Emergent Reader and Writer


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Emergent Reader and Writer

  1. 1. ∞ pertains to be the firststage in a child’s growthtoward literacy∞ relates to the beginningexperiences or the child’sfirst experiences with printin the home and continuesthrough early years offormal schooling
  2. 2. ∞ according to Harris andHodges (1981) refer to thisperiod of acquiring thespecific skills and abilitiesthat allow reading to takeplace as preparedness orreading readiness∞ significantly determinedby a complex pattern ofintellectual, motivational,maturational andexperiential factors
  3. 3. Marie Clay (1991) and Fountas and Pinnell(2001) have noted five main stages of literacydevelopment.
  4. 4. Stage 1: Emergent Readers• Ranges from 2 to 7 years old• Begin to familiarize with the concepts of print to• directionality,• One-to-one correspondence between spoken and written• Value of picture clues to the meaning of story• Develop an understanding that printed word carries mainmeaning of a story• Begin to make text-to-world connections
  5. 5. Stage 2: Early Readers• between ages of 5 to 7• rely more heavily on the printed text than on thepictures on a book• begin to develop word recognition strategies• begins to develop a data bank of sight words that allowsthem to read with increased speed as they are read moreoften• a teacher may have a class containing both emergentand early readers
  6. 6. Stage 3: Transitional Readers• range from 5 to 7 years• able to read in meaningful phrases with comfortablepace and appropriate voice intonation• able to enumerate the four cueing systems into theirreading with little disruption to meaning and flow• able to read more lengthy texts with a little reliance onpictures for text meaning
  7. 7. Stage 4: Self-Extending Readers• range in age 6 to 9 years of age• readers progress into reading independence in the fourthdevelopmental stage• often read variety of textual genres and use reading as atool for gaining new knowledge• able to read more complex texts and begin to read for avariety of purposes
  8. 8. Stage 5: Advanced Readers• these readers who haveattained a level of masterywith reading; over the ageof 9• become proficient inreading and incomprehending varioustext sources• they enjoy reading and usereading as means ofgaining knowledge• they can also read fluentlyand can interpret texts• they connect what theyhave read to themselves toother texts and to theworld around them• they have internalized aseries of reading strategiesthat are usedinterchangeably as theydifferent texts
  9. 9. • Beginningreader• Basic conceptof print• Picture-analysis• Sound-letterrecognition• Wordrecognitionstrategies• Sight words• Print reading• Gradual speedin reading• Mastery inreading• Proficientcomprehension• Reading forinformation• Reading forpleasure• Inferentialreading• Interpretivereading• Internalizedreading strategiesEmergentReaderEarly ReaderTransitionalReaderSelf-ExtendingReaderAdvanced Reader• Towards fluentreading• Reading oflength texts• Little reliancein factors• Independentreading• Readingvarious texts• Reading forinformation
  10. 10. PerceptualFactorsOral LanguageFactorsCognitiveFactorsAffectiveFactorsHome EnvironmentFactors• Developedsensory skillsand visual andauditorydiscrimination• Left to righteyeprogression• Stimulatedawareness andmanipulationof objects/toys• Emulatesreadingbehaviour• Has a greatdeal of orallanguage• Has well-developedaural/orallanguage skills• Usesdescriptivelanguage• Consciousunderstandingaboutlanguage• Has emergingability to think• Uses trial anderror todiscover newthings• Expandingmemory• Imaginative orcreative• Shows stronginvolvementin being readto• Has great dealof time andinterest inreading• Can retellstoriesactively• Has access toprintmaterials• Has parentswho arehabitualreadersthemselves• Has socialinteractionwith parentsand peers• Has pleasantenvironmentfor reading
  11. 11. Cooper and Kiger (2001) identified five stages ofearly literacy learning which involve orallanguage, reading, and writing skills of children. Thesestages involve the following:•Early emergent literacy stage•Emergent literacy stage•Beginning reading and writing stage•Almost Fluent reading and writing stage•Fluent reading and writing stage
  12. 12. Stages ofLiteracyOral language Reading WritingEarlyEmergentLiteracy• Read aloud• Story Telling• Make-up Stories• Verbal Requests• Oral directions• Inquiries• Word-play• Beginningconcept of print• Labelling• Naming• Picture reading• Literatureenjoyment• Scribbling• Drawing• Markings onpaper• Letter-likeshapes• Writingattempts
