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HYDROCARBON DERIVATIVES PPT (You should improve the info and quality of design)

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  1. 1. Hydrocarbons Derivatives JoséÁngelGarcía SánchezID:1722659 BrendaKarina Rangel ID: Ivan Rigoberto IbarraRodriguezID:173407 AbrilAmeyal Loyola Nuño ID:1739803 IngridTatiana Serna MartínezID: 1738309 CHEMISTRY: Selected Topics | Stage #1 | Metacognition Activity | Group 408
  2. 2. MENU Introduction Generalities Chemical Reaction Daily-Life Applications and Examples Bibliography
  3. 3. Introduction The hydrocarbons derivatives are formed when one or more Hydrogen atoms are replaced by an element or a groups of elements other than Hydrogen. A functional group is a reactive group of atoms (eg. –OH) Due to the reactivity of the functional groups, we can determine the physical and chemical properties of compounds. We also classify compounds based on these groups.
  4. 4. Generalities
  5. 5. Chemical Reaction REACTION OF HALOALKANE: ALCOHOL FORMATION It´s a substitution reaction where one alkyl halide react with a strong base: FORMULA: 𝑅 + Na 𝑅 + Na EXAMPLE: 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 + Na 𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 + Na Ethyl Alcohol (alcohol) Sodium hydroxide (base) Sodium chloride (salt) Ethyl chloride (haloalkane)
  6. 6. Chemical Reaction REACTION OF ALCOHOLES: OXIDATION PRIMARY In oxidation, as we know, involves oxygen which is proportionated to a strong oxidant agent. In this case the primary alcoholes are oxided to aldehydes and this oxidyze in order to créate carboxylic acids. FORMULA: EXAMPLE: R CH OH + 𝐻2 𝑂R 𝐶𝐻2 OH + 𝑂2 Oxidant Primary alcohol Aldehyde 𝐶𝐻3 CH O + 𝐻2 𝑂𝐶𝐻3 𝐶𝐻2 OH + 𝑂2 Ethanol Ethanal 𝐶𝑢 at 250° C 𝐶𝐻3 CH O + 𝑂2 𝐶𝐻3 COOH Ethanal Acetic Acid 𝐾 𝑀𝑛 𝑂4
  7. 7. Chemical Reaction REACTION OF ALCOHOLES: OXIDATION SECONDARY In oxidation, as we know, involves oxygen which is proportionated to a strong oxidant agent. In this case the secondary alcohol can oxidyze to ketones. FORMULA: R C R + 𝐻2 𝑂R 𝐶𝐻 R + 𝑂2 Secondary alcohol Ketone OH O 𝐾2 𝐶𝑟2 𝑂7 EXAMPLE:
  8. 8. Chemical Reaction REACTION OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS: ESTERIFICATION In esterification, the alcoholes can react with carboxylic acids in a half hot acid, creating esters, which have a sweet odor and are used in roder to synthetize fragances and fruits. FORMULA: EXAMPLES:
  9. 9. Chemical Reaction REACTION OF ALCOHOLES: FERMENTATION Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts a carbohydrate, such as starch or a sugar, into an alcohol or an acid. For example, yeast perform fermentation to obtain energy by converting sugar into alcohol. It´s the main method to produce alcohol FORMULA: NOTES ABOUT ALCOHOL REACTIONS: 1.- the most common oxidants are: Cooper (Cu), Chromo trioxid (Cr𝑂3), Potassium dichromat (𝐾2 𝐶𝑟2 𝑂7) and Potassium Permanganete (𝐾 𝑀𝑛 𝑂4) 2.- The tertiary level alcohls in fact do not really react to oxidize
  10. 10. Chemical Reaction REACTION OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES: OXIDATION In oxidation, the aldehydes and ketones have the facility to be oxdized. The aldehydes are oxidized wit facility even in soft or moderate conditions, giving as a product carboxylic acids, nor like ketones, which can resist to oxidqation. Thish is because of the hydrogen of carbón from the carbonilic group of the aldehyde, which ketones doesn´t have it. This hydrogen is lost during oxidation. In other words, ketones do not react to oxidation. FORMULA: EXAMPLES: BOTH OF THEM ARE ALDEHYDES
  11. 11. Chemical Reaction REACTION OF AMINES: ACID-BASE REACTION In acid-base reaction, the acids and base react together in order to form water and a salt, the amines can do it to, being acids and also act as a base. The amines, having some characteristics of bases, are considered organic bases, by that they can react with acids in order to make salts. EXAMPLE:
  12. 12. Daily-Life Applications and Examples • Iodoethane (methyl idodide) – Intermediate in the manufacture of some pharmaceuticals and pesticides. – Proposed uses of methyl iodide are as a fire extinguisher – Used as an insecticidal fumigant. Haloalkanes
  13. 13. Daily-Life Applications and Examples • Ethanol – Alcoholic drinks production – Biofuel in cars – As a solvent for perfumes • Esters; ethyl propanoate (ethyl acetate) – Artificial fruit essences and aroma enhancers – Artificial flavors for confectionery, ice cream and cakes – as a solvent in many applications (including decaffeinating tea and coffee) for varnishes and paints (nail varnish remover) – manufacture of printing inks and perfumes. Alcohols
  14. 14. Daily-Life Applications and Examples • Methanal (formaldehyde) – Its largest application is in the production of certain polymeric materials: adhesives and coatings. – It is used in tanning, preserving, and embalming and as a germicide, fungicide and insecticide for plants and vegetables. Aldehydes
  15. 15. Daily-Life Applications and Examples • Propanone (acetone) – the most common use of acetone is as the active ingredient in nail polish remover. – As a solvent for many different materials, such as plastics or other man-made, petroleum-based substances. – As an additive in makeup and some kinds of food. In particular it can be found in bread where it helps to mature and bleach flour. – As an additive to the gasoline in their cars. The chemical's dissolving power seems to come in handy cleaning off engine buildup, allowing the vehicles to run more smoothly. Ketones
  16. 16. Daily-Life Applications and Examples • Methanoic acid (formic acid) – Used in the production of leather. – Used in textile and rubber industries. – Because of its natural antibacterial properties is used in antibacterial preservative and pesticide and food additives- Countries such as Austria and Switzerland. These countries, which fight bitter winters and very dangerous roads, are now using formates, which are the salts that are derived from formic acid (increase the gripping ability). Carboxylic acids
  17. 17. Daily-Life Applications and Examples • Amines; 1-aminopropane (propylamine) – The main applications can be found in the production of agricultural chemicals a well known fungicide) – Used in active pharmaceutical ingredients Amines
  18. 18. Bibliography Clark, Jim. 2004. 01 de 02 de 2016. Martinez Javier, Morales Guadalupe, Tehuitzitl Felipe, Rodriguez Maria. Temas Selectos de Quimica. Mexico D.F.: UANL, 2015. Wade, Leory G. 24 de 07 de 2015. 01 de 02 de 2016. • Acidpedia. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb. 4, 2016, from Formic acid: • BASF. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb. 4, 2016, from finder/en/brand/PROPYLAMINE • Britannica. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 4, 2016, from Aldehydes: aldehydes • CHM. (n.d.). Retrieved Feb 4, 2016, from Ethyl Acetate: • EHOW. (s.f.). Recuperado el 4 de Feb de 2016, de Common Uses of Chemical Acetone: • EPA. (2015, September 9). Retrieved Feb 4, 2016, from Mathyl Iodine: • GCSesscience. (2015). Retrieved Feb 4, 2016, from Uses of Ethanol: