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7 Forensic Science Powerpoint Chapter 07 Forensic Anthropology

  1. 1. Forensic Science An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Forensic Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter Author: Marcella H. Sorg </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation created by Greg Galardi, Peru, Nebraska </li></ul><ul><li>Edited by Stuart H. James, Fort Lauderdale, Florida and </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Mabel, Richmond, Virginia </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  3. 3. What is Forensic Anthropology? <ul><li>Defined as the application of the theory and methods of anthropology to forensic problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Most forensic anthropologists have been specialists in physical anthropology, and particularly skeletal biology. </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  4. 4. Forensic Anthropologists <ul><li>Primarily investigate death and injury for criminal or civil legal purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic anthropologists knowledge of human skeleton complements forensic pathologists understanding of soft tissue </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  5. 5. Forensic Anthropology <ul><ul><li>Focus of forensic anthropology has been expanded to include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forensic taphonomy- interpretation of primarily outdoor death scenes and postmortem processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forensic archaeology – recovery of scattered remains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extrapolation of soft tissue based on skeletal form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biomechanical interpretation of sharp and blunt force injuries, primarily to bone </li></ul></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  6. 6. Forensic Anthropology <ul><li>Examination of human remains by forensic anthropologists focuses on three tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the victim or at least providing a biological profile ( age, sex, stature, ancestry, anomalies, pathology and individual features) continued </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  7. 7. Forensic Anthropology <ul><ul><li>Reconstructing postmortem period based on condition of the remains and recovery context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing data regarding death event, including evidence of trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If anthropologist has participated in recovery, he or she will document recovery processes and forensic taphonomy of site </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  8. 8. History of Forensic Anthropology <ul><li>W.M. Krogman published pivotal article on skeletal remains in the FBI Bulletin in 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>During and after World War II and Korean War, forensic anthropologists became involved in identification of war dead </li></ul><ul><li>1972 Physical Anthropology Section of American Academy of Forensic Sciences was established – Board certification in 1977 </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  9. 9. Physical Anthropology and Human Variability <ul><li>Physical anthropologists study human physical variation and evolution in relationship to behavioral patterns, including culture </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal size, dental, and soft tissue size are explained </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations by physical anthropologist are derived from a theoretical understanding of gene pool changes over time and space </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  10. 11. Physical Anthropology and Human Variability <ul><li>Osteology and Odontology are both specialized fields of study for physical anthropologists </li></ul><ul><li>Osteology- detailed study of skeletal biology </li></ul><ul><li>Odontology – detailed study of dental biology </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  11. 12. Taphonomy <ul><li>Taphonomy- study of postmortem changes in the body due to environment </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to the body may include normal decomposition, movement or modification by flowing water, freezing, mummification or alteration or scattering of body parts by scavengers </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  12. 13. Archaeology <ul><li>Archaeology - the scientific study of fossil relics, artifacts, and monuments of past human life and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists have a vast array of methods and techniques for recovering and interpreting material from prior events </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  13. 14. Archaeology <ul><li>Methods of recovery may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerial or infrared photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground penetrating radar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precise mapping is required to determine exact location of the body, or various parts thereof, and spatial relationships of materials </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  14. 15. Archaeology <ul><li>Location and determination of trace evidence is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation of primary and secondary disturbances within a grave is necessary to correctly reconstruct the process of body placement </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining a chain of custody is critical </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  15. 16. Scene Processing <ul><li>Forensic physical anthropologist often participates in searches of human remains by law enforcement or medical examiners </li></ul><ul><li>Cadaver dogs, search and rescue teams or divers may assist depending on need </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic physical anthropologist generally does on site identification of remains and evaluation </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  16. 17. Buried Remains <ul><li>Processing a scene with buried remains requires considerable effort and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Two perimeters need to be set: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st for immediate grave area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd for scatter area </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  17. 