  13. 13. Stages ofLiteracyOral language Reading WritingEmergentLiteracy• Growing orallanguagefacility• Oral languageof story read• Pleasure in orallanguage• Acquiredconcept of print• Recognition ofenvironmentalprint• Letter-soundrecognition• Wordrecognition• Meaningconstruction• Spelling andwritingconventions• Familiarity withwriting process• Meaningconstruction
  14. 14. Stages ofLiteracyOral language Reading WritingBeginningReading andWriting• Self-correctedspeech• Increased orallanguagevocabulary• Pleasure inwords• Additionalrecognitionskills strategies• Meaningconstruction• Varied writingbehaviour• Growing use ofmechanism andconvention• Employedwriting process
  15. 15. Stages ofLiteracyOral language Reading WritingAlmost FluentReading andWriting• Movingtowardslanguagefluency• Increasedpleasure inlanguage use• Regular use ofwordrecognitionskills andstrategies• Growingmeaningconstruction• Varied readingpurposes• Varied writingpurposes• Pleasure inwriting
  16. 16. Stages ofLiteracyOral language Reading WritingFluentReading AndWriting• Increasedvocabulary• Appreciation toimportance ofspeech• Capabledecoder withcomprehensionskills• Critical reading• Varied readingstrategies• Perceived self ascompetentreader• Purposefulwriting• Pleasure writing• Persuasivewriting• Self-editing• Peer-editing• Perceived self asa competentwriter
  17. 17. • Parents• Siblings• Teachers• Other literateadultsGradualIndependence• Parents• Teachers• Other literateadultsIncreasingIndependence• Parents• Teachers• PeersTowardsIndependentWriting• TeachersandlearnerTotallyIndependentReading• learnerReading Independence Of A Learner
  18. 18. • Parents• Siblings• Teachers• Other literateadultsGradualIndependence• Parents• Teachers• Other literateadultsIncreasingIndependence• Parents• Teacher• PeersTowardsIndependentWriting• Teacherand selfTotallyIndependentReading• learnerWriting Independence Of A Learner
  19. 19. Characteristics of anEmergent writerReporter: Junaidah B. Umpara
  20. 20. Learner’s emergentwriting is characterizedby playful markings tocommunicatesomething, whichsignals their knowledgeof the uses of writtenlanguage beforelearning the form.-Gundlach(1985)
  21. 21. Writing• Self-initiated and self-directed or voluntary, by observingmore skilled others and by participating in literacy events, byexploring and learned writing through interaction withliterate others. (Bissex, 1980) and (Read, 1975)
  22. 22. • The child’sexperimentation withwriting allows him toconstruct and refinethe kind of knowledgeabout written languagethat makes readingpossible.Writing is alwaysrelated to reading andreading is alwaysconnected to writing.As the child writes, heintegrates knowledgeof reading withknowledge of writing.
  23. 23. Stages of Writing development01234567Drawing Scribbling making letter-like formsreproducinglearned unitsinventedspellingconventionalspelling
  24. 24. Factors determining thedevelopment of an EmergentwriterPhysical• Drawing• Scribbling from left to right• Making letter-like forms• Making shapes that resemble letters• Producing letters in long or short strings• Producing letters randomly• Marking on papers, walls• Moving pencil as an adult does• Holding crayons, pens• Tracing• Copying• Invented spelling
  25. 25. Language• Writing-like sounds• Letter sequences• Writing his own name• Invented spelling• Copying letters and numbers• Copying logos and signs• Labeling objects drawn• Labeling or naming characters drawn• Not properly sequenced spelling
  26. 26. Cognitive• Practicing aspects of writing• Constructing his own writing• Integrating knowledge of shapes and lines to produce a letter ora number• Using knowledge of shapes and lines to draw objects characters• Using of knowledge of lines and strings to produce a word• Recognizing logos or labels
  27. 27. Affective• Enjoys writing for himself• Impresses parents through his writing-like activities• Emulates adult writing• Finds pleasure in receiving greeting cards from adults• Is encouraged to involve in adult-writing• Is appreciated for accomplishing a writing-like task• Is writing to communicate his feelings and ideas
  28. 28. Home Environment• Has considerable exposure to writing events ofadults• Involvement in adult-writing• Social functions of writing are evident in thehome• Appreciation for early attempts of writing• Supported interest in writing by providingwriting and drawing materials
  29. 29. Fin!
  30. 30. ReferenceMarquez, Servillano. Developmental Reading 2.Lorimar Publishing. Manila .Philippines.