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  1. 1. The European Union:500 million people – 27 countries Member states of the European Union Candidate countries
  2. 2. Founders New ideas for lasting peace and prosperity… Konrad Adenauer Alcide De Gasperi Winston Churchill Robert Schuman Jean Monnet
  3. 3. The EU symbols The European anthem The European flag Europe Day, 9 May The motto: United in diversity
  4. 4. 23 official languages
  5. 5. Enlargement: from six to 27 countries 1952 1973 1981 1986 1990 1995 2004 2007
  6. 6. The big enlargement:healing the division of Europe 1989 Fall of Berlin Wall – end of Communism EU economic help begins: Phare programme 1992 Criteria set for a country to join the EU: • democracy and rule of law • functioning market economy • ability to implement EU laws 1998 Formal negotiations on enlargement begin 2002 Copenhagen summit agrees enlargement 2004 10 new EU members: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia 2007 Bulgaria and Romania join the EU 2013 Croatia joins on 1st of July © Reuders Candidates Iceland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Turkey
  7. 7. The treaties – basis for democratic cooperationbuilt on law 1952 1958 The European Steel and Coal Community The treaties of Rome: The European Economic Community The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) 1987 The European Single Act: the Single Market 1993 2003 1999 Treaty of European Union Treaty of Nice Treaty of Amsterdam – Maastricht
  8. 8. The Lisbon treaty - taking Europe intothe 21st century The Treaty will make the European Union: More efficient Simpler processes, full-time president for the Council, etc. More democratic Stronger role for the European Parliament and national parliaments, "Citizens Initiative", Charter of Fundamental Rights, etc. More transparent Clarifies who does what, greater public access to documents and meetings, etc. More united on High Representative for Foreign Policy, etc. the world stage More secure New possibilities to fight climate change and terrorism, secure energy supplies, etc.
  9. 9. Germany 82.1 France 64.4United Kingdom 61.6 Italy 60.1 Spain 45.8 Poland 38.1 Romania 21.5 Netherlands 16.5 Greece 11.3 Belgium 10.8 Portugal 10.6Czech Republic 10.5 Hungary 10.0 Sweden 9.3 500 million total Austria 8.4 Bulgaria 7.6 Population in millions, 2009 Denmark 5.5 Slovakia 5.4 Finland 5.3 Ireland 4.5 Lithuania 3.3 How many people live in the EU? Latvia 2.3 Slovenia 2.0 Estonia 1.3 Cyprus 0.8 Luxemburg 0.5 Malta 0.4
  10. 10. Climate change – a global challenge To stop global warming, EU leaders decided in 2007 to:  reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020 (30% if other developed countries do likewise)  improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020  raise the share of renewable energy to 20% by 2020 (wind, solar, hydro power, biomass)
  11. 11. Jobs and growth Challenges: Demography: Europeans live longer, have fewer children Globalisation: European economy faces competition from other parts of the world Climate change: Emission of greenhouse gases must come down Solutions: European leaders have therefore agreed on a joint strategy for: More research and innovation A more dynamic business environment Investing in people A greener economy
  12. 12. The euro – a single currency for Europeans Can be used everywhere in the euro area Coins: one side with national symbols, one side common Notes: no national side EU countries using the euro EU countries not using the euro
  13. 13. Free to move “Schengen”:  No police or customs checks at borders between most EU countries  Controls strengthened at EU external borders  More cooperation between police from different EU countries  Youcan buy and bring back any goods for personal use when you travel between EU countries © Corbis
  14. 14. Going abroad to learn Over 2 million young people have studied or pursued personal development in other European countries with support from EU programmes: Comenius: school education Erasmus: higher education Leonardo da Vinci: vocational training Grundtvig: adult education Youth in Action: voluntary work and non-formal education© Getty Images
  15. 15. Improving health and the environment Pollution knows no borders – joint action needed EU action has helped bring:  Cleaner bathing water  Much less acid rain  Lead-free petrol  Free and safe disposal of old electronic equipment  Strict rules on food safety from farm to fork  More organic and quality farming  More effective health warnings on cigarettes  Registration and control of all chemicals (REACH)© Van Parys Media
  16. 16. An area of freedom, security and justice  Charter of Fundamental Rights  Joint fight against terrorism  Policeand law-enforcers from different countries cooperate  Coordinatedasylum and immigration policies  Civil law cooperation © European Union Police Mission
  17. 17. The EU: an exporter of peace and prosperity  World trade rules  Common foreign and security policy  Development assistance and humanitarian aidE U r u n s t h e p e a c e k e e p in g o p e r a t io n s a n d t h e r e b u ild in g o f s o c ie t y in w a r -t o r n c o u n t r ie s lik e B o s n ia - H e r z e g o v in a .