21. Buried Remains <ul><li>Screening area convenient to grave should be set up for sifting through material from grave </li></ul><ul><li>Staging area for excavation is completed to give leeway around grave </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of position of body prior to excavation is helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Small tools ( trowels, brushes) should be used. </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  18. 23. Buried Remains <ul><li>As soon as they are exposed, any body parts or bones should be photographed </li></ul><ul><li>All sediment from grave should be screened to search for hair, bones, teeth, fragments or other evidentiary material </li></ul><ul><li>Water screening may be necessary in cases of muddy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Routine photographs of scene should be taken periodically throughout process </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  19. 28. Buried Remains <ul><li>Entire area must be photographed before work starts </li></ul><ul><li>Area must be gridded to complete spatial measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Metal detector may be used and “hits” flagged </li></ul><ul><li>Examination for insects, larval or adult, should be collected and preserved </li></ul><ul><li>Postmortem plants associated with body should be collected </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  20. 29. Buried Remains <ul><li>Exposure of body or skeleton prior to removal from gravesite assists in investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Grave perimeter should be closely inspected for footprints, tools, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Body or skeleton removed to body bag </li></ul><ul><li>After removal, continued excavation and sifting/screening should be completed </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  21. 30. Examining Remains <ul><li>Human and non-human bone and teeth identification is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of whether bones constitute forensic evidence are important </li></ul><ul><li>Native American, federal or state lands have specific handling requirements </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  22. 31. Taphonomic Assessment <ul><li>First step in examination of human remains is to perform a taphonomic assessment, which includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full inventory of area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of condition of remains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimation of time since death </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  23. 32. Taphonomic Assessment <ul><li>Inventory includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of and completeness of all skeletal elements found </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether skeletal remains are adult or immature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the event of flesh remaining, x-rays and photography of element should be done </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  24. 33. Taphonomic Assessment <ul><li>Condition of Remains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on primary postmortem processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposition stage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of scavenger modification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insect life cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modification by water, sand or geology </li></ul></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  25. 34. Soft Tissue Examination and Processing <ul><li>After taphonomic documentation is complete, soft tissue examination may be done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprints examined for viability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal tissues and organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone formation centers in child victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening for small bones or artifacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray materials </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  26. 35. Issues in Developing a Biological Profile <ul><li>Anthropologists play a key role in developing the profile. This includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing skeleton for shape and sex, which allow estimate of age, sex and ancestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stature of victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique healed bone figures or distortions, and dental configurations assist in constructing profile </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  27. 36. Issues in Developing a Biological Profile <ul><li>Biological Profile assists law enforcement in narrowing range of possibility of victim </li></ul><ul><li>Prior statistical studies of segments of various populations are used to assist in identification </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed or unusual ancestry of the victim complicate this problem </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  28. 37. Issues in Identification <ul><li>Circumstantial evidence – evidence that requires investigator to infer certain facts </li></ul><ul><li>Most coroners or medical examiners require positive identification </li></ul><ul><li>Identification requires match of DNA, fingerprints, dental records, x-rays, or unique apparatus, such as an artificial joint </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  29. 38. Issues in Identification <ul><li>Congenital defects, evidence of surgical procedure, or bony changes based on certain characteristics or occupations all may assist in identification process </li></ul><ul><li>Facial approximation is another identification aspect </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  30. 39. Issues in Identification <ul><li>Drawbacks to identification methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many facial features are cartilage instead of bone- limits facial approximation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of features of a specific ancestry may not be present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average tissue thickness for will be underestimated for people with significant fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key descriptive elements- hair length, facial hair, or glasses must be guessed </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  31. 40. Estimating Age <ul><li>Forensic physical anthropologist must be familiar with size of skeletons at all ages </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphyses- length of long bone shafts, may be compared to published tables to assist in age identification </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphysis- two ends of bones </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of formation, growth and fusion of diaphyses and epiphysis are patterned to create estimate </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  32. 