Components of curriculum


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Components of curriculum

  2. 2. What is to be done? The Philippine educational system is divided in three educational levels: • Primary; • Secondary; and • Tertiary
  3. 3. • Provide knowledge and develop skills, attitudes, values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing society; • Provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in the society
  4. 4. • Promote and intensify knowledge, identification with and love for the nation and the people to which he belongs; and • Promote work experiences which develop orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work.
  5. 5. Elementary Level
  6. 6. Level: Secondary Aims of Secondary Education • Continue to promote the objectives of elementary education; and • Discover and enhance the different aptitudes and interests of students in order to equip them with skills for productive endeavor and or to prepare them for tertiary schooling.
  7. 7. Secondary Level
  8. 8. Tertiary education - refers to college and university formal education based on the curricula of the different courses • Provide general education programs which will promote national identity, cultural consciousness, moral integrity and spiritual vigor; • Train the nation’s manpower in the skills required for national development;
  9. 9. • Develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation; and • Advance knowledge through research and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and respond effectively to changing society.
  10. 10. Tertiary Level
  11. 11. VISION:
  12. 12. Example of a School’s Vision: CED Vision To train future teachers in the pursuit and practice of quality teaching, research, and community extension service to achieve the highest level of competency and commitment to the profession.
  13. 13. MISSION:
  14. 14. Example of a School’s Mission: CED Mission To produce professional highly competent teachers through quality teaching, research skills, community extension service, and dispositions to foster lifelong learning in various disciplines.
  15. 15. GOALS:
  16. 16. Example of School’s Goals: CED Goals To develop professional, highly competent, responsible, self-renewing and ethical teachers who will serve the community and who will be effective catalysts of change in response to the quest for global competitiveness.
  17. 17. Educational Objectives
  18. 18. Three Big Domains of Objectives (Bloom and his associates) • Cognitive • Affective; and • Psychomotor
  19. 19. Cognitive Domain (Bloom,et al. 1956) Domain of thought process
  20. 20. Affective Domain (Krathwohl, 1964) Domain of valuing, attitude and appreciation
  21. 21. Psychomotor Domain (Simpson, 1972) Domain of the use of psychomotor attributes
  22. 22. Component 2: Curriculum Content or Subject Matter
  23. 23. Subject -centered view of curriculum The fund of human knowledge represents the repository of accumulated discoveries and inventions of man down the centuries, due to man’s exploration of the world Learner-centered view of curriculum Relates knowledge to the individual's personal and social world and how he or she defines reality. “Knowledge is a model we construct to give meaning and structure to regularities in experience.” -Gerome Bruner
  24. 24. Broad Subject Areas in Basic Education Subject Area Learning Content Communication Arts Includes skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing, effective use of language in daily living Mathematics Includes numeric and computational skills, geometry and measurement, algebra, logic and reasoning Science Includes all branches of the natural sciences, exploration and discovery dealing with natural phenomena and the use of scientific method of investigation
  25. 25. Subject Area Learning Content Social Studies Include basic elements of Geography, History, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Civics, Political Science and Psychology. Music Includes basic music theory, practice in listening, singing, playing musical instruments and music preparation. Physical Education Includes health and physical fitness, individual and team sports, spectatorship and wise use of leisure Vocational Education Includes psychomotor and manipulative skills in basic crafts and trades, design, work ethic and appreciation of manual productive work
  26. 26. “Content selection is a very crucial stage in curriculum development.” CRITERIA for the Selection of Subject Matter Content or Knowledge for the Curriculum • Self-sufficiency • Significance • Validity • Interest • Utility • Learnability • Feasibility
  27. 27. SELF-SUFFICIENCY • Helping the learners attain maximum self- sufficiency in learning but in the most economical manner. • Economy means less teaching effort and educational resources, less learners’ effort but more results and effective learning outcomes (Scheffler, 1970)
  29. 29. VALIDITY • Authenticity of the subject matter • Subject matter should be verified or checked at regular intervals, to determine if the content that was originally valid continues to be.
  30. 30. UTILITY • Usefulness of the content or subject matter maybe relative to the learner who is going to use it. LEARNABILITY • Subject matter should be within the range of experiences of the learners. • Optimal placement and appropriate organization and sequencing of contents are necessary in presenting the content so that it can easily be learned.
  31. 31. FEASIBILITY • Content selection should be considered within the context of the existing reality in schools, in society and government. • Consider time, resources available, expertise of the teacher, and the nature of the learners.
  32. 32. Other considerations: • Frequently and commonly used in daily life • Suited to the maturity levels and abilities of students • Valuable in meeting the needs and the competencies of a future career • Related with other subject areas • Important in the transfer of learning
  33. 33. Principles of Organizing the Different Learning Contents (Palma, 1992) • Balance • Articulation • Sequence • Integration • Continuity
  34. 34. Balance • Curriculum content should be fairly distributed in depth and breadth of a particular learning area or discipline. Articulation • Levels of subject matter should be smoothly connected to the next so as to avoid glaring gaps and wasteful overlaps in the content.
  35. 35. Sequence • There should be logical arrangement of the subject matter. Integration • Help learners get a wholistic or unified view on reality and outlook in life as there will be seen horizontal connections in subject areas that are similar so that learning will be related to one another.
  36. 36. Continuity • The constant repetition, review and reinforcement of learning wherein there is continuity of application of the new knowledge, skills, attitudes or values so that these will be used in daily living.
  37. 37. Next:
  38. 38. Component 3. Curriculum Experiences
  39. 39. • This section will not discuss in detail the different instructional strategies that provide the experiences. Instead it will link instructional strategies and methods to curriculum experiences, the core or the heart of the curriculum.
  40. 40. Guidelines for the Selection and Use of Curriculum:
  41. 41. • Teaching methods are means to achieve the end. They are used to translate the objectives into action. • There is no single best teaching method. Its effectiveness will depend on the learning objectives, the learners and skill of the teacher.
  42. 42. • Teaching methods should stimulate the learners desire to develop the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social and spiritual domain of the individual. • In the choice of the teaching methods, learning styles of the students should be considered
  43. 43. • Every method should lend to the development of the learning outcomes in the three domains: cognitive, affective and the psychomotor. • Flexibility should be a consideration in the use of the teaching methods.
  44. 44. Component 4. Curriculum Evaluation
  45. 45. • According to Worthen and Sanders, (1987) all curricula to be effective must have the element of the evaluation. • Curriculum evaluation here may refer to the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness or value of the program, process, and product of the curriculum.
  46. 46. • Tuckman (1985) defines evaluation as meeting the goals and matching them with the intended outcomes. • From the definitions, several models of evaluation came up.
  47. 47. • The most widely used is Stufflebeam’s CIPP (Content, Input, Product, Process) Model. • In CIPP, the process is continuous and is very important to curriculum managers like principals, supervisors, department head, deans and even teachers.
  48. 48. • Context – refers to the environment of the curriculum. • Input – refers to the ingredients of the curriculum which include the goals, instructional strategies, the learners, the teachers, the contents and all the materials needed.
  49. 49. • Process – refers to the ways and means of how the curriculum has been implemented. • Product – indicates if the curriculum accomplishes its goals.
  50. 50. Steps on the Suggested Plan of Action for the Process of Curriculum Evaluation:
  51. 51. • Focus on one particular component of the curriculum. • Collect or gather the information. • Organize the information. This step will require coding, organizing, storing, and retrieving data for interpretation. • Analyze interpretation. • Report the information. • Recycle the information for continuous feedback, modification and adjustments to be made.
  52. 52. Interrelationship of the Component of a Curriculum: Aims and Objectives Content/Subject Matter Methods/Strategies Evaluation
  53. 53. Thank you and have a nice day ! 