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  1. 1. VOCABULARIO<br />Task is worth 4 points<br />Score<br />Darken (oscurecer)<br />Register<br />Attend<br />Fair<br />Of Living abroad<br />Well paid job<br />Student loan<br />That well<br />Certified to<br />Shortage<br />Prize<br />Competition<br />Inquiry-based project<br />Surely<br />Ought<br />Recruitment<br />Campus<br />Work abroad<br />Your aren`t offered<br />At least<br />Apply<br />Misconception<br />Simple<br />Notions<br />Readily (fácilmente)<br />Given up<br />Child<br />Childhood<br />½ is larger than ¼<br />Fractions<br />Understanding<br />Partly<br />Practice<br />By rote (de memoria)<br />Memorize a formula<br />Through (a través de) -> Go through the list<br />Throughout (a lo largo de) Earth’s history<br />Though (aunque)<br />Thought (pensamiento)<br />Although<br />Concepts<br />Small child<br />Whole cookie<br />Half a cookie<br />Part of helping children<br />Matter (material de studio)<br />Tend (tienden)<br />Put this concepts into daily situations<br />Assume<br />Mathematical symbols<br />Percentages<br />Unfortunately<br />Incorrect<br />Frown<br />Ask me<br />Creepy crawly things<br />See (mira)<br />Learned<br />Disease<br />Affects<br />Joints (junturas)<br />Jointed feet<br />Refers to<br />Creatures<br />A lot of <br />They have lots of – lot no contable<br />I kind of remember picturing<br />Visualize<br />Mental picture<br />You can pass by them (puedes saltártelas)<br />You kind of know<br />Stop at them<br />Poem<br />Inflammation <br />You are all familiar with rainbows<br />Perhaps<br />The most beautiful of the atmospheric phenomena<br />Common<br />Produced<br />Passes through<br />Hexagonal o six-sided ice crystals<br />Bend (curvar)<br />Wavelength of light<br />Three different phenomena (fenómenos)<br />Phenomenon (fenómeno, en singular)<br />That occurs depending on the …<br />The ice crystals’ orientation towards the surface of the Earth<br />They are arranged (arreglados) in relation to the Earth<br />Scattered (dispersar)<br />The light is dispersed<br />If the light enters<br />The ice crystal that the light shines through <br />They are oriented horizontally<br />Instead of randomly<br />This causes<br />Spots on either side of the sun<br />Pillar<br />Sunrise and sunset<br />Might<br />Shaft of light (eje de luz) stretching (estirar) either upwards or downwards<br />Sunlight reflects / refracts<br />Aligned<br />Gently (suavemente)<br />Measure (medir)<br />Section<br />Ability<br />Aptitude<br />Capability<br />Aptitude<br />Competences<br />Empower<br />Passages (pasajes, fracciones de lectura)<br />It is divided into separately parts<br />How much time is remaining<br />Most questions<br />Indicate<br />Phrase <br />Underlined in blue<br />Click on<br />Explanation<br />Within<br />Move to the next question<br />Skip (saltar)<br />Go back to them<br />As long as there is time remaining<br />How long (cuánto tiempo)<br />Return to previous question<br />At any time<br />The screen will show you<br />Directly<br />It gave you the instructions for <br />There are several - contable<br />There are some - contable<br />There is plenty of – no contable <br />There are many - contable<br />There is much – no contable<br />Help you<br />Immediately<br />If an answer to a question is correct<br />For further help with a question<br />Furthermore, <br />You can choose not to be timed<br />Adjust (ajustar) these settings<br />Buttons<br />At any time<br />You can go to any question<br />For about 80 percent<br />Prevail (ed) (prevalecer)<br />Earth’s surface<br />During the past one million years<br />Cycles<br />Approximately<br />Many different factors<br />Conditions <br />Increased glacial conditions<br />Contribute to these increases<br />Increase (incrementar)<br />Regular intervals<br />Recent (reciente)<br />The three most prominent factors<br />Probably<br />Relate to the amount<br />Amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth<br />This