatius joseph n estroga
  14. 14. 1. Racing around the corner, he slipped andfell. (ParP act as an adjective, describing thesubject of the sentence)2. The lonely caddy became flustered, scaredthat his affections for the old mans daughter would be noticed.(ParP as an adjective modifying thesubject caddy) ignatius joseph n estroga
  15. 15. • A group of words that modifies an independent clause as a whole.• An absolute is made up of a noun and its modifiers• may precede, follow, or interrupt the main clause• the subject of the absolute phrase does not have to appear in the main clause--because the absolute phrase has its own subject ignatius joseph n estroga
  16. 16. 1. Still he came on, shoulders hunched, facetwisted, wringing his hands, looking more likean old woman at a wake than an infantrycombat soldier.2. Their slender bodies sleek and black againstthe orange sky, the storks circled high aboveus.(An absolute allows us to move from adescription of a whole person, place, or thingto one aspect or part) ignatius joseph n estroga
  17. 17. • Infinitive phrases are composed of an infinitive verb (the base form of the verb preceded by to) and any modifying adverbs or prepositional phrases• has three functions: noun, adjective, adverbEx. To leave him alone, to love and be loved, to forget the times ignatius joseph n estroga
  18. 18. 1. My duty as a coach is to teach skills.(infinitive phrase functions as a noun)2.My sister wanted a cat to love. (infinitivephrase functions as an adjective)3.Bill is eager to work on his skating.(infinitive phrase functions adverbially,modifying an adjective) ignatius joseph n estroga