42. Estimating Age <ul><li>Male and female skeletal developments differ. Females develop a little earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Bone development sequences and timing differ from population to population </li></ul><ul><li>Bone development differs from person to person </li></ul><ul><li>Age estimates of skeletons should be termed in ranges and utilize all indicators present </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  33. 43. Dental Development <ul><li>Teeth can be a determinant of age or sex </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth development differs by sex and population </li></ul><ul><li>Asian and Native Americans commonly have a trait called shoveling, marginal ridges, where anterior teeth are slightly thicker around margins of tooth on tongue (lingual) side </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  34. 45. Dental Development <ul><li>Reference standards are few for skeletons of children at various ages of death </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic and radiographic standards differ in skeletal remains </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of epiphyseal union are different to the naked eye and under x-ray </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  35. 46. Growth and Development in Teens and Young Adults <ul><li>During teens and twenties, the epiphyses of long bones undergo the process of fusion </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of epiphyseal union are different </li></ul><ul><li>All sites of union should be evaluated </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  36. 48. Age- Related Patterns in Adulthood <ul><li>Bone density changes – bony skeleton is not fixed until adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Bone density generally reaches peak in twenties and declines in forties </li></ul><ul><li>Bone density depends upon age, hormonal status, exercise, weight, and nutritional intake </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  37. 49. Age- Related Patterns in Adulthood <ul><li>Bone density can be observed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macroscopically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microscopically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via photo absorptiometry ( bone densitometry) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis – normally seen after the age 40 in bones and may assist in estimate of age </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  38. 50. Age- Related Patterns in Adulthood <ul><li>Two of the most reliable indicators of adult age in Pelvic Joint Morphology are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubic symphysis – measures surface changes in pubic bones and published standards exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iliac auricular surface –measures joint surface changes to the auricular surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(where ilium connects to the sacrum) </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  39. 52. Age- Related Patterns in Adulthood <ul><li>Sternal Rib Morphology – age related changes in morphology of sternal end of 4 th rib can be measured and compared to standards </li></ul><ul><li>Ossification of hyaline cartilage- cartilage which connects ribs to the sternum turns stony with age and can be considered a general indicator of age </li></ul><ul><li>Dental changes- changes to teeth can be measured, but age range estimate is 14 years in most cases </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  40. 53. Sexual Dimorphism <ul><li>Male and female Homo Sapiens differ by size </li></ul><ul><li>DNA methods can produce accurate determinate of sex </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype – genetic </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype- observed difference </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of biological sex of skeletal remains is an inexact science </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  41. 54. Sexual Dimorphism <ul><li>Typically, the female pelvis has : </li></ul><ul><li>broader and increased depth of pelvic inlet and outlet </li></ul><ul><li>Broad, shallow sciatic notch </li></ul><ul><li>U-shaped sub pubic angle </li></ul><ul><li>Well developed ventral arc </li></ul><ul><li>Raised auricular surface </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  42. 56. Sexual Dimorphism <ul><li>Males tend to have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull is more robust at areas of attachment and on brows and ridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More right angled jaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibits larger joint surfaces- mandibular and occipital condoyles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post cranial skeleton- below skull, on average, is larger than females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger weight-bearing joint surfaces- hip </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  43. 57. Sexual Dimorphism <ul><li>What can affect sexual dimorphism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population affinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior-strength training, heavy chewing stresses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No morphological indicator is infallible </li></ul><ul><li>Best approach to assess skeletal pattern is to review knowledge of person or population </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  44. 58. Population Ancestry <ul><li>Homo Sapiens is a single species </li></ul><ul><li>No absolute physical or genetic reproductive barriers between races </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions about population boundaries are arbitrary and ultimately, fluid </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  45. 59. Population Ancestry <ul><li>When an unidentified body is discovered, the forensic anthropologist will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce possibilities of group- age, sex or population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use statistics from databases to assist thorough research- unfortunately, all databases have limits based on skeletal remains of people measured </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  46. 