Prepared By: Jorene Lei CabreraJesselle CalvoSharmaine CagampanKayla Evangelista
For a brief history of how the growth ofEuropean States started, here is how itgoes. We all know that in Europe therewere two powers that hold everything.The first one is the Monarchy, mainly theroyalties, kings and queens, and theother was Religion, which was signifiedby the church.
For a brief history of how the growth ofEuropean States started, here is how it goes.We all know that in Europe there were twopowers that hold everything. The first one isthe Monarchy, mainly the royalties, kings andqueens, and the other was Religion, whichwas signified by the church. During thesetimes, the monarchy and religion is one of thesame. The kings and queens hold religion suchas religion hold the monarchy. However, whatuse was this monarchy and religion hold ifthey lost one big factor, the people.
During the time of King Louis XVI, there were a lot ofcontroversies and failures in his leadership. The peoplehad the feeling of being stagnant and were dissatisfiedwith the leadership of the monarchy. Thus this led to arevolution and execution of King Louis XVI, which endedthe reign of the monarchy. On the other hand, after thishappened, the people were enlightened and had theiruse of the knowledge. The characteristics of being openminded was explored when they were given freedom. Asense of equality grew and opportunities wereeverywhere. And there the growth of European statesstarted, with knowledge and enlightenmentimprovements were evident.
Neo Classicism From the growth of the Europeanstates, a style emerged from thepeople. This is the Neo ClassicalArchitecture.“Neo classicism artists do not make drearyreproductions of their creations- be it arts,sculpture or poetry but makes somethingnew and innovative every time. More thanjust creating something entirely new,neoclassicism is a natural expression of aculture with all its elements and the finessewith which an artist regains the lostelements that might have slipped into theoblivion is what makes a neo classic artistsuccessful and popular.”
Neo classism was referred to as the antidote to progressand often also called as “Louis XVI style” since it cameforth during and after his reign. Neo classism aimed toregain for art and design a purity of form and expressionwhich felt like lacking in the Rococo style. They rejectedthe spirited and rich ornament of Baroque style. Neoclassism believed that the golden age of progress andknowledge as from the age of Romans which ad peace,progression and harmony. Thus they return to it. Back tobasics with purity and simplicity.Madeleine,FranceNeoclassical structure arecharacterized by their wallsrather than the decoration of it.Its emphasis is on the planarcharacteristics and the buildingitself is symmetrical.
Archeologists recognize five periods of European prehistory:ThePalaeolithicor Old StoneAgeTheMesolithic orMiddle StoneAgeThe time between the endof most recent period ofglaciation (c. 10000 BC)and the beginnings ofagriculture.The Neolithicor New StoneAge(c.6800-2500 BC) that isthe period from thebeginning of agriculture tothe widespread use ofmetal tools.The BronzeAge (c. 2500-1250)Iron Age(c.1250 toAD 1)The geography ofEurope was profoundlydifferent during thePaleolithic periodwhich coincides withthe Pleistocene ormost recent geologicalperiod.
The Prehistoric periodsThe sophistication andcomplexity of societies in thePalaeolithic period werereflected in the earlyrevolution of large scalerelatively permanent buildingswith cache pits for specificactivities. During theMesolithic period, populationdensities increased throughoutEurope but the sizes of localgroups contracted.Rome had gradually assumed the leadership ofa league of Latin Settlements banded togetherfor mutual defence which gave way to Romandominance.The Rise of Republic RomeThe Growth in importance of the NewRome in the East – Constantinople –and it’s eventual, almost completesupplanting of Rome itself can hardlyhave been foreseen by Constantine.The Eastern empire fromTheodosius to JustinianKing Constantine the GreatConstantinople, Rome
In order to take up the historical strands relatedto the burgeoning influence of the western(Roman) Christian church and with it thedevelopment of the Romanesque style, it isnecessary to move back in time from the periodduring which Byzantine political power waseclipsed to that of decline of the Western Romanempire which led to the rise of the independentstates and nations of Europe.In spite of the Intervening Alps, commercialand cultural contract between northern Italyand northern Europe was very lively. Theinroads made by the Goths into the northItalian plains during the fifth century led to thegradual rise of VENICE.ITALYThe eleventh century if France wasmarked by a widespread desire towithdraw from the world andembrace monastic life; this resultedin the foundation of many religioushouses which gave an impulse toarchitecture and fostered art andlearning.FRANCEAs early as the sixth century the bishopsof Central Europe were conspicuous inpromoting church building. Charlemagneruled over central Germany and northernFrance and established dominion oversouthern France. He restored civilizationin great measure to western Europe andwas a patron for Architecture.CentralEurope
Venice, ItalyDresden CentralGermanySouth FranceSpainAnother outstanding feature ofSpanish History during this period isthe connection of Spain not only withFrance, its neighbour but also withEngland through royal marriages withItaly through papal supervision andthe quarrels with Angevins in Naplesand Sicily.Spain andPortugal
The political and historicalbackground in France where theGothic Style originated in the Ilede France is still significant.
The EtruscansThe Later RomanEmpireConstantinopleand the ByzantineEmpireEarly medievalculture
Pilgrimages were much practised form of religious devotion during the Middle Ages. Christianfervour inspired thousands to travel to the innumerable shrines and holy places throughoutEurope.St. Martin Tours(begun after 997,demolished at thetime of the FrenchRevolution St. Foi at Conques(c.1050-c.1130)S. Sernin atToulouse (1077-1119)The main pilgrimage churches are:Santiago DeCompostela (1078 -1122)