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John Locke Y El Empirismo

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Pensamiento del empirstia John Locke

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John Locke Y El Empirismo

  1. 1. John Locke y el empirismo
  2. 2. Entorno Social Algunos conceptos Biografía El empirismo Obras
  3. 3. Cambios sociales Revolución inglesa (concluye en 1689 con el advenimiento al trono de Guillermo de Orange.) Galileo Galilei llega a Roma para su juicio ante la Inquisición
  4. 4. Isaac Newton publica Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica Después de la Gloriosa Revolución; Inglaterra, se convierte en una monarquía constitucional
  5. 5. Algunos conceptos  Empirismo Ve en la experiencia el criterio último de la verdad. Sitúa la percepción en la base del saber.  Convencionalismo lingüístico El origen de la lengua en dos interpretaciones:
  6. 6. a) Hipótesis naturalista: defendida por Platón (conexión entre el sonido de una palabra y su significado- onomatopeya) b) Hipótesis convencionalista: la conexión es arbitraria
  7. 7.  Liberalismo: teoría política defendida por Locke 2) Contrato social 3) Objeto del estado 4) Las leyes sobre el estado 5) Derecho de revelarse
  8. 8. Biografía  John Locke nació en Wrington (cerca de Bristol), Inglaterra, el 29 de agosto de 1632 La fama de Locke era mayor como en filósofo y como pedagogo. Todo el pensamiento posterior fue influenciado por su empirismo, hasta desembocar en el escepticismo de Hume
  9. 9.  Influyó de forma determinante en las ideas de la Revolución Gloriosa y la Declaración de Derechos Británica de 1689.  Locke volcó la experiencia de su vida intelectual en dos obras cumbre: Ensayo sobre el entendimiento humano (1690) y Pensamientos sobre educación
  10. 10. ¿Qué es el empirismo?
  11. 11.  Negación de la ideas innatas y preexistencia a la experiencia.  La mente al nacer está vacía, es como una hoja en blanco  Contiene lo que se imprime desde fuera (sensaciones y reflexiones)  Sin la experiencia o la instrucción no se desarrolla ninguna idea.
  12. 12. Las ideas innatas no pueden estar en la mente de un niño sin que este sea consciente (pensar y no ser consciente del propio pensamiento es una paradoja)
  13. 13. Conclusiones  Prioridad de la experiencia y de la sensación.  Nominalismo y el convencionalismo: las palabras y conceptos no expresan una realidad metafísica.  Asocianismo: La mente asocia ideas  Atomismo psíquico: cualquier idea compleja puede ser reducida a ideas simples.
  14. 14. La mente es una hoja en blanco
  15. 15. Algunas de sus obras Ensayo sobre el entendimiento humano
  16. 16.  Contra la teoría cartesiana de las leyes innatas.  La experiencia explica toda clase de conocimientos.  Toda hipótesis Innanetista es inútil: “¿para que tener ideas innatas, si tenemos la capacidad de conocerlas?”
  17. 17.  No hay principios en los que el hombre convenga universalmente: Es imposible que una cosa sea y no sea al mismo tiempo. Los niños, los locos y los idiotas no conocen esto  No hay pensamientos inconscientes: imprimir algo en la mente sin que lo perciba es una paradoja
  18. 18. Si no son nociones grabadas ¿cómo pueden ser innatas? Y si son grabadas ¿cómo pueden ser desconocidas?
  19. 19.  No hay principios universales de carácter ético.  La historia del hombre demuestra que no hay un principio moral universal.  Si las ideas morales son innatas; ¿por qué son violadas tan rápidamente?
  20. 20. La mente no inventa ideas Problema: ¿Cómo se forman las ideas? Tesis: La mente no inventa ideas. La mente se dedica a reelaborar en forma de abstracción los datos que recibe del exterior. “Nada no hay en el intelecto que antes no haya estado en la percepción”
  21. 21.  Los sentido decoran el local vacío  Los conceptos generales se aprenden por abstracción  Hay ideas que están en nuestra mente pero no son innatas.  Su formación precede al lenguaje y al pensamiento racional: antes de saber hablar un niño conoce la diferencia entre las ideas de dulce y amargo
  22. 22. Las palabras son signos de las ideas Problema: ¿Cuál es la función del lenguaje?¿Qué relación existe entre palabras y cosas? Tesis: El sonido de la palabra expresa la naturaleza del objeto. Para Locke las palabras son signos convencionales, puros símbolos arbitrarios, eventuales, sustituidos por otros
  23. 23. Ensayos sobre el gobierno civil (1660–1662) La primera sociedad fue entre la mujer y el marido.
  24. 24. Problema: ¿Cómo nace la sociedad? ¿Cuál es la naturaleza del estado? Tesis: continuidad entre la condición natural-primitiva y la social política del hombre Fundamental exigencia de la socialización
  25. 25.  La socialización es un instinto natural: Dios, al crear al hombre, vio que no era bueno que este solo.  La continuidad entre familia y estado, el marido y la mujer, dio origen a los padres e hijos; y esta al patrón y al siervo  La familia y el estado se fundan en un pacto constructural: la sociedad conyugal está constituida por un contrato voluntario entre mujer y hombre
  26. 26. Ensayo sobre el gobierno civil Propiedad privada y división de los pobres
  27. 27. Problema: cuando los ciudadanos entran a formar parte de una organización social ¿renuncian a sus derechos? Tesis: formulación de la democracia liberal. El estado no puede negar los derechos del hombre
  28. 28.  La propiedad privada es un derecho: el poder no es quitar propiedades.  El pueblo debe poseer necesariamente una propiedad  El pueblo está en su derecho de rebelión  La separación del poder ejecutivo y legislativo es garantía de la democracia
  29. 29. Ensayo sobre la tolerancia Problema: ¿Qué relaciones deben existir entre Estado e Iglesia? Tesis: no se puede admitir ninguna secta secreta u obediente a un país extranjero
  30. 30.  La tolerancia a otros credo es conforme con el Evangelio y la razón  Hay fijar los límites entre Iglesia y Estado.  El fin del estado es la conservación y promoción de los bienes civiles  No puede haber una Iglesia que sirva a dos estados.  Para un ateo la palabra dada, los pactos, juramentos no pueden ser estables
  31. 31. GRACIAS

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