Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>World History I  ( 9 th /10 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bethany Christian School <...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Goals or Objectives  10 : 3  :   </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Art & Intellectua...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Introduction to Medieval Art and Learning O ne of the sad stereotypes about the Middl...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Introduction to Medieval Art and Learning I t is largely true, however,  that, during...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Medieval Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>In the Cathedral schools and </li><...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Universities  :  The Core of Society F or centuries the University has proved to be o...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Universities : The Core of Society  ( 2 ) What may we conclude from this?  We may con...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>As stated in your textbook  ( World History, p. 236 ),  the twelfth </li></ul...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The  University of Bologna   (  Italian :  Alma Mater Stud...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The Cathedral of Sainte-Geneviève   and La Sorbonne   (  C...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The University of Paris  (  originally founded in 1160, cf...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Sorbonne in Paris Today
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University Similarly to the other early  medieval universities   ( Un...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University  The university had four  Faculties :  Arts ,  Medicine , ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Genevièv...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University Representation of a university class, (1350s).
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture U niversity studies took six years for a  Bachelors degree  and up to twelve addition...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Rise of the University </li></ul><ul><li>Other Early Famous Universities ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture The University of Padua in Northern Italy was one of the first to exemplify the idea ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Oxford.  ( Founded ,  1167 ) .  </li></ul></ul></ul...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Illustration is detail from the charter of King Edward I, which confirmed the privile...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Motto :   Hinc lucem et pocula sacra Literal translation: “From here, light and sacre...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture View over  Trinity College ,  Gonville and Caius  and  Clare College  towards  King's...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Clare College  (left) and  King’s College  Chapel (centre), seen from  The Backs .
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology:  The Growth of  Scholasticism   As the new schools and unver...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism The name &quot;Scholastic&quot; was used an...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology:   Scholasticism Another Perspective by a Modern Neo-Thomist ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology:   Scholasticism Another Perspective by a Modern Neo-Thomist ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology:   Scholasticism Another Perspective by a Modern Neo-Thomist ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology:   Scholasticism Seven Outstanding Philosophers & Thinkers of...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology:   Scholasticism 1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) .  ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Quik Facts About His ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ). </li></ul><ul><li>In  1092/93  one ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>The groundwork o...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Anselm’s Philoso...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture 1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . Anselm’s Argument for the Necessity of God...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture 1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . The Essential Argument of Anselm’s Treatis...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture 1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . Anselm’s Views on Christ and His Redemptio...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture 1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . Anselm’s Views on Christ and His Redemptio...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture 1.   Anselm of Canterbury  ( 1033-1109 ) . Translations and Secondary Reference Works...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard  ( ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard   (...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism Peter Abelard   ( 1079-1141 ) . Abelard, or...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard   (...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard   (...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism Peter Abelard  ( 1079-1141 ) . Abelard’s Lo...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture Abelard’s Love-Affair with He v loi ~ se To appease her furious uncle, Abelard propos...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard   (...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard  ( ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard  ( ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard  ( ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard  ( ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology :   Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard  ( ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3.   Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of th...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture 3.   Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274). Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture 3 .  Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ) . Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 .  Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3.   Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of th...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 .  Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of th...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 .  Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of th...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3.   Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of th...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 .  Thomas Aquinas  ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of th...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture II. The Significance of Aquinas Like most famous Medieval figures the real “ Thomas ”...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>II. The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By being instin...
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Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas opposed Platonic-August...
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Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>And by &quot;expanding his own ...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, its is God's design tha...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>It must be emphasized that whil...
Medieval Art &  Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>“  Again, theology and philosop...
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Medieval art & intellectual culture. world history i. mr. rhodes. april.2008

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A survey of the some of the major thinkers of the Middle Ages including Anselm, Abelard, and St. Thomas Aquinas.

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Medieval art & intellectual culture. world history i. mr. rhodes. april.2008

  1. 1. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>World History I ( 9 th /10 th ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bethany Christian School </li></ul><ul><li>Spring ( April 18, 2008 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph David Rhodes, M.A., .MDiv. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Goals or Objectives 10 : 3 : </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be able to describe the basic differences between Roman- </li></ul><ul><li>esque and the Gothic architectural styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be able to briefly explain the contributions of Geoffrey </li></ul><ul><li>Chaucer and Dante Alighieri to Medieval literature and language. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be able to state /discuss the contributions to Christian </li></ul><ul><li>and Western life and thought of main Scholastic philosophers and the </li></ul><ul><li>curriculum of arts and sciences at Medieval Universities ( 1200-1500 ). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Introduction to Medieval Art and Learning O ne of the sad stereotypes about the Middle Ages is that it was almost entirely as an historical era a time of gross ignorance and thoroughgoing superstition – a completely “ Dark Age . ” The old view is that this all changed with the Renaissance, Reformation, and the birth of modern Science. Many careful modern critical scholars have signific-antly challenged this dull “ Monty Python ” account of the Middle Ages. While it is true that generally there was little formal education of the masses during many centuries of this period, neither literature nor science died out. And there were certainly several out-standing Christian thinkers and masters of the arts and science. The economic, political, and social hardships of the age did not mean the end of classical or even Biblical learn-ing. Among the Roman Catholic monks and secular clergy there was a large reservior of classical learning, morality, and devotion to the discovery of truth in God’s world. While the stereo type is false, it is true that the primary centers of education and even scientific inquiry remained within the monasteries and the cathedrals, particularly the cathedral schools.