  18. 18. Three key players The European Parliament - voice of the people Martin Schulz, President of of the European Parliament The council of Ministers - voice of the Member States Herman Van Rompuy, President of the European Council The European Commission - promoting the common interest José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission
  19. 19. The EU institutions European Council (summit) Council of Ministers European Parliament (Council of the EU) European Commission Court of Court of Economic and Social Justice Auditors Committee Committee of the Regions European Investment Bank Agencies European Central Bank
  20. 20. How EU laws are made Citizens, interest groups, experts: discuss, consult Commission: makes formal proposal Parliament and Council of Ministers: decide jointly National or local authorities: implement Commission and Court of Justice: monitor implementation
  21. 21. The European Parliament – voice of the people Decides EU laws and budget together with Council of Ministers Democratic supervision of all the EU’s work Number of members elected in each country (January 2012) Austria 19 Finland 13 Latvia 9 Romania 33 Belgium 22 France 74 Lithuania 12 Slovakia 13 Bulgaria 18 Germany 99 Luxembourg 6 Slovenia 8 Cyprus 6 Greece 22 Malta 6 Spain 54 Czech Republic 22 Hungary 22 Netherlands 26 Sweden 20 Denmark 13 Ireland 12 Poland 51 United Kingdom 72 Estonia 6 Italy 73 Portugal 22 Total 753
  22. 22. The European political parties Number of seats in the European Parliament per political group (January 2012) Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe European People’s Party 84 (Christian Democrats) Greens/European Free Alliance 271 58Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats 190 European Conservatives and Reformists 53 Europe of Freedom and Democracy European United 33 Left - Nordic Green Left Total : 753 34 Non-attached members 30
  23. 23. Council of Ministers – voice of the member states One minister from each EU country Presidency: rotates every six months Decides EU laws and budget together with Parliament Manages the common foreign and security policy
  24. 24. Council of Ministers – number of votes percountry Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom 29 Spain and Poland 27 Romania 14 Netherlands 13 Belgium, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary and Portugal 12 Austria, Bulgaria and Sweden 10 Denmark, Ireland, Lithuania, Slovakia and Finland 7 Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Luxembourg and Slovenia 4 Malta 3 Total: 345 “Qualified majority” needed for many decisions: 255 votes and a majority of member states From 2014: 55% of the Member States with 65% of the population
  25. 25. A high representative for foreign affairs and security Catherine Ashton Double hat: chairs the Foreign Affairs Council meetings + Vice-president of the European Commission Manages the common foreign and security policy Head of European External Action Service
  26. 26. The European Commission – promotingthe common interest 27 independent members, one from each EU country  Proposes new legislation  Executive organ  Guardian of the treaties  Represents the EU on the international stage
  27. 27. The European Central Bank:managing the euro Ensures price stability Controls money supply and decides interest rates Works independently from governments Mario Draghi President of the Central Bank
  28. 28. The Committee of the Regions:voice of local government 344 members Represents cities, regions Advises on new EU laws and policies Promotes the involvement of local government in EU matters