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25 de Abril de 1974

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História, revolução dos cravos, 9.º ano

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25 de Abril de 1974

  1. 1. Escola E. B. 2,3 de Campo de Besteiros HISTÓRIA Prof: Jorge Almeida 2007/2008 25 DE ABRIL DE 1974 Trabalho realizado por: Daniela Rodrigues nº9 9ºB
  2. 2. Introdução <ul><li>Escolhi a realização do trabalho sobre o 25 de Abril de 1974 porque pretendia saber mais a cerca do mesmo. </li></ul>
  3. 3. O 25 de Abril de 1974 <ul><li>Aconteceu há 34 anos. Rasgaram-se as trevas, apanharam-se os cravos e um povo oprimido reconquista a liberdade e vem à rua cantar, canções há tanto amordaçadas e proibidas. </li></ul><ul><li>Foi uma revolta militar dirigida pela MFA, que derrubou o governo e estabeleceu em Portugal um regime de liberdade. </li></ul><ul><li>Por este motivo o 25 de Abril de 1974 foi declarado «dia da liberdade» e é feriado nacional. </li></ul>
  4. 4. As suas principais causas <ul><li>Desde de 1933, instalou-se em Portugal o regime de Estado Novo orientado por Salazar, este regime era de ditadura. Cerca de 40 anos... </li></ul><ul><li>Não houve eleições livres; </li></ul><ul><li>As pessoas não podiam escrever, ler, ver e ouvir o que queriam, tanto nos jornais, como na rádio ou televisão. Era tudo escolhido pela censura mais conhecido como o “lápis-azul”; </li></ul><ul><li>Qualquer pessoa que falasse mal do regime era presa pela PIDE; </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tudo resumido era devido: <ul><li>À ditadura ; </li></ul><ul><li>Falta de liberdade; </li></ul><ul><li>Censura; </li></ul><ul><li>PIDE/DGS; </li></ul><ul><li>Guerra colonial; </li></ul><ul><li>(Angola, Guiné, Moçambique) </li></ul><ul><li>Atraso económico do país; </li></ul><ul><li>Emigração. </li></ul>
  6. 6. O lápis azul <ul><li>  Os censores usavam nos cortes da imprensa um lápis de cor azul,  o que motivou que  lápis azul  fosse sinónimo de censura. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Fartos de tudo isto os militares, criaram o MFA. </li></ul><ul><li>Movimento das Forças Armadas que tinham a missão de acabar com o regime deste governo. </li></ul><ul><li>Combinaram que na madrugada de 25 de Abril de 1974 derrubariam o regime orientado por Marcelo Caetano (que seguia os mesmos passos de Salazar após a morte deste). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Principais intervenientes: <ul><li>Melo Antunes </li></ul><ul><li>(principal redactor do programa do MFA) </li></ul><ul><li>António de Spínola </li></ul><ul><li>Militar e Político. Desportista hípico premiado até 1961. Actividade militar apreciada na guerra colonial de Angola (1961-1963). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Militar de méritos reconhecidos, dotado de uma inteligência superior e de uma coragem e lealdade invulgares, dele se diz &quot;ter sido o melhor de entre os melhores dos corajosos e generosos Militares de Abril&quot;.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho </li></ul><ul><li>Foi capitão em Angola de 1961 a 1963 e também na Guiné entre 1970 e 1973, dirigiu as operações do 25 de Abril, a partir do posto de comando clandestino instalado no Quartel da Pontinha. </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco Correia Lourenço </li></ul>No dia 25 de Abril de 1974 era capitão nos Açores. Membro activo do Movimento dos Capitães, pertenceu à Comissão política do MFA.
  11. 11. Como foi levado a cabo? <ul><li>No dia 24 de Abril de 1974, um grupo de militares comandados por Otelo Saraiva instalou-se secretamente no quartel da Pontinha, em Lisboa. </li></ul><ul><li>O primeiro sinal do golpe de estado foi às 22h5 5m quando é transmitida a canção “ E depois do Adeus” de Paulo Carvalho. </li></ul><ul><li>O segundo sinal foi dado às 0h 20m, quando foi transmitida pela rádio renascença a canção “ Grândola Vila morena” de José Afonso (aqui as tropas já não poderiam recuar, queria dizer que tudo corria como pretendiam). </li></ul><ul><li>O golpe militar do dia 25 de Abril de 1974, teve colaboração de vários regimentos militares que desenvolveram uma acção conjunta. </li></ul><ul><li>A revolução apesar de ser “pacífica” resultou contudo na morte de 4 pessoas quando movimentos da polícia política dispararam sobre um grupo que se manifestavam à porta das suas instalações. </li></ul>
  12. 12. A REVOLUÇÃO DOS CRAVOS
  13. 13. O cravo <ul><li>O cravo tornou-se no símbolo da Revolução de Abril de 1974; Com o amanhecer as pessoas começaram a juntar-se nas ruas, apoiando os soldados revoltosos; alguém (existem várias versões, sobre quem terá sido, mas uma delas é que uma florista contratada para levar cravos para a abertura de um hotel, foi vista por um soldado que pôs um cravo na espingarda, e em seguida todos o fizeram), começou a distribuir cravos vermelhos pelos soldados que depressa os colocaram nos canos das espingardas.   </li></ul>
  14. 14. As primeiras medidas revolucionárias <ul><li>O programa do MFA era Democratizar, Descolonizar, Desenvolver e iniciou-se através das seguintes medidas: </li></ul><ul><li>Extinção da polícia política, Legião Portuguesa e da Mocidade Portuguesa; </li></ul><ul><li>Abolição da censura; </li></ul><ul><li>Regresso dos exilados; </li></ul><ul><li>Autorização de partidos políticos e sindicatos livres. </li></ul>
  15. 15. As consequências para o país: <ul><li>Instabilidade económica; </li></ul><ul><li>Adesão à União Europeia; </li></ul><ul><li>Construção de infra-estruturas; </li></ul><ul><li>Modernização da agricultura e indústria; </li></ul><ul><li>Ensino básico obrigatório e gratuito. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CONCLUSÃO <ul><li>Ao fim de realizar este trabalho, consegui o meu objectivo de aprofundar este assunto de muita importância para o nosso país e claro para mim. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Webgrafia <ul><li>http://25deabrilde1974.blogspot.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://presentepassado.wordpress.com </li></ul>

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