  4. 4. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Introduction to Medieval Art and Learning I t is largely true, however, that, during the later Middle Ages, the hier-archy of the Roman Catholic Church frequently tried to squelch unpopular or new ideas if and when the leadership felt threatened. Thus, your World History History textbook ( Third Edition : Greenville, South Carolina: Bob Jones Uni-versity Press, 2007 , p. 236 ) is correct when it states : “ The church, however, was often more interested in maintaining existing knowledge than in pursuing new ideas. ” The problem is that this quote gives the impression that these new ideas did not come from those medieval Catholic Christians who had themselves learned the disciplines of writing and thought from a long standing educational tradition that extended back for centuries. Also, many of the Church thinkers in the 12 th to 15 th centuries were themselves critical logicians, scientific pioneers, and incredibly erudite individuals. The edifice that we call the Modern World and Modern Learning owes much to their careful analyses, philosophical definitions, multitudinous crude experiments, and even classic mistakes.
  5. 5. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Medieval Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>In the Cathedral schools and </li></ul><ul><li>even in the newer Universities of </li></ul><ul><li>the late Middle Ages, all higher </li></ul><ul><li>learning had two basic parts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Trivium : Grammar ( Latin, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetoric, and Logic ). Explain ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Quadrivium : Arithmetic, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometry, Astronomy, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Universities : The Core of Society F or centuries the University has proved to be one of the most important contributions of Medieval Europe to the various cultures of the world. In that era the Universities tended to function as the core of the societies where they were found. Indeed, the curriculum and the faculty and students were a special if advanced microcosm of the cultures which produced them. Thus, what the soul of a culture is becomes revealed in its schools and universities. What the culture thinks concerning the arts, economics, history, medicine, politics, religion, and science is often easily discovered by examining the major universities of that culture. This was true of Medieval universities as it is also true of modern American universities and higher institutions. Yet, universities were and are also places where teachers and students remove themselves from daily life in order to think deeply and profoundly about their society and its place in the world.
  7. 7. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Universities : The Core of Society ( 2 ) What may we conclude from this? We may conclude from the previous discourse that both faculty and students at universities in the late Middle Ages did play a vastly important role in the leadership of their cultures. The same is true of teachers and students in the universities of today. But it is crucial to note that this tre-mendous influence and power that the school or university has on a society can be used to pro-mote the righteousness of God or it can be used to promote corruption and wickedness, a system of pursuing truth or a vain soul-destroying philosophy.
  8. 8. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>As stated in your textbook ( World History, p. 236 ), the twelfth </li></ul><ul><li>century brought a revival of learning to the urban centers of old </li></ul><ul><li>Europe. What were the factors which induced this change ? </li></ul><ul><li>Improved political and economic conditions which allowed for </li></ul><ul><li>more cultural and intellectual pursuits. </li></ul><ul><li>New knowledge and rediscovery of ancient and classical ideas </li></ul><ul><li>from Greece and Rome via contact with Arab and Byzantine </li></ul><ul><li>civilizations during the Crusades. </li></ul><ul><li>The new emerging towns and middle classes with new govern- ment and leadership functions required new kinds of education. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The University of Bologna ( Italian : Alma Mater Studio-rum Università di Bologna , UNIBO ) is one of the oldest con-tinually operating degree-granting universities in the world, and the second largest university in Italy . It was probably the first university founded in the western world ( conventionally AD 1088 , but the true date is uncertain ) and since 2000 , its motto has been Alma mater studiorum ( Latin for &quot;fostering mother of studies&quot; ) . The university of Bologna received a charter from Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158 , but in the 19th century , a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci traced the birth of the University back to 1088, making it arguably the longest-lived university in the West . The University of Bologna is historically notable for its teaching of canon and civil law , and is presently one of the most important universities in Europe .
  10. 10. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The Cathedral of Sainte-Geneviève and La Sorbonne ( Colle V ge De Sorbonne ) , part of the University of Paris, originally founded in 1160 A.D. Actually, the Sorbonne was created a little later in 1257.
  11. 11. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University
  12. 12. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The University of Paris ( originally founded in 1160, cf. the previous slides ) also included the Palace or Palatine school, part of the castles of Louis VII . “ Three schools were especially famous at Paris, the palatine or palace school , the school of Notre-Dame , and that of Sainte-Geneviève . The decline of royalty inevitably brought about the decline of the first. The other two, which were very old, like those of the cathedrals and the abbeys, are only faintly outlined during the early centuries of their existence. The glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until in the course of time it completely gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning. ” 1 1 Wikipedia, “ University of Paris,” cited from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ University_of_Paris .
  13. 13. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Sorbonne in Paris Today
  14. 14. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University Similarly to the other early medieval universities ( University of Bologna , University of Padova , University of Oxford ) , but unlike later ones ( such as the University of Prague or the University of Heidelberg ) , the University of Paris was only later established through a specific foundation act by a royal charter or papal bull . It grew up in the latter part of the 12th century around the Notre Dame Cathedral as a corporation similar to other medieval corporations, such as guilds of merchants or artisans. The medieval Latin term universitas actual-ly had the more general meaning of a guild, and the university of Paris was known as a universitas magistrorum et scholarium ( a guild of masters and scholars ) . 2 2 Wikipedia, Op. Cit.
  15. 15. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The university had four Faculties : Arts , Medicine , Law , and Theology . The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but also the largest as students had to graduate there to be admitted to one of the higher faculties. The students there were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin, those of France, Normandy, Picard, and England, the last one of which later came to be known as the Alemannian ( German ) nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation in fact included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. The faculty and nation system of the University of Paris ( along with that of the University of Bologna ) be-came the model for all later medieval universities. 3 3 Wikipedia, Op. Cit.
  16. 16. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University The first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century . Not content with the courses at Liège , he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, and attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the eleventh century include Lambert, disciple of Filbert of Chartres; Drogo of Paris; Manegold of Germany; and Anselm of Laon . These two schools attracted scholars from every country and produced many illustri-ous men, among whom were: St. Stanislaus of Szczepanów , Bishop of Kraków; Gebbard, Archbishop of Salzburg; St. Stephen, third Abbot of Cîteaux ; Robert d'Arbrissel , founder of the Abbey of Fontevrault etc. Three other men who added new splendor to the schools of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève were William of Champeaux , Abelard , and Peter Lombard . 4 4 Wikipedia, Op. Cit.
  17. 17. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The Rise of the University Representation of a university class, (1350s).
  18. 18. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture U niversity studies took six years for a Bachelors degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree and doctorate . The first six years were organized by the faculty of arts , where the seven liberal arts were taught: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory, grammar, logic, and rhetoric. The primary emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been conferred, the student could leave the university or pursue further studies, in one of the three other faculties – law , medicine , or theology – in which to pursue the master's degree and doctorate degree . Theology was the most prestigious area of study, and the most difficult. Courses were offered according to books, not by subject or theme. For example, a course might be on a book by Aristotle , or a book from the Bible . Courses were not elective: the course offerings were set, and everyone had to take the same courses. There were, however, occasional choices as to which teacher to use.
  19. 19. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Rise of the University </li></ul><ul><li>Other Early Famous Universities of Europe & England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Montpellier ( 1220 ). ( France ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Padua ( 1222 ). ( Italy ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Salerno ( 1100 ?). ( Italy ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Seville ( 1551 ). ( Spain ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Toulouse ( 1232 ) ( France ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Orle v ans ( 1235 ). ( France ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Oxford ( 1167 ). ( England ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Cambridge ( 1209 ). ( England ). </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture The University of Padua in Northern Italy was one of the first to exemplify the idea of a Gymnasium Omnium Disciplinarum - an educational model that can now be seen throughout the world ( founded, 1222 A.D. ).
  21. 21. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><ul><ul><li>The University of Oxford. ( Founded , 1167 ) . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here : Magdalen College in Early Morning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture
  23. 23. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture
  24. 24. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Illustration is detail from the charter of King Edward I, which confirmed the privileges of the University in 1291/2 . The University was actually founded 1209 in era of King John . Then, groups of scholars congre-gated at the ancient Roman trading post of Cambridge for the purpose of study, the earliest record of the University.
  25. 25. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Motto : Hinc lucem et pocula sacra Literal translation: “From here, light and sacred draughts”. Non-literal: “From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge”.
  26. 26. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture View over Trinity College , Gonville and Caius and Clare College towards King's College Chapel, seen from St Johns College chapel, Cambridge ( UK ) .
  27. 27. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Clare College (left) and King’s College Chapel (centre), seen from The Backs .
  28. 28. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology: The Growth of Scholasticism As the new schools and unversities emerged in twelfth-century Europe, the West experienced a dynamic new intellectual movement called Scholasticism. While there had been outstanding Christian scholars, learned monks, skilled priests, and highly educated bishops since the time of Augustine and Jerome, in the late Middle Ages the interest in Christian philosophy and theology took center stage. This was the era when theology was the “ Queen of the Sciences” and philosophy was its handmaiden. Men of faith and men of “science” both acknowledged two complimentary sources of knowledge – faith and reason . This was the Age of Faith when earnest and brilliant men endeavored to pro- perly harmonize faith and reason in a grand synthesis. It was believed that it was possible to carefully combine the teachings of the church ( i.e., faith ) and principles of Greek philosophy ( i.e., reason ) .
  29. 29. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism The name &quot;Scholastic&quot; was used and is still used to designate the method and system that grew out of the academic curriculum of the schools or, more definitely, out of the dialectical teaching of the masters of the schools ( scholastici ) , e.g., the Universities of the Middle Ages. Yet, it meant much more than this. As your textbook ( p. 238 ) states : “ Although the Schoolmen acknowledge the necessity of faith, they attempted to use logic and philosophy to explain and defend the church’s teaching. They did not seek to discover new knowledge but sought to support that which already existed. By applying the test of reason to the teaching of the church, they hoped to show the reasonableness of the Christian faith. ” 5 5 World History with Student Activities. Teacher’s Edition ( Third Edition; Green- ville , South Carolina : Bob Jones University Press, 2007 ), loc. cit .[ Rhodes ]
  30. 30. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology: Scholasticism Another Perspective by a Modern Neo-Thomist : S idelining all the other intra-confessional debates among them was the stand-off between two sets of scholars. One group wanted to present scholastic thought as philosophy, tout court . Despite the fact that most medieval philo-sophers had been theologians, they insisted that the scholastics’ religious beliefs and professional responsibilities had in no way prevented them from being real philosophers. On the other side of the debate stood scholars who argued that, far from being a potential obstacle to philosophizing, Christian belief actually stimulated philosophical speculation, since it presented scholastics with issues requiring rational reflection that were not in the ancient Greek syllabus. Further, they asserted, the main achievement of scholasticism, at least in its golden age, had not been rationalism as such but the synthesis of reason and revelation. 6
  31. 31. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology: Scholasticism Another Perspective by a Modern Neo-Thomist : [ Footnote ] 6 Marcia L Colish, Remapping Scholasticism. The Etienne Gilson Series 21. ( Toronto : Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 2000 ), p. 9. Cf. further : Martin Grabmann, Die Geschichte der scholastischen Method : Nach den gedruckten und ungedruckten Quellen , 2 vols. ( Freiburg im Breisgau, 1909 [ reprt. Berlin, 1988 ]) ; Fernand Van Steenberghen, Aristotle in the West: The Origins of Latin Aristotelianism , 2nd ed. ( New York, 1970 ) ; idem, La philo-sophie au XIIIe siècle , 2nd ed. ( Louvain, 1991 ) ; Etienne Gilson, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages ( New York, 1953 ) ; idem, Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages ( New York, 1938 [ reprt. 1950 ]) . For an overview of this and other debates, see John Inglis, Spheres of Philosophical Inquiry and the Historiography of Medieval Philosophy ( Leiden, 1998 ) .
  32. 32. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology: Scholasticism Another Perspective by a Modern Neo-Thomist : The Catholic medievalist Étienne Gilson opened his Gifford Lectures on The Spirit of Medieval Philosophy with two chapters devoted respectively to the problem and the notion of Christian philosophy, which he defined as “ every philosophy which, although keeping the two orders formally distinct, nevertheless considers the Christian revelation as an indispensable auxiliary to reason.” In a series of books and articles published over the next few decades, Gilson demonstrated the vibrancy of medieval philosophy. He convincingly argued that the biblical concepts of God, creation, history, and the human person had made a decisive impact on the whole history of modern philosophy.
