History of Drama


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

History of Drama

  1. 1. ignatius joseph estroga
  2. 2. TheHistory of atre ignatius joseph estroga
  3. 3. Drama-defined.1.a composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving conflict more contrast of character,especially one intended to be acted on the stage; a play.2.the art dealing with the writing and production of plays.3.any situation or series of events having vivid, emotional, conflicting, or striking interest or results: thedrama of a murder trial.4. A way of relating to the world in which a person consistentlyoverreacts to or greatly exaggerates the importance of benignevents. ignatius joseph estroga
  4. 4. TheHistory of atre ignatius joseph estroga
  5. 5. Little information about the origin of theatre has survived. Theinformation we do have comes from wall paintings, decorations,artifacts, and hieroglyphics that show the importance of successfulhunts, seasonal changes, life cycles, and stories of the gods. ignatius joseph estroga
  6. 6. From these we see thenecessity of passingalong the experiencesof the old to the youngthrough art,storytelling, anddramatizing events. Thispractice gave the youthof a culture a guide anda plan for their ownlives ignatius joseph estroga
  7. 7. Theatre emerged from myth, ritual, and ceremony. Earlysocieties perceived connections between certain actions performed bythe group or leaders in the group and the desired results of the wholesociety. These actions moved from habit, to tradition, and then on toceremony and ritual. The formulation of these actions, and theconsequent repetition and rehearsal, broke the ground for theatre. ignatius joseph estroga
  8. 8. Rituals are related to three basicconcerns: pleasure, power, and duty. Joseph Cambell ignatius joseph estroga
  9. 9. • Power- influencing and controlling events- were often the intention of rituals such as ceremonies to guarantee a successful crop or to please the gods. ignatius joseph estroga
  10. 10. • Usually societies had rituals that glorified supernatural powers, victories, and heroes. Often supernatural forms would be represented using costumes and masks. Rituals that were practiced as duty to the gods, also brought entertainment and pleasure. ignatius joseph estroga
  11. 11. • These rituals are accompanied by myths. The myths enter the storytelling tradition, gaining a life beyond the original rites. This new life allows the myths to move towards entertainment and the aesthetic. These stories now are performed for their own sake and move towards theatre. ignatius joseph estroga
  12. 12. • Through these rituals, leaders, or actors of sorts, emerged. These acting/leadership roles were often filled by elders and priests. In addition, the beginnings of acting spaces or auditoriums developed as a result of more elaborate rituals. ignatius joseph estroga
  13. 13. • "Pyramid texts" dating from 2800 to 2400 B.C., contain dramas sending the dead pharaoh off to the underworld. These dramas also the continuity of life and the pharaohs power.• Memphite Drama, recounting the story of the death and resurection of the god Osiris, and the coronation of his son Horus.• Abydos -play concerns the story of Osiris. The paramont egyptian myth, this drama was enacted at the most sacred place in Egypt, Abydos- the burial site of Osiris. . ignatius joseph estroga
  14. 14. Ancient Greeceignatius joseph estroga
  15. 15. -Began in 700 B.C. festivals honoring their many gods. -Dionysus-was honored with an unusual festival called the City Dionysia. The revelry-filled festival was led by drunken men dressed up in rough goat skins (because goats were thought sexually potent) who would sing and play in choruses to welcome Dionysus.• Tribes competed against one another in performances, and the bestshow would have the honour of winning the contest. Historians believethat the Greeks patterned their celebrations after the traditionalEgyptian pageants honouring Osiris. ignatius joseph estroga
  16. 16. • At the early Greek festivals, the actors, directors, and dramatists were all the same person.• Later, only three actors could be used in each play.• After some time, non-speaking roles were allowed to perform on-stage. Because of the limited number of actors allowed on-stage, the chorus evolved into a very active part of Greek theatre.• Though the number of people in the chorus is not clear, the chorus was given as many as one- half the total lines of the play. Music was often played during the chorus delivery of its lines. ignatius joseph estroga
  17. 17. Icarus Pyramus and Thisbe Orpheus and Eurydice• Although few tragedies written from this time actually remain, the themes and accomplishments of Greek tragedy still resonate to contemporary audiences. The term tragedy (tragos and ode) literally means "goat song," after the festival participants goat-like dancing around sacrificial goats for prizes. Most Greek tragedies are based on mythology or history and deal with characters search for the meaning of life and the nature of the gods. ignatius joseph estroga
  18. 18. Three well-known Greek tragedyplaywrights are Sophocles,Euripedes and Aeschylus, wrotesome of the oldest tragedies in theworld. ignatius joseph estroga
  19. 19. • Comedy was also an important part of ancient Greek theatre. No one is quite sure of the origins of comedy, but it is said that they derived from imitation.• All comedies of note during this time are by Aristophanes, who competed in the major Athenian festivals, wrote 40 plays, 11 of which survived--including the most controversial piece of literature to come from ancient Greece, Lysistrata, a humorous tale about a strong woman who leads a female coalition to end war in Greece ignatius joseph estroga
  20. 20. Roman and Byzantineignatius joseph estroga
  21. 21. • Roman Theatre derived from religious festivals. The Romans carnival-like festivals included acting, flute playing, dancing, and prize-fighting.• Almost all festivals used music, dance, and masks in their ceremonies.• The first Roman performance occurred in Rome around 364 B.C. The Romans have been known for using other cultures and practices and improving on them, and the same can be said of their approach to the theatre. Romans borrowed Greek and Etruscan methods in their own theatre, but made them distinctly Roman by improving and modifying those methods. ignatius joseph estroga
  22. 22. • In contrast to ancient Greece, comedy was more popular in Rome than tragedy. Titus Maccius Plautus was an extremely popular Roman comedy writer. He is attributed with 130 plays including The Braggart Warrior, The Casket and Pot of Gold.• Only three names of Roman playwrights of tragedy are known from the early times: Quintus Ennius, Marcus Pascuvius, and Lucius Accius. ignatius joseph estroga
  23. 23. • The theatre was certainly not the only form of entertainment in Rome. Roman theatrical entertainment included the popular chariot racing, horse racing, foot races, wrestling, and fights between men, or gladiators.• Venationes- fights between wild animals• Naumachiae or sea battles in which lakes were dug or amphitheatres like the Colosseum were flooded for the occasion. Christians were often the victims of the Romans thirst for blood, and many were sentenced to battle to the death in the Colosseum. ignatius joseph estroga
  24. 24. European Theatre and Drama in the Middle Ages ignatius joseph estroga
  25. 25. • After the fall of the Roman Empire, small nomadic bands travelled around performing wherever there was an audience. They consisted of storytellers, jesters, jugglers and many other performers. Later, festivals cropped up where entertainers would show their talents. However, the powerful Catholic Church made headway during the Middle Ages to stamp out such performances and convert the entertainers. ignatius joseph estroga
  26. 26. • Despite its insistence that acting and traveling performances were sinful, the Church was actually instrumental in reviving theatre in the Middle Ages. In one type of church service, called The Hours.• Bible stories were dramatized. Music often would be incorporated into ignatius joseph estroga
  27. 27. ignatius joseph estroga
  28. 28. • The man known as the greatest dramatist of all time is William Shakespeare.• He was involved in all aspects of theatre, more than any other writer of his day. Shakespeare is said to have written 38 plays – histories, tragedies and comedies- including Comedy of errors, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar and Macbeth. No writer has been more effective and powerful with the use of the language as Shakespeare.• Emotions, pride, attitudes are all incorporated into Shakespeares dramatic situation. He was effective and at the same time sensitive to needs of his audiences and actors. Although well-known during his life, Shakespeares popularity didnt flower until after his death. estroga ignatius joseph
  29. 29. • The years between 1642 and 1660 (also known as the Interregnum, or period between kings) saw very little theatrical activity in England as the Puritans worked to drive out "sinful" theatre.• A law was passed in 1642 that suspended performances for five years. After the law expired, Oliver Cromwells government passed another law declaring that all actors were to be considered rogues. Many theatres were even dismantled. ignatius joseph estroga
  30. 30. The Spanish Theatreignatius joseph estroga
  31. 31. • During the 16th & 17th centuries the Spanish Theatre flourished--with religion as its primary source. During the 16th century, Spain held a religious festival three times annually called the Corpus Christie festival which emphasized the power of the Church. At the festival, they performed plays called autos sacramentales. ignatius joseph estroga
  32. 32. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 1547. Don Quixote ignatius joseph estroga
  33. 33. • In Spain, Comedia was the word used to describe any full-length play, whether it was serious or comic. Most Comedias were divided into three acts and began with a loa, or prologue. The most well-known Spanish playwright is Lope Felix de Voga Carpio. Vega is believed to have written 800 comedies, 450 of which survived. His plays have clearly defined actions which keep the audience interested, and most of his plays deal with the theme of love and honor. ignatius joseph estroga
  34. 34. Italian Theatre and Drama ignatius joseph estroga
  35. 35. • Around 1485, Italian rulers began to finance productions of Roman plays and imitations of them. This prompted interest in rewriting Roman plays into Italian as well as the writing of new plays. One of first important vernacular tragedy was Sofonisha by Giangiorgio Trissino.• Between the 14th and 16th centuriesRenaissance Drama developed in Italy,marking an end to medieval practicesand a release of traditional Roman ways of presenting drama. ignatius joseph estroga
  36. 36. The Theatre of the Orient ignatius joseph estroga
  37. 37. • Indian drama was spoken in Sanskrit which was the most commonly spoken language in India.• Sanskrit performances were usually given on special occasions such as religious festivals, marriages, coronations, or victory celebrations. No scenery was used but the stage had painting or carvings that would have symbolic value.• Two famous Indian plays which deal with the Rasa were The Little Clay Cart by Bhasa and Sakuntala written by Kalidasa ignatius joseph estroga
  38. 38. • In Japan, three classical forms of theatre exist: Noh, Bunraku and, Kabuki.• Kabuki is a highly stylized form of theatre that employed lots of scenery and elaborate sets and costumes. Kabuki, like most oriental theatre, did not use women in its theatre performances. ignatius joseph estroga
  39. 39. • Another classical form, Bunraku, is puppet theatre. Each puppet had three operators, but only the master puppeteers face could be seen. ignatius joseph estroga
  40. 40. • The classic form of Noh, however, started as religious ritual. It had a shite, who was the lead actor, and waki, who was the sidekick or confidante of the shite. Noh theatre utilized an orchestra which had a special position on-stage, but Noh, like Kabuki, did not use women in its performances. Besides the enduring influences of its stylized classical theatre, the Japanese also introduced to the world the revolving stage, a design which is used worldwide. ignatius joseph estroga
  41. 41. The Beginnings of Modern Theatre, 1875-1915• Richard Wagner was an innovator who injected theatre with the contemporary trend toward realism, calling for many changes to take place in the theatre world. Wagner is probably best known for his concept of a new type of theatre structure--the festival theatre. He designed the structure to fulfill his ambition of a classless theatre. Famous throughout the world, the architectural design of the festival was fan- shaped, making all seats equal in sight lines, as well as equally priced. ignatius joseph estroga
  42. 42. • The theatrical evolution during this period included the emergence of the modern director. Germanys Georg II, Duke of Saxe- Meiningen was one of the most famous early modern directors. He produced plays that were the most historically accurate of the 19th century. He designed all the costumes, scenery, and properties used by his troupe. Georg also adopted the practice of long rehearsal schedules and the idea of ensemble acting. He created carefully blocked crowd scenes and family groups, which made a small number of actors seem like a large gathering.• The United States Belasco was another famous director known for creating realist plays and sets. He was also a noteworthy designer for his creation of the most modern lighting instruments of the time. Other designers were Craig who prominently featured drapery in his designs, and Appia, a Swiss designer who used three- dimensional scenery and used the stage floor as a part of his set. ignatius joseph estroga
  43. 43. • The prolific and controversial playwright Heinrich Ibsen wrote 25 plays during the late 19th century, two of which are the oft- produced A Dolls House and Hedda Gabler. Ibsen is known as the father of modern realism. His greatest talent was giving the audience background on people and situations, without making the exposition boring or obvious. His plays were very symbolic, and some of his subject matters were thought scandalous for their time. Four other plays by Ibsen are Ghosts, Peergynt, The Wild Duck, and The Master Builder. Another well-known playwright of the time was Russian comedy writer Anton Chekhov , who wrote The Seagull and The Cherry Orchard. German playwrights included Gerhart Hauptmann who wroteThe Weavers, the first play with a group protagonist. An associate of Hauptmann, Maxim Gorky, wrote The Lower Depths, which also had a working class hero. ignatius joseph estroga
  44. 44. • France also had a wealth of modern playwright talent, such as Alexandre Dumas who wrote The Demi-Monde and The Lady of the Camellias, now usually referred to as Camille, a realistic story about a "prostitute with a heart of gold." Considering himself a realist, Dumas wrote about contemporary social problems. Other noteworthy French writers included Emile Augier, who wrote Olympes Marriage and Madame Poiriers Son-in-Law; and Eugene Scribe. Scribe developed whats known as the well-made play. His plays, including A Glass of Water andMarriage for Money, had five full acts, clear exposition of situation, and logical resolutions. French theorist Emile Zola railed against Scribes concept of the well-made play. Zola wrote on two types of subjects, scientific findings and things recorded about natural life. He became famous for his novels, The Experimental Novel and Naturalism in the Theatre.• English playwrights of the time included Arthur Pinero who wrote The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith and William Butler Yeats who wrote Purgatory. The brilliant satirist George Bernard Shawwas one of the most prominent writers of late 19th and early 20th century England. Shaw, a vocal writer on social problems, wrote satiric plays such as Pygmalion and Arms and the Man.• This period also witnessed the beginnings of the independent theatre movement. A few of the theatres involved in this movement were the Independent Theatre in England, the Moscow Art Theatre in Russia, and Theatre du Vieux Colombier in France. ignatius joseph estroga
  45. 45. ignatius joseph estroga
  46. 46. ignatius joseph estroga
  47. 47. • Scott R. Robinson. http://www.cwu.edu/~robinsos/ppages/resou rces/Theatre_History/Theahis_7.html• http://www.usu.edu/markdamen/ClasDram/c hapters/011intro.htm• http://www.tctwebstage.com/ancient.htm• http://anarchon.tripod.com/indexGREEKTH.ht ml ignatius joseph estroga