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  1. 1. ignatius joseph estroga
  2. 2. ignatius joseph estroga
  3. 3. Africa is the worlds second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earths total surface area and 20.4 percent joseph the total land area. ignatius of estroga
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  6. 6. Peopleignatius joseph estroga
  7. 7. • Africa contains a mosaic of peoples, languages and cultures. • Africans identify first with their tribes or nation, then they avoid or compete with those who speak of different language or culture.Egyptians Arabs MoroccansEuropean Phoenicians JewsIndians ignatius joseph estroga
  8. 8. Folklore and religion ignatius joseph estroga
  9. 9. Languages • Afroasiatic languages• Nilo-Saharan languages• Niger–Congo languages • Indo-European ignatius joseph estroga
  10. 10. Education ignatius joseph estroga
  11. 11. ignatius joseph estroga
  12. 12. • Africa has a long and complex literary history.• Deciding when African literature first appears, or when the tradition begins, are questions that are ultimately unanswerable.• Determining which literary forms originate in Africa and which are borrowed from elsewhere are issues over which literary critics continue to debate. ignatius joseph estroga
  13. 13. • Oral literatures have flourished in Africa for many centuries and take a variety of forms including, in addition to the folk tales found in this lesson, myths, epics, funeral dirges, praise poems, and proverbs. ignatius joseph estroga
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  16. 16. • Dirges, chanted during funeral ceremonies, lament the departed, praise his/her memory, and ask for his/her protection.• Praise poems are "epithets “ called out in reference to an object (a person, a town, an animal, a deceased , and so on) in celebration of its outstanding qualities and achievements ignatius joseph estroga
  17. 17. Praise poems have a variety of applications and functions.Professional groups often create poems exclusive to them.Prominent chiefs might appointa professional performer tocompile their praise poemsand perform them on specialoccasions. Professionalperformers of praise poemsmight also travel from place toplace and perform for familiesor individuals for alms or asmall fee ignatius joseph estroga
  18. 18. Most well known of the African oral forms is probably the proverb , a short witty or ironic statement, metaphorical in its formulation, that aims to communicate a response to a particular situation, to offer advice, or to be persuasive.-often employed as a rhetorical device, presenting its speaker as the holder of cultural knowledge or authority.-it creates that African culture each time it is spoken and used to make sense of immediate problems ignatius joseph estroga and occasions.
  19. 19. REFERENCES• "African Women Writers: Toward a Literary History." A History of Twentieth-Century African Literatures.• Harrow, Kenneth. Thresholds of Change in African Literature: The Emergence of a Tradition.• African Literatures: An Introduction.• Zell, Hans, M. "Publishing in Africa: The Crises and the Challenge."• A History of Twentieth-Century African Literatures.• ignatius joseph estroga