Emotions and attitudes

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Emotions and attitudes

  1. 1. 4-1 ATTITUDES vs EMOTIONS Attitudes is a mental state of readiness learned and organized through experience, exerting specific influence on a person’s response to people, objects, and institution with which it is related A state of physiological arousal accompanied by changes in facial expressions, gestures, posture, or subjective feelings. Examples of emotions are: surprise, joy, anticipation, sadness, disgust, fear, acceptance and anger.
  2. 2. 4-2 Attitudes versus Emotions AttitudesAttitudes EmotionsEmotions Judgments about anJudgments about an attitude objectattitude object Judgments about anJudgments about an attitude objectattitude object Based mainly onBased mainly on rational logicrational logic Based mainly onBased mainly on rational logicrational logic Usually stable for daysUsually stable for days or longeror longer Usually stable for daysUsually stable for days or longeror longer Experiences related to anExperiences related to an attitude objectattitude object Experiences related to anExperiences related to an attitude objectattitude object Based on innate and learnedBased on innate and learned responses to environmentresponses to environment Based on innate and learnedBased on innate and learned responses to environmentresponses to environment Usually experienced forUsually experienced for seconds or lessseconds or less Usually experienced forUsually experienced for seconds or lessseconds or less
  3. 3. 4-3 Traditional Model of Attitudes Purely cognitive approach  Beliefs: established perceptions of attitude object  Feelings: calculation of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object  Behavioral intentions: motivation to act in response to the attitude object Problem: Ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes
  4. 4. 4-4 BehaviorBehavior Emotions, Attitudes and Behavior Perceived EnvironmentPerceived Environment Attitude FeelingsFeelings BeliefsBeliefs BehavioralBehavioral IntentionsIntentions Cognitive process Emotional process Emotional Episodes
  5. 5. 4-5 Role of Emotions in Attitudes Feelings toward attitude object influenced by cumulative emotional episodes toward it We ‘listen in’ on our emotions while thinking through what we like or dislike Cognitive and emotional processes don’t always agree with each other Emotions also directly affect behavior  e.g. facial expression
  6. 6. 4-6 Generating Positive Emotions at Work The emotions-attitudes- behavior model illustrates that attitudes are shaped by ongoing emotional experiences. Thus, successful companies actively create more positive than negative emotional episodes. Courtesy of CXtec
  7. 7. 4-7 Cognitive Dissonance A state of anxiety that occurs when an individual’s beliefs, feelings and behaviors are inconsistent with one another Most common when behavior is:  known to others  done voluntarily  can’t be undone
  8. 8. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Emotional Labor and Emotional Intelligence Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress
  9. 9. 4-9 Emotional Labor Effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions. Emotional labor higher when job requires:  frequent and long duration display of emotions  displaying a variety of emotions  displaying more intense emotions Mood is the Long lasting state of emotion Mood ( or Emotional) Contagion is the transfer of mood or emotions from one individual to others
  10. 10. 4-10 Emotional Labor Across Cultures Displaying or hiding emotions varies across cultures  Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in Korea, Japan, Austria  Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt, Spain, Russia
  11. 11. 4-11 Emotional Labor Challenges Difficult to display expected emotions accurately, and to hide true emotions Emotional dissonance  Conflict between true and required emotions  Potentially stressful with surface acting  Less stress through deep acting
  12. 12. 4-12 Emotional Intelligence Defined Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others
  13. 13. 4-13 Social Awareness Self-management Understanding and sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situation of others Controlling or redirecting our internal states, impulses, and resources Self-awareness Understanding your own emotions, strengths, weaknesses, values, and motives Relationship Management Managing other people’s emotions Lowest Highest Model of Emotional Intelligence
  14. 14. 4-14 Emotional Intelligence Competencies Self-awareness Social awareness Self-management Relationship management Self (personal competence) Other (social competence) Recognition of emotions Regulation of emotions
  15. 15. 4-15 Improving Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is a set of competencies (aptitudes, skills) Can be learned, especially through coaching EI increases with age -- maturity
  16. 16. Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress
  17. 17. 4-17 Job Satisfaction A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context A collection of attitudes about specific facets of the job
  18. 18. 4-18 LoyaltyLoyalty VoiceVoice ExitExit NeglectNeglect • Leaving the situation • Quitting, transferring • Changing the situation • Problem solving, complaining • Patiently waiting for the situation to improve • Reducing work effort/quality • Increasing absenteeism EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction
  19. 19. 4-19 Job Satisfaction and Performance Happy workers are somewhat more productive workers, but: 1. General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviors 2. Job performance affects satisfaction only when rewarded 3. Depends on employee control of job performance (e.g. limited in assembly lines)
  20. 20. 4-20 Happy Staff = Happy Customers at Wegmans Wegmans Food Market enjoys strong customer loyalty and low employee turnover by keeping employees happy. Shown here, CEO Danny Wegman meets with staff during a new store opening. Courtesy of Wegmans Food Markets
  21. 21. 4-21 Job Satisfaction and Customers Job satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviors toward customers Less employee turnover, resulting in more consistent and familiar service Courtesy of Wegmans Food Markets
  22. 22. 4-22 Organizational Commitment Affective commitment  Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization Continuance commitment  Belief that staying with the organization serves your personal interests
  23. 23. 4-23 Building Organizational Commitment Justice and support  Apply humanitarian values  Support employee wellbeing Shared values  Values congruence Trust  Employees trust org leaders  Job security supports trust Organizational comprehension  Know firm’s past/present/future  Open and rapid communication Employee involvement  Employees feel part of company  Involvement demonstrates trust

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