varies over time for three main reasons<br />Planet<br />Medios de comunicación – communication means<br />Shake<br />Spin (dar vueltas)<br />Revolving (girando) around it - revolve<br />The Earth tilts (inclinar) on its axis and the degree of tilt changes over time<br />The orbit of the Earth around the sun is elliptical<br />The length of the major axis<br />Over a period of time<br />Pattern (patrón)<br />Predicted<br />It matched the period<br />Age, era<br />Intense<br />Dominant<br />Theory<br />Research<br />For much of the twentieth century despite the fact<br />Despite of<br />In spite<br />In spite of<br />The match between<br />Climate records obtained through the study<br />Weather<br />Deposited<br />Exact<br />Sea floor<br />Also<br />Analysis<br />Peaks of sunlight at intervals<br />Climatological data does not support<br />Climate changes<br />Damage<br />Damaging<br />Precisely<br />Sudden<br />Suddenly<br />Sudden rise in temperature<br />Cave (cueva)<br />Which preceded the increase in<br />Solar radiation<br />It was supposed to cause it<br />Led<br />Seek<br />Alternative<br />Explanations<br />Cyclic arrival of extended age<br />Orbital inclination of the Earth to the sun<br />Responsible<br />A flat plane<br />A few degrees<br />Scientists<br />Proposed<br />Proposal<br />Ultimately<br />Glaciation and warming<br />They argue<br />Oscillation<br />Periodically<br />It travels through clouds<br />Debris (escombros)<br />Dust (polvo)<br />Meteoroids<br />Reduce the amount of solar energy reaching the surface of out planet<br />Advantage<br />The advantage of this theory is that it is not confronted<br />Problems associated with<br />In particular,<br />The new theory fits well with the analysis<br />Locations around the world<br />This analysis yielded data <br />Corresponding to the periods<br />Through clouds<br />Also<br />However<br />Persuaded by the hypothesis<br />Relatively<br />Not enough<br />Radical climate changes<br />Volcanic eruptions<br />Release much greater amounts of ash (ceniza)<br />Little effect on climate<br />Supporters have countered (decir en contraposición)<br />By-products (subproductos)<br />Subtle (sutil)<br />Energy levels<br />Nevertheless (sin embargo)<br />Necessary<br />It has yet to be found to convince<br /> Skeptics<br />Extraterrestrial<br />Proof<br />Mention<br />Whereas<br />While<br />Meanwhile<br />Meantime<br />As<br />Convinced<br />Interstellar<br />It appears (parece) too small<br />Appropiate<br />Flaws (fallas)<br />Mild (leve)<br />Wild (salvaje)<br />The amount of solar energy that reaches the surface<br />The amount of solar energy reaching the surface, thus plunging it into regular cold periods<br />This analysis yielded data clearly showing the peak and corresponding to the periods<br />Created by dust as it vaporizes on (en la medida en que se vaporiza) entering the atmosphere cause <br />What problem in the theory was mentioned as being explained by …<br />It is at its furthest (extremo más lejano) from the sun<br />/*/*/*/<br />However<br />Though<br />Nevertheless<br />Also<br />Besides<br />Furthermore<br />Related to<br />Associated with<br />Corresponding to<br />LECTURA 2 (Bird migration)<br />Seasonal<br />It has been known about for thousand of years<br />It is still not understood – it is not understood yet<br />Still<br />Yet<br />Already<br />Migrate<br />Ground<br />A species<br />The more likely is it that a species <br />Generally speaking<br />Annual shifting<br />Residence<br />Scarce (escaso)<br />The cold temperatures make survival difficult<br />Survival (supervivencia)<br />Well adapted to these harsh (duras) conditions<br />Advantageous<br />Moving south<br />Moving forward<br />Journey south<br />Migrate south<br />Flight south<br />Although<br />Northern Hemisphere<br />Southern Hemisphere<br />Seem<br />In some species at least<br />Length of the day <br />Glands (glándulas)<br />Secrete (secretar)<br />Hormones<br />Which ready (alista) the birds<br />At this time<br />Starts to accumulate<br />Skin<br />Provides<br />Store of energy<br />Long flight<br />The long trip when they will be expending more calories<br />Obtain<br />Brief rest stops<br />In fact<br />Birds that breed in(reproducen)<br />Travel on an approximately east-west (oriente-occidente) path<br />Since<br />Often<br />Coastal areas<br />Regions<br />Conditions more suitable at lower altutides<br />Mountainous<br />Perhaps<br />Misteryous<br />Yet not understood<br />Aspect<br />Birds can navigate<br />Destination<br />Possibilities<br />Obvious<br />Route<br />Features<br />Qualities<br />Characteristics<br />However<br />Feasible (factible)<br />Viable<br />It is feasible that this method could be used<br />For crossing (cruzar) larger stretches of water<br />Long trips across whole continents (throughout)<br /> Magnetic fields lines<br />Actually<br />Detected<br />Tiny<br />Homing pigeons (palomas mensajeras)<br />Polarization<br />Absorbed<br />Pass through<br />It forms <br />A large bowtie (corbatín) shaped image in the sky<br />Fuzzy (confuso)<br />Sometimes<br />It is known as Maya after the discoverer of the effect<br />The image is oriented in a north and south direction<br />At sunset (ocaso)<br />Discern <br />Gradations<br /> Degradations<br />A kind of<br />Compass (brújula)<br />Determine<br />They navigate by use of star positions<br />Establish<br />In a series (a species, a series)<br />Caged (enjaulado)<br />They were subjected (someter) to the projection<br />Nighttime<br />Rotate<br />Polaris (Estrella Polar)<br />Movement<br />It seemed to give them<br />To orientate themselves<br />Recent<br />Contradict<br />The lack of movement<br />But rather (sino más bien)<br />Guide<br />Visible<br />Planetarium ceiling (cielo raso, techo)<br />The sense of direction<br />Became poorer<br />It implies<br />The current state of research suggest that<br />Methods<br />Probably<br />They have an influence<br />At different times<br />It can trigger the start of the journey<br />And so (y por lo tanto)<br />The most mysterious and as yet not understood aspect<br />It is still not understood – it is not yet understood<br />So precisely<br />A further possibility<br />The resulting pattern<br />They believe that<br />It suggest that<br />Above mentioned<br />They are suited to the difficult situation (suitable)<br />Onset (comienzo)<br />All of- contable <br />All<br />According to<br />Indicates<br />Minor ideas<br />Brief summary<br />This express the most important ideas<br />These ideas are not presented <br />Attempt (intento)<br />Theories<br />LECTURA 3 – RADON<br />Odorless<br />It forms (se forma)<br />Decay (descomponer)<br />In decaying (en descomposición)<br />Particles<br />Lead (plomo)<br />It is distributed<br />Soil (suelo)<br />Usually<br />Concentrations of<br />This occurs<br />Dissolve (disolver)<br />It is carried over great distances<br />Great distances<br />Large distances (Long distances)<br />Long and short trip<br />Under certain conditions<br />Element<br />Seep into (filtrarse)<br />It infiltrates buildings<br />Since (ya que)<br />Duo to<br />Because of<br />It can move from the ground into the air<br />Dispersed by<br />Winds<br />It can build up (concentrarse ) over time (con el paso del tiempo)<br />Health problems<br />It does not enter into chemical reactions<br />Substances<br />It is readily dissolved in blood<br />It circulates through<br />Until it is expelled<br /> It has had time – If it had had time<br />Problems associated with radon activity<br />They arise from the radioactive<br />Desintegration<br />Mention<br />Emit radiation<br />Especially<br />It damages living cells, causing genetic mutations<br />Dispersed<br />Damage (hacer daño, daño)<br />Harm (hacer daño, daño)<br />They accumulate as it decays<br />These progeny (progenies, descendientes) are not <br />Statement (Enunciado)<br />But (sino,pero)<br />Outside the body<br />Solid<br />Liquid<br />Gas<br />Products<br />Materials<br />Solid materials<br />They can attach themselves<br />Dust (polvo, quitar el polvo)<br />Dust particles<br />Circulate through<br />They can attach themselves (adherir, unir) to dust particles and then be inhaled<br />Stick (adherir)<br />They stick to <br />Tobacco<br />Cancer<br />Inside the body<br />Dangerous<br />By-products of<br />Lung (pulmón)<br />Lung tissue (Tejido del pulmón)<br />Tubes<br />As (en la medida en que)<br />They can do the most damage – The least damage<br />Bulk (bulto)<br />Bulkiest (voluminoso)<br />Therefore (por lo tanto)<br />Penetrate very far into<br />Therefore<br />So<br />So precisely<br />So tal (tal que)<br />Hence<br />They find conditions and so migrate<br />Immobility<br />Immediate<br />They travel further and<br />The primary way that radon penetrates -> that (que o en que)<br />Foundations (cimientos)<br />Crack (grieta)<br />Basement (sótano)<br />It enters through<br />Drains (drenajes)<br />Loose-fitting pipes<br />Exposed soil areas<br />Agitated<br />It disperses into the air<br />Because of this<br />Elevated levels<br />Inhaling<br />Conclude<br />The exposure to<br />Second leading cause<br />Disease<br />Major<br />Main<br />Primary<br />Leading<br />Principal<br />Chief<br />The chief health risk from inhaling<br />They believe it contributes to<br />Incidence (incidencia)<br />I believe in you<br />I believe it<br />Approximately<br />Likely<br />Likelihood<br />Probably<br />I doubt on you – I doubt about you<br />Larger scale (long, large, big, great, high, huge, etc.)<br />Contradict<br />Findings (hallazgos)<br />Miners (mineros)<br />Mine (mina)<br />High level<br />They are five times more likely (probably) to live<br />Population (big…)<br />Crowded (lleno de gente…)<br />Significantly<br />Nonsmoking population<br />They are more at risk <br />Accumulation<br />Average home<br />Per hour, liter (litro) of air<br />It is considered an acceptable<br />Safe level (sano y salvo)<br />Secure level (sin tanto riesgo)<br />Homeowner<br />Advise<br />Living space (espacio habitable de un lugar)<br />Achieve<br />Get<br />Obtain<br />Reach<br />Attain<br />Accomplish<br />It can be achieved throguh various means including<br />Concrete (concreto)<br />Ventilation system<br />Completely<br />Eradicate<br />Traces (rastros, huellas)<br />Outdoor<br />But minimizing<br />Prudent<br />Preventive<br />Measure<br />Build up (acumularse)<br />It can lead to serious problems<br />In fact<br />Enter into<br />Seep (filtrarse)<br />Infiltrate<br />Leak<br />Inferred (inferido)<br />Relationship of A and B<br />Harmless (inofensivo)<br />It is closest in meaning to <br />They are what (lo que) cause health problems<br />Essential information<br />But (sino)<br />Sensible (sensato)<br />Criticized<br />Criticize<br />For being based on <br />Greater risk of <br />LISTENING 1<br />About what (lo que) is called<br />Of course<br />You may think that <br />The most votes from the voting public - The least votes<br />Vote<br />Necessarily<br />In practice<br />Candidate<br />Let me try to make this clear<br />First of all<br />Member of a political party (partido político)<br />Policy<br />Pledge to (comprometer, compromiso) his candidate’s party<br />Committed<br />Involved<br />Implicated<br />Engaged<br />So in any state there are several electors (in some)<br />The number is equal to the number of <br />Senators, representatives<br />They are not the same people as the electors<br />It is just that the numbers are the same<br />It depends on the<br />Population<br />A populous state<br />State without a lot o people – state with few people<br />Such as Alaska, which<br />Small population<br />At the current time<br />That means that Alaska<br />In total<br />Currently<br />The whole country<br />You vote in<br />What (lo que) you have when you vote<br />Ballot<br />Normally<br />Names of each of the presidential - each one of<br />The candidate of your choice<br />Wichever (cualquiera que sea) candidate wins the most popular votes - whoever<br />