  33. 33. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology: Scholasticism Seven Outstanding Philosophers & Thinkers of the Middle Ages : 1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ). 2. Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . 3. Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ). 4. Duns Scotus ( 1226-1308 ). 5. William of Ockham ( 1288-1347 ). 6. Bonaventura ( 1221-1274 ). 7 . Roger Bacon, monk and scientist ( 1214-1294 ).
  34. 34. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology: Scholasticism 1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . Christian Bishop, Confessor and Doctor of the Church. Gave the classic Medieval state- ment concerning the relationship between faith and reason : “ Neque enim quaero intelligere ut credam, sed credo ut intelligam. Nam et hoc credo, quia, nisi credidero, non intelligam. &quot;
  35. 35. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Quik Facts About His Contribution to Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>He was of northern Italian extraction, but he held the office of </li></ul><ul><li> Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 until 1109. </li></ul><ul><li>He is reckoned as “ the Father of Scholasticism.” </li></ul><ul><li>Probably his most famous philosophical idea is the so-called </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.” </li></ul><ul><li>He openly opposed the Crusades as wrong for Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>At age fifteen he had tried to enter a monastery without his </li></ul><ul><li>father’s consent. </li></ul><ul><li>He studied under Bishop Lanfranc at the Benedictine Abbey </li></ul><ul><li>at Bec, France. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ). </li></ul><ul><li>In 1092/93 one of England’s worst kings, William II ( Rufus ), fearful of the damnation of his soul, reluctantly appointed the resistant Anselm to accept this post. Irony ? </li></ul><ul><li>During his time as archbishop Anselm had conflict with both William II and his successor, Henry I , and was twice exiled to France or made special journeys to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1107 , the long dispute regarding investiture was finally settled with a compromise in the Concordat of London , whereby Henry relinquished his right to invest his bishops and abbots but reserved the custom of requiring them to do homage for the&quot; temporalities &quot; ( the landed properties tied to the episco-pate ) . </li></ul>
  37. 37. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>The groundwork of Anselm's theory of knowledge is contained in the tract De Veritate , where he affirms the existence of an absolute truth in which all other truth participates. This absolute truth, he argues, is God, who is the ultimate ground or principle both of things and of thought. The notion of God becomes the foreground of Anselm's theory, so it is necessary first to make God clear to reason and be demonstrated to have real existence. ( Consider </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon’s words in Proverbs 1:7; 3:18-20; and 9:10 ). 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Anselm's writings represent a recognition of the relationship of reason to revealed truth, and an attempt to elaborate a rational system of faith. </li></ul><ul><li>7 Wikipedia. Article on Anselm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anselm_of_Canterbury. </li></ul><ul><li>See also Richard W. Southern. St. Anselm : A Portrait in a Landscape . Cam- </li></ul><ul><li>bridge : Cambridge University Press, 1992; and Hyman, J. and Walsh, J.J. </li></ul><ul><li>( eds. ) . P hilosophy in the Middle Ages. Second Edition; Indianapolis : </li></ul><ul><li>Hackett Publishing Company , 1973. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Anselm’s Philosophical and Theological Works : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works written at Abbey in Bec : </li></ul></ul><ul><li> t he Monologion (1075-76), the Proslogion (1077-78), and his four philosophical dialogues : De grammatico (1059-60), De veritate , and De libertate arbitrii , and De casu diaboli (1080-86). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works written at Canterbury : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the Epistola de Incarnatione Verbi (1094), Cur Deus Homo (1095- </li></ul><ul><li>98), De conceptu virginali (1099), De processione Spiritus Sancti </li></ul><ul><li>(1102), the Epistola de sacrificio azymi et fermentati (1106-7), De </li></ul><ul><li>sacramentis ecclesiae (1106-7), and De concordia (1107-8). </li></ul>
  39. 39. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture 1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . Anselm’s Argument for the Necessity of God in the Monologion : Anselm concludes the first four chapters by summarizing his results: Therefore, there is a certain nature or substance or essence who through himself is good and great and through himself is what he is; through whom exists what- ever truly is good or great or anything at all; and who is the supreme good, the supreme great thing, the supreme being or subsistent, that is, supreme among all existing things. ( M 4 ) He then goes on ( in chapters 5-65 ) to derive the attributes that must belong to the being who fits this description. But before we look at Anselm's understanding of the divine attributes, we should turn to the famous proof in the Proslogion . 8 8 Quote from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( Stanford: Stanford University Press, The Metaphysics Research Lab, 2007 ) World Wide Web URL: http://plato.stanford.edu/
  40. 40. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture 1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . The Essential Argument of Anselm’s Treatise, the Prosologium. Correctly understood, Anselm says, the argument of the Proslogion can be summarized as follows: That than which nothing greater can be thought can be thought. If that than which nothing greater can be thought can be thought, it exists in reality. Therefore, that than which nothing greater can be thought exists in reality. 9 [ Translation : God’s existence is a necessary –both in idea and reality - for the world to be intelligible. JR ]. 9 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philososphy ( online edition ), Op. Cit.
  41. 41. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture 1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . Anselm’s Views on Christ and His Redemption Like the fallen angels, the first human beings willed happiness in preference to justice. By doing so they abandoned the will for justice and became unable to will justice for its own sake. Apart from divine grace, then, fallen human beings cannot help but sin. Anselm claims that we are still free, because we continue to be such that if we had rectitude of will, we could preserve it for its own sake; but we cannot exercise our freedom, since we no longer have the rectitude of will to preserve. ( Whether fallen human beings also retain the power for self-initiated action apart from divine grace is a tricky question, and one I do not propose to answer here. ) .
