Ewrt 30 class 13


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ewrt 30 class 13

  1. 1. Class 13
  2. 2. AGENDA: EWRT 30 Class 13 • Discussion: "Labels" Lecture: Eliminating the passive voice; 7 genres Guided Writing: Using the Active Voice in 7 genres
  3. 3. The Review 1. How do we create suspense? Identify the strategies we learned in the last class. 1. Read scenes of your suspenseful writing to your group mates. 1. Identify the strategies you have used to increase the suspense. 1. Be prepared to share the scene and explain which of the techniques you used and why.
  4. 4. How to Create Suspense 1. Begin at the right place: the need for escalation requires that you start at a place of strong conflict. 2. Add uncertainty 3. Let readers root for a character or characters 4. Give the readers a great villain 5. Evoke strong emotions through a critical conflict. 6. Change the conflict. 7. Include great details. 8. Make sure readers feel the consequences. 9. Use dramatic scene cuts 10.Use pacing to control the intensity of the story. 11.Use dread: bad things have happened and even worse things are possible. 12. Use anticipation: something bad could happen unless. . .
  5. 5. Discussion Subject: “Labels” What did you notice about this short story? the
  6. 6. Lecture Subject Eliminating the passive voice
  7. 7. Eliminating Passive Voice • A passive construction occurs when you make the object of an action into the subject of a sentence. That is, whoever or whatever is performing the action is not the grammatical subject of the sentence. Take a look at this passive rephrasing of a familiar joke: • Why was the road crossed by the chicken? • Who is doing the action in this sentence? The chicken is the one doing the action in this sentence, but the chicken is not in the spot where you would expect the grammatical subject to be. Instead, the road is the grammatical subject. The more familiar phrasing (why did the chicken cross the road?) puts the actor in the subject position, the position of doing something—the chicken (the actor/doer) crosses the road (the object). We use active verbs to represent that "doing," whether it be crossing roads, proposing ideas, making arguments, or invading houses (more on that shortly).
  8. 8. • Look for a form of "to be”: is, are, am , was, were, has been, have been, had been, will be, will have been, being • For example: • The metropolis has been scorched by the dragon's fiery breath. • When her house was invaded, Penelope had to think of ways to delay her remarriage.
  9. 9. • Let's briefly look at how to change passive constructions (a form of the “to be” verb and a past participle) into active ones. You can usually just switch the word order, making the actor and subject one by putting the actor up front: • The metropolis has been scorched by the dragon's fiery breath. • becomes • The dragon scorched the metropolis with his fiery breath. • When her house was invaded, Penelope had to think of ways to delay her remarriage. • becomes • After suitors invaded her house, Penelope had to think of ways to delay her remarriage.
  10. 10. Problem-Solving Strategies to Eliminate the “To-Be” Verb
  11. 11. Substitute • Sometimes a good replacement is easy to figure out. For example, instead of “That chocolate cake is good,” substitute the “to-be” verb, ”is,” with ”tastes”: “That chocolate cake tastes good.”
  12. 12. Rearrange • Start the sentence differently to see if this helps eliminate a “to-be” verb. For example, instead of “The monster was in the dark tunnel creeping around,” rearrange as “The monster crept around in the dark tunnel.”
  13. 13. Change another word in the sentence into a verb For example, instead of saying “Charles Schulz was the creator of the Peanuts cartoon strip,” change the common noun creator to the verb created. This is an active construction: “Charles Schulz created the Peanuts cartoon strip.”
  14. 14. Combine sentences• Look at the sentences before and after one with a “to-be” verb to see if you can combine them to eliminate a “to-be” verb. For example, instead of “The child was sad. The sensitive young person was feeling that way because of the news story about the death of the homeless man,” combine as “The news story about the death of the homeless man saddened the sensitive child.”
  15. 15. Strategies to Eliminate “To Be” 1. Substitute a new word. 2. Rearrange the sentence. 3. Change another word in the sentence into a verb. 4. Combine sentences.
  16. 16. Let’s Practice 1. The forest gets so freezing that it is difficult to make my way. 2. I wake up to the sound of my alarm every day. Today I am waking up extra early, 7:00 am to be exact. 3. One late night, as I was about to hit the haystack, I had my last customer approach me. It was that good for nothing Porky. Everyone knows he’s the most selfish, greedy, bastard pig in town. 4. I look over at Gina to see that she’s alive but is in very bad shape.
  17. 17. In your groups, eliminate the “to be” verbs in these two sentences. Share your best effort on the board when you finish. • His work was not reputable by any stretch of the imagination, but the pay was quite good which gave others the impression that he was a well to do businessman. • He was hideous from what I could tell. His eye was big and yellow and looked menacing. The half of his nose was long and pointed and was damp. And his teeth… sharp enough to pierce through my skin as if it was paper. What was I doing here…? There was a long silence between us until I found my feet trotting closer to this being.
  18. 18. Find the variations of the “to be” verb in your own writing. • Use these strategies to eliminate them: 1. Substitute a new word. 2. Rearrange the sentence. 3. Change another word in the sentence into a verb. 4. Combine sentences.
  19. 19. Genres and Types of Stories
  20. 20. • The two main types of fiction are literary and commercial. • Commercial fiction attracts a broad audience and may also fall into any subgenre, like mystery, romance, thriller, western, science fiction, and so on. For example, The Bridges of Madison County by Robert James Waller (Warner, 1992) was a hugely successful commercial novel because the book described the fulfillment of a romantic fantasy that is dear to the heart of millions of readers. • Literary fiction tends to appeal to a smaller, more intellectually adventurous audience. A work of literary fiction can fall into any of the subgenres described in the following sections. What sets literary fiction apart, however, is the notable qualities it contains — excellent writing, originality of thought, and style — that raise it above the level of ordinary written works. A recent work of literary fiction that enjoyed wide popularity was Cold Mountain by Charles Frazier (Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997). Other popular authors of literary fiction include Toni Morrision, Barbara Kingsolver, John LeCarre, and Saul Bellow. o Thanks to Sarah and Adrian Zackheim
  21. 21. Mystery • Mystery is a popular genre, boasting a huge audience. All mysteries focus on a crime, usually murder. The action tends to center on the attempts of a wily detective-type to solve the crime. And the climax usually occurs near the end, in a leisurely setting where all the elements of the mystery are neatly assembled for the reader's convenience. The solution, complete with surprises, is then delivered to the characters and the reader alike. • Great writers in this genre include Arthur Conan Doyle, Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, and Earle Stanley Gardner, creator of Perry Mason.
  22. 22. Romance • Romance is a huge category. In romance novels, there are elements of fantasy, love, naïveté, extravagance, adventure, and always the heroic lover overcoming impossible odds to be with his true love. Many romances include a young, inexperienced girl who is courted