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Respiratory system dinos

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Respiratory system dinos

  1. 1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM HUMANS & DINOSAURS
  2. 2. FUNCTIONS: Protect our body: against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them from respiratory surfaces. Exchange gas: oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leaves. Regulate blood pH: altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels. Speak (produce voice): Movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech. Smell (olfaction): it occurs when airborne molecules are drawn into nasal cavity. HOW DOES IT WORK? When we breathe, we inhale (breathe in) oxygen and exhale (breathe out) carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system’s means of getting oxygen to the blood.
  3. 3. TERRESTRIAL ANIMALS They are (adult) amphibians, birds, reptiles and mammals (including human beings) and they breath through lungs. As you move from amphibians to mammals the surface area of the lungs increases, that is, they are bigger and bigger. *Insures a greater amount of gas exchange (or a two way flow of air). Birds, by contrast, have lungs and air sacs which have only a one-way flow of air. This allows for them to have constant contact with fresh air. This adaptation enables them to fly at high altitudes where there is less oxygen. Fish breath through gills. Dinosaurs were terrestrial animals, so they breathed through lungs..
  4. 4. HUMAN BEINGS NASAL CAVITY (Sinus) ORAL CAVITY (Inside of the mouth) NOSTRILS (Breathing holes in the nose) PHARYNX (Throat) LARYNX (Voice box) TRACHEA (Windpipe) LUNG (Main organ of the respiratory system) BRONCHUS (Bronchial tube - Airway) BRONCHIOLES (Small bronchial tube) ALVEOLI (Air sacs in lungs) DIAPHRAGM (Respiratory muscle) PLEURA (Lining of the lung) EPIGLOTTIS (Flap of cartilage in the throat)
  5. 5. EPIGLOTTIS POSITION WHEN FOOD IS NOT PASSING. IT IS OPEN. EPIGLOTTIS POSITION WHEN FOOD IS PASSING. IT IS CLOSED. The function of the larynx is to produce sounds (with its vocal cords) and protect the trachea against food aspiration. The pleura includes two thin layers of tissue that protect and cushion the lungs. A liquid, called pleural fluid, lubricates the pleural cavity so that the two layers of pleural tissue can slide against each other.
  6. 6. During inspiration (when we breathe in), air passes through the mouth and nose down the pharynx (throat) and through the trachea and bronchi to the lungs. In the lungs, air travels through branching bronchioles which end in small clusters (groups) of microscopic sacs called alveoli. Oxygen molecules are transformed from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide moves out of of the bloodstream and back into the respiratory track where it is released through the mouth and nose during expiration (when we breath out).
  7. 7. DINOSAURS LUNGS CLAVICULAR AIR SAC ANTERIOR THORACIC AIR SACS POSTERIOR THORACIC AIR SACS ABDOMINAL AIR SACS
  8. 8. The dinosaurs breathed in the same way that birds do. This allowed the animal a better use of the oxygen breathed, which is estimated between 60 and 65 percent, much higher than the rest of vertebrates (man takes between 20 and 25 percent of the oxygen consumed). The dinosaurs had air sacs, chambers connected to the lungs, which act as an extension of these and penetrates the bones lightening their weight. These "bags" serve to store the air, but do not extract oxygen (function performed by the lungs). We can distinguish between the anterior air sacs (located in the thoracic cavity) and the posterior air sacs (also called ventral to be located in the abdomen).
  9. 9. When the dinosaur breathes in, the air is attracted directly from the bronchi to the posterior air sacs, where the air is stored. When the posterior air sacs expire, they disintegrate, this makes the air pass to the lungs, where the oxygen is absorbed. The consumed air (which contains carbon dioxide which is detrimental to the organism) is then lodged in the above air sacs, and the animal inhales fresh air again to be sent to the posterior air sacs. Then, it expires expelling the air consumed from the previous bags (to the outside) and bringing fresh air from the posterior air sacs to the lungs. The air flow is a unidirectional loop, which allows: 1. The lungs are always in contact with fresh air rich in oxygen. 2. There is no gas exchange (oxygen and carbon dioxide) during the breathing process.

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