60. Population Ancestry <ul><li>Skeletal morphology is produced by genetic and non genetic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Includes both metric (continuous and measurable) and nonmetric (present to absent traits) </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  47. 61. Population Ancestry <ul><li>Metric statistical methods require use of formula for discriminant function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gill method assesses midfacial flatness using a sinometer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonmetric traits – specific traits of Western European, Asian, or native American traits are assessed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal bridge is normally flatter on Native Americans and Asians </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  48. 62. Estimated Stature <ul><li>Stature is a fixed trait: accurate measurement of individual is in a range </li></ul><ul><li>Stature measurement is frequently done incorrectly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>missing person reports include only an estimate of height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some men over-estimate height </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  49. 63. Estimated Stature <ul><li>When a body is decomposed or skeletonized, stature can be calculated </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If body is articulated, length can be measured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If body is disarticulated, but head, spine, pelvis and at least one leg are present, individual bone heights can be measured and estimates made for vertebral disc thickness and total stature </li></ul></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  50. 64. Allometry <ul><li>Allometry - the ability to estimate stature from long bone lengths depending on the presence of patterned and proportional relationships between the sizes of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Science is systematic but not exact </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements differ from population to population </li></ul><ul><li>Osteometry- science of the measurement of bones </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  51. 65. Individuation and Identification <ul><li>Individual characteristics of bones may help narrow the number of possible identities </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital anomaly, such as a spinal column defect, is an example. </li></ul><ul><li>Antemortem conditions, such as presence of injuries, broken bones, etc may help in identification </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  52. 66. Individualization and Identification <ul><li>Handedness and Occupational stress markers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational stress markers are normally not straight forward enough to assist in identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right or left handed dominance may be demonstrated through use-wear patterns </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  53. 67. Levels of Certainty <ul><li>Three levels of certainty towards identification are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency – profile is consistent with characteristics of a certain individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability- often includes circumstantial evidence, medical condition, ID card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certainty- beyond a shadow of a doubt – fingerprint match, x- ray match, dental match or DNA match </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  54. 68. Perimortem Trauma and Evidence for Cause and Manner of Death <ul><ul><li>Distinguishing between antemortem and perimortem injury with bones is very difficult. An example where perimortem trauma may be present is the observation of a broken bone showing no signs of healing- however, bones take several days to start the healing process </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  55. 69. Perimortem Trauma and Evidence for Cause and Manner of Death <ul><li>Blunt or Sharp Force Trauma to bones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blunt force trauma produces impact marks fractures and may fragmented bones, depending on item causing damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp force trauma may produce cut or impact scars, depending on weapon </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  56. 70. Perimortem Trauma and Evidence for Cause and Manner of Death <ul><li>Gunshot wounds – special form of blunt trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Gunshot wounds will create signature patterns in bones, particularly skulls </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently possible to determine order of gunshot wounds by assessing fracture lines </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  57. 73. Patterned Injury <ul><li>Forensic anthropologists look at pattern of antemortem and postmortem injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary to rule out postmortem modification through microscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Equifinality- different agents of bone modification produce similar types of damage </li></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  58. 74. Forensic Anthropology and Documentation <ul><li>Forensic Anthropologist is held to high standard of procedure and documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Basic forensic anthropology report should contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taphonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological profile- age, sex, ancestry, stature, anomalies, and pathology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualization characteristics and interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of postmortem trauma </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition
  59. 75. Expert Witness Testimony <ul><li>Forensic anthropologists are often called for expert testimony. Requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upholding principle of scientific neutrality and objectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insuring scientific certainty reaches level of 90% or greater for determination of biological profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual identification requires 99% or greater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability is generally between 67 to 90 percent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of reference population as the method and conclusions all may be challenged in court </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7 CRC Press: Forensic Science, James and Nordby, 3rd Edition

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