  42. 42. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture 1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . Anselm’s Views on Christ and His Redemption So the restoration of human beings to the justice they were intended to enjoy requires divine grace. But even more is needed than God's restoration of the will for justice. In Cur Deus Homo ( Why God Became A Human Being ) Anselm famously attempts to show on purely rational grounds that the debt incurred by human sin could be suitably discharged, and the affront to God's infinite dignity could be suitably rectified, only if one who was both fully divine and fully human took it upon himself to offer his own life on our behalf. 10 10 Professor Thomas Williams ( San Francisco University ) in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “ Anselm,” Op. Cit.
  43. 43. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture 1. Anselm of Canterbury ( 1033-1109 ) . Translations and Secondary Reference Works on Anselm of Canterbury : Davies, Brian, and G. R. Evans, ed. ( 1998 ) . Anselm of Canterbury : The Major Works . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Evans, G. R. ( 1978 ) . Anselm and Talking about God . Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1978. Henry, Desmond Paul ( 1967 ) . The Logic of Saint Anselm . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967. Plantinga, Alvin, ed. ( 1965 ) . The Ontological Argument . Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1965. Southern, R. W. ( 1990 ) . Saint Anselm : A Portrait in Landscape . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1990. Williams, Thomas (2007). Anselm: Basic Writings . Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2007. Williams, Thomas, and Sandra Visser ( forthcoming ) . Anselm . Great Medieval Thinkers. New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.
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  45. 45. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul>
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  47. 47. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard was an early French Scholastic Philosopher and </li></ul><ul><li> later became an outstanding Roman Catholic theologian. </li></ul><ul><li>He was also a preeminent teacher of dialectic or logic. </li></ul><ul><li>The story of his youthful love affair with He v loi ~ se has become </li></ul><ul><li>legendary and is one of the most fantastic sources of romantic </li></ul><ul><li>history from the Middle Ages. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a proponent of philosophical conceptualism and a </li></ul><ul><li>critic of those scholastics who were known as “realists.” </li></ul>
  48. 48. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . Abelard, originally called 'Pierre le Pallet' was born in the little village of Palets, about 10 miles east of Nantes , in Brittany , the eldest son of a minor noble Breton family. As a boy, he learned quickly being encouraged by his father, studied the liberal arts and excelled at the art of dialectic ( a branch of philosophy ) that at that time consisted chiefly of the logic of Aristotle trans-mitted through Latin channels. Instead of entering a military career, as his father had done, Abelard became an academic. During his early academic pur-suits, Abelard wandered throughout France, debating and learning, so as ( in his words ) &quot;he became such as one as the Peripatetics .“ The nominalist Roscellinus of Compiegne was his teacher during this period. 11 11 Wikipedia Article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Abelard .
  49. 49. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard's life is relatively well-known: in addition to events chronicled in </li></ul><ul><li>the public record, his inner life is revealed in his autobiographical letter </li></ul><ul><li>Historia calamitatum [ “The Story of My Troubles” ] and in his famous </li></ul><ul><li>correspondence with Héloïse. </li></ul><ul><li>During the first years of the twelfth century, Abelard felt confident enough </li></ul><ul><li>to set himself up as a lecturer, first at Melun and then at Corbeil, competing </li></ul><ul><li>mainly with William of Champeaux (Paris) for students and reputation. </li></ul><ul><li>The strain proved too much — Abelard's health failed, and he returned to </li></ul><ul><li>Brittany for several years. 12 </li></ul><ul><li>12 Peter King, “ Peter Abelard,” in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http:/ /plato.stanford.edu/entries/abelard/. See also The Cambridge Companion to Abelard . Jeff Brower and Kevin Guilfoy. ( eds. ) . New York: Cambridge University Press 2004. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard’s Early Scholastic Accomplishments : </li></ul><ul><li>He studied intensely in his retreat in Brittany and returned to Paris some- </li></ul><ul><li>time between 1108 and 1113 with new health and high ambition. </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard actually gave up a lucrative inheritance and knighthood to pursue </li></ul><ul><li>fulltime the study of philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>After attending a few months of lectures by William of Champeaux‘s lectures </li></ul><ul><li>in the University of Paris, he entered into a vigorous debate with his profess- </li></ul><ul><li>or over the nature of universals. Most historical accounts say that he bested </li></ul><ul><li>his former teacher in dialectical argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Henceforth, Abelard studied and taught on his own and soon became the </li></ul><ul><li>scholar-in-residence at Notre V- Dame, a position which held until his troubles. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . Abelard’s Love-Affair with He v loi ~ se Living within the precincts of Notre V -Dame, under the care of her uncle, the canon Fulbert, was a girl named Héloïse ( d. 1164 ) . She is said to have been beautiful, but still more remarkable for her knowledge of classical letters , which extended beyond Latin to Greek and Hebrew . Abelard sought and gained a place in Fulbert's house, where he then fell in love with her; and becoming tutor to the girl, he used his power for the purpose of seduction, and she returned his devo-tion. Their relations interfered with his public work and were not kept a secret by Abelard himself. Soon everyone knew except the trusting Fulbert. Once her uncle found out, the lovers were separated, only to meet in secret. Héloïse found her-self pregnant, and was sent by Abelard to Brittany, where she gave birth to a son. She named her child Astrolabe after the scientific instrument recently im-ported from the Islamic world.
  52. 52. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture Abelard’s Love-Affair with He v loi ~ se To appease her furious uncle, Abelard proposed a secret marriage, in order not to mar his prospects of advancement in the church; but Héloïse opposed the idea. She appealed to him not to sacrifice for her the independence of his life, but reluctantly gave in to pressure. The secret of the marriage was not kept by Fulbert; and when Héloïse boldly denied it, life was made so difficult for her that she sought refuge in the convent of Argenteuil at Abelard's bidding. Im-mediately Fulbert, believing that Héloïse's husband, who had helped her run away, wanted to be rid of her, plotted his revenge. He and some others broke into Abelard's chamber by night, and castrated him. The priesthood and ecclesi-astical office were, thereby, canonically closed to him. Héloïse, still only in her twenties, agreed to become a nun at the bidding of Abelard, who would never be able to function as a husband again. 13 13 Wikipedia article on Abelard, Op. Cit.
  53. 53. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard’s Later Life & Work </li></ul><ul><li>In ca. 1118-1119 the sad and disfigured Abelard , almost forty, re- </li></ul><ul><li>treated to the Abbey of Saint-Denis to recover from his woes and now </li></ul><ul><li>earnestly a celibate life as a monk. </li></ul><ul><li>He was, however, insecure in the cloistered life, and he began to seriously </li></ul><ul><li>study philosophy again and eventually opened another school in an un- </li></ul><ul><li>known priory. </li></ul><ul><li>While his lectures were now given in a devoted Christian manner, his old </li></ul><ul><li>adversaries sought to question him on some disputed remarks he made in </li></ul><ul><li>explaining the nature of the Trinity. Part of the motivation here may have </li></ul><ul><li>been that Abelard’s lectures drews scores and even hundreds of students. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard’s Later Life & Work </li></ul><ul><li>When Abelard published the first parts or tomes of his systematic theology </li></ul><ul><li>lectures in 1120, i.e., his Theologi Summi Boni , his opponents began a </li></ul><ul><li>second attack, accusing him of the Trinitarian heresy of Sabellianism. </li></ul><ul><li>In his earlier lectures at Paris, he had already published an important </li></ul><ul><li>treatise entitled Sic et Non ( Yes and No ) where he had examined in a </li></ul><ul><li>dialectical and highly rationalistic way 158 propositions from Christian </li></ul><ul><li>tradition and the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard asserted : “ The first key to wisdom . . . Is assiduous and fre- </li></ul><ul><li>quent questioning . . . . For by doubting we come to inquiry, and by </li></ul><ul><li>inquiry we arrive at the the turth.” </li></ul>
  55. 55. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard’s Later Life & Work </li></ul><ul><li>But while Abelard’s zest for dialectical doubt and Socratic inquiry won </li></ul><ul><li>fans among many students, it tended to alarm some Christian leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, some bishops and others found in his rationalistic explanation of </li></ul><ul><li>Trinity evidence of the heresy of Sabellianism , an ancient error of belief. </li></ul><ul><li>This charge ( probably unjust ) led to his first condemnation for heresy </li></ul><ul><li>by a church council at Soissons in 1121. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result . he was made to burn his book before being shut up in the </li></ul><ul><li>convent of St. Medard at Soissons. This was low point in his life. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard’s Later Life & Work </li></ul><ul><li>After his condemnation at Sossions, life at the monastary became unbearable </li></ul><ul><li>for Abelard. He thus was permitted to leave in ca. 1122-23. </li></ul><ul><li>In a deserted place near Nogent-sur-Seine , he built himself a cabin of </li></ul><ul><li>stubble and reeds, and turned into a religious hermit . </li></ul><ul><li>But Abelard’s fame was such that in a little while flocks of students sought </li></ul><ul><li>him out , even in the wilderness. </li></ul><ul><li>The new seekers built Abelard a better and more permanent shelter, cleared </li></ul><ul><li>and tilled a farm, and begged Abelard to teach the dialectic once more ! </li></ul><ul><li>Soon, the desolate place was filled with tents and huts of eager pupils ! </li></ul>
  57. 57. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard’s Later Life & Work </li></ul><ul><li>Because Abelard had found consolation in this place, he soon consecrated </li></ul><ul><li>his former hermitage as the New Oratory of the Paraclete . </li></ul><ul><li>But, fearing new persecution and attacks from unsympathetic clerics, P. </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard sought out a new refuge at the Abbey of Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys , </li></ul><ul><li>on the far-off shore of Lower Brittany. He remained here for ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically, He V loi ~ se’s convent at Argentuil was broken up at this time, and </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard managed to get her installed as the head of a new religious house </li></ul><ul><li>for women at the deserted Paraclete. They corresponded by letter during </li></ul><ul><li>this time ( Cf. Etienne V Gi v lson . Heloise and Abelard . City: UMP, 1960 ). </li></ul>
  58. 58. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>Philosophy and Theology : Scholasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard ( 1079-1141 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Abelard’s Final Days </li></ul><ul><li>In 1136 Abelard returned to Mount St. Genevieve, where he had begun his </li></ul><ul><li>brilliant career as a young man. Again, he lectured to scores of students, </li></ul><ul><li>including the young John of Salisbury. </li></ul><ul><li>But since the mid-1120s, Abelard had powerful opponents among the </li></ul><ul><li>monks; however, his most vocal critic was the powerful and influential </li></ul><ul><li>Abbot, Bernard of Clairvaux, the preacher of the Crusades. </li></ul><ul><li>He sternly and zealously condemned Abelard. He declared : “ The faith of the </li></ul><ul><li>righteous believes . . . It does not dispute ! ” Thus, at Bernard’s instigation, a new </li></ul><ul><li>church council at Sens condemned Abelard in 1140. </li></ul><ul><li>Abelard retired to the Abbey of Cluny; and then, during his last few months, sick </li></ul><ul><li>and broken, friends moved him to the Oratory at St. Marcel, where he died. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture
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  63. 63. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3. Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “ the Prince of the Schoolmen” and “ The Angelic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Doctor, ” Aquinas was the greatest of the schoolmen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Italian Catholic priest of the Dominon Order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> He was both a philosopher and a theologian, but chiefly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> a faithful son of the church ( as he understood it ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was the classical proponent of what is now called </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> “ natural theology.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He is the founder of what is called the Thomistic tradition in philosophy and also of Neo-Thomism . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture 3. Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274). Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters
  65. 65. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture 3 . Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ) . Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters
  66. 66. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 . Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I. His Early Life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aquinas was born in 1224 at his father Count Landulph's castle of Roccasecca in the Kingdom of Sicily , in the present-day Regione </li></ul><ul><li>Lazio . Through his mother, Theodora Countess of Theate, Aquinas was related to the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman emperors. </li></ul><ul><li>Landulf's brother Sinibald was abbot of the original Benedictine mon- </li></ul><ul><li>astery at Monte Cassino . The family intended for Aquinas to follow </li></ul><ul><li>his uncle into that position. This would have been a normal career path </li></ul><ul><li>for a younger son of southern Italian nobility. 14 </li></ul><ul><li>14 Wikipedia, Article on “Thomas Aquinas,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas_Aquinas. See the Bibliography at the end of Presentation ( JR ) . </li></ul>
  67. 67. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3. Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His Early Life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated from the age of the five at the monastery, young Aquinas went </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to the University of Naples to study at age sixteen. He stayed six years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While there he came under the influence of the Dominicans, who were very </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interested in enlisting this brilliant collegian in their order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But young Aquinas heartfelt desire did not meet with his parent’s plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and approval. As a result, as he traveled toward Rome, his own brothers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kidnapped him and his family kept him prisoner at the castle of San </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giovanni . </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 . Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters </li></ul><ul><li>I. His Early Life </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, Pope Innocent IV intervened and Aquinas assumed the habit </li></ul><ul><li>of St. Dominic in his 17th year. From that moment on, he was a monk </li></ul><ul><li>and brother of Blackfriars, the Dominican Order. </li></ul><ul><li>His superiors observed for nearly four years his erudition and strong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dedication to learning at the University of Naples. Thus, in 1244, they </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transferred him to the Dominican school in Cologne, where he completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>his philosophical theological studies under the sage, Albert Magnus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1245, Thomas joined his mentor Albert at the University of Paris, </li></ul><ul><li>where he remained for three years. While there he entered into the con- </li></ul><ul><li>between the Dominicans and the University over the liberty of preaching. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 . Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters </li></ul><ul><li>I. His Early Life </li></ul><ul><li>When the Pope was alerted of this dispute, the Dominicans selected Aquinas to defend his order. He did so with great success. He even overcame the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour , the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day . 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas would later argue that God had established certain truths which </li></ul><ul><li>man’s reason could discover and understand. On the other hand, he believed </li></ul><ul><li> there were certain truths of revelation which were only accessible by faith. </li></ul><ul><li>15 Wikipedia article on Thomas Aquinas, Op. Cit. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3. Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters </li></ul><ul><li>I. His Early Life </li></ul><ul><li>In ca. 1246, Thomas received his bachelors degreee in theology from the </li></ul><ul><li>faculty at the University of Paris. But in 1248 he returned to Cologne </li></ul><ul><li>where he was appointed lecturer and magister studentium . </li></ul><ul><li>For several years, Aquinas remained the colleague of AlbertusMagnus. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas's long association with this great philosopher-theologian was the </li></ul><ul><li>most important influence in his development. In the end, he became a </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive scholar who permanently utilized Aristotle's method. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1252, Thomas again journeyed to Paris to finish his Master’s degree. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1256, he was nominated for his Doctor’s degree – together with his </li></ul><ul><li>friend Bonaventura. Later, both lectured in France and Italy. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>3 . Thomas Aquinas ( 1225? -1274 ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Apex or Zenith of the Scholastic Masters </li></ul><ul><li>I. His Early Life </li></ul><ul><li>In 1252 he returned to Paris to receive his Masters degree and in 1256, </li></ul><ul><li>both he his friend and fellow Dominican, John Bonaventura, received the </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor of Theology. Thereafter, he lectured in Paris, Rome, and other </li></ul><ul><li> European cities ( and Universities ). </li></ul><ul><li>At various times in advised Popes ( i.e., Urban IV ) and kings ( Louis </li></ul><ul><li>VIII and Charles II ) and labored tirelessly in organizing, preaching, </li></ul><ul><li>teaching, and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>During these later years he also completed his immense tomes of scholastic </li></ul><ul><li>theology, the Summa Theologica and the Summa Contra Gentiles . </li></ul>
  72. 72. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture II. The Significance of Aquinas Like most famous Medieval figures the real “ Thomas ” of history sometimes has been obscured by pious legends and holy “ nonsense.” Two examples of this tendency toward ledgermain follow: “ It has reported that Aquinas heard a voice from a cross that told him he had written well. On one occasion, monks claimed to have found him levitating. ” The twentieth century Catholic writer/convert G.K. Chesterton describes these and other stories in his work on Aquinas, The Dumb Ox , a title based on early impressions that Aquinas was not proficient in speech. Chesterton quotes Al-bertus Magnus ' refutation of these impressions: &quot;You call him 'a dumb ox,' but I declare before you that he will yet bellow so loud in doctrine that his voice will resound through the whole world.&quot;
  73. 73. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>II. The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By being instinctively Aristotelian rather than </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Platonic (or Augustinian), Aquinas felt he </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> could come up with the best of all worlds. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, knowledge came principally through </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> the rational ordering of what our senses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> revealed to us about the natural order. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The world around us was the reality that </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>we truly had to deal with in the here and now </li></ul></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And this world was not in itself evil, not something to be dismissed, as did the Platonist-Augustinian mindset still strong in his times. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By subscribing to Albertus' views, he affirmed the primacy of the &quot;higher&quot; revelation knowledge which alone gives us an under- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>standing of the divine mysteries of faith. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But for Aquinas, such revelation knowledge meant only the logical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>revelation of Scripture, as interpreted traditionally by the Church </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fathers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas opposed Platonic-Augustinian mysticism with its emphasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>upon truth derived from Spirit-inspired insight. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To him, mystically-derived wisdom seemed too dubious a source of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mysticism was, to his way of thinking, terribly liable to abuse by milk- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maids and overly imaginative cowherds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, Aquinas downplayed the role in knowledge of the Holy Spirit and </li></ul><ul><li>replaced it with the power of the Church and its wide range of sacraments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in dispensing God's grace. [ See on Aquinas’ view of salvation in later slides ]. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, ironically enough, he had a powerful mystical experience of his </li></ul><ul><li>own shortly before his death. At this point, he commented on his life-long </li></ul><ul><li>work of scholastic thought as being &quot;mere straw.” </li></ul>
  76. 76. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>To Aquinas, the physical and spiritual – body and soul – are not inde- </li></ul><ul><li>dependent phenomenon but of one substance ( in distinction to the dualism </li></ul><ul><li>of the Platonist-Augustinians ) . </li></ul><ul><li>However, he acknowledged that the soul alone survives death, where it rests while it waits to be reunited with the body at the Last Day. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquinas took the view that the human mind was essentially a blank slate at birth. 16 </li></ul><ul><li>16 M ichael D. Berdine, Ph.D. ( Pima Community College Tucson, Arizona ) http ./ we . </li></ul><ul><li>pima.edu ~mberdine/ [ Internet Powerpoint ] History. 101: Western Civilization : </li></ul><ul><li>The High Middle Ages. Cited by Joseph David Rhodes, M.A., Bethany Christian </li></ul><ul><li>School ( World History I: Unit 4 : The Medieval World ). </li></ul>
  77. 77. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Berdine [ Continued . . .]: </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually in its own development, the senses begin to organize physical </li></ul><ul><li>perceptions in the mind, slowly bringing us to the awareness of physical </li></ul><ul><li>reality as fact or data. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, the active intellect focuses on this data and organizes it </li></ul><ul><li>into useful information--or ideas or truths. </li></ul><ul><li>The source of this organizational power of the mind comes as a gift of God, </li></ul><ul><li>who has placed an element of His own divine light within us, so that we </li></ul><ul><li>might recognize forms or ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>God draws all things from potentiality to actuality, and draws us ever-forward in our thoughts, helping us to realize our humanity, in order to approach fulfillment of His Divine Plan </li></ul>
  78. 78. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, its is God's design that man's purpose in life is to come to know </li></ul><ul><li>fully all things, as the sum of all things gives testimony to the essence of </li></ul><ul><li>God. </li></ul><ul><li>But, God does not impart knowledge by impressing every human thought </li></ul><ul><li>with His thought ( Platonism ) , but by fully endowed man at birth with his </li></ul><ul><li>own potential, through his own human reason, to come to the knowledge of </li></ul><ul><li>all things. </li></ul><ul><li>By expanding his own mind, man is making an intellectual journey toward </li></ul><ul><li>God, is being conformed to God, is participating in God – a matter of great </li></ul><ul><li>pleasure for God . </li></ul>
  79. 79. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>And by &quot;expanding his own mind,&quot; Aquinas meant rational </li></ul><ul><li>inquiry, empirical investigation of reality, the pursuit of </li></ul><ul><li>science. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus to Aquinas the pursuit of empirical knowledge was the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>way of mystical union with God. 17 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>17 M ichael D. Berdine, Ph.D., History 101, World Civilization : The High Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>1050-1400. Lecture. Internet Powerpoint, Op. Cit. [ Note: While we agree with </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Berdine’s general assessment, we diverge with his analysis on some key </li></ul><ul><li>points – as will be seen in what follows. – Joseph Rhodes ] </li></ul>
  80. 80. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, its is God's design that man's purpose in life is to come to know </li></ul><ul><li>fully all things, as the sum of all things gives testimony to the essence of </li></ul><ul><li>God. </li></ul><ul><li>But, God does not impart knowledge by impressing every human thought </li></ul><ul><li>with His thought ( Platonism ) , but by fully endowed man at birth with his </li></ul><ul><li>own potential, through his own human reason, to come to the knowledge of </li></ul><ul><li>all things. </li></ul><ul><li>By expanding his own mind, man is making an intellectual journey to- </li></ul><ul><li>ward God, is being conformed to God, is participating in God – a matter </li></ul><ul><li>of great pleasure for God . </li></ul>
  81. 81. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>It must be emphasized that while Thomas’ frame of mind and method </li></ul><ul><li>was “ scientific” ( i.e., from a Medieval viewpoint ), he was not only a </li></ul><ul><li>philosopher. He was also a Christian theologian. </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Samuel E. Stumpf ( Vanderbelt University ) comments : </li></ul><ul><li>“ That he brought together philosophy and theology did not mean that </li></ul><ul><li>he confused these two disciplines. On the contrary, it was his view that </li></ul><ul><li>philosophy and theology played complimentary roles in humanity’s </li></ul><ul><li>quest for truth . . . .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Philosophy proceeds from principles discovered by human reason, </li></ul><ul><li>whereas theology is the rational ordering of principles received from </li></ul><ul><li>authoritative revelation and held as a matter of faith.” [ Continued ] </li></ul>
  82. 82. Medieval Art & Intellectual Culture <ul><li>The Significance of Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>“ Again, theology and philosophy do not contradict each other, but not </li></ul><ul><li>everything that philosophy discusses is significant for a person’s reli- </li></ul><ul><li>gious end. Theology deals with what people need to know for their </li></ul><ul><li>salvation, and to ensure this knowledge, it was made available through </li></ul><ul><li>revelation. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Some of the truths of revelation could never be known by natural </li></ul><ul><li>reason, whereas other elements of revealed truth could be known by </li></ul><ul><li>reason alone but were revealed to ensure their being known.” 18 </li></ul><ul><li>18 Socrates to Sartre : A History of Philosophy ( Revised Fifth Edition : New York: </li></ul><ul><li>and London : McGraw-Hill, 1993 ), Ch. 9, p. 180. See further, pp. 181-199 for the </li></ul><ul><li>full topical survey of Aquinas’ thought. See also the later bibliography of critical </li></ul><ul><li>studies on Thomas Aquinas’s Philosophy and Theology ( e.g., bibliography slides ). </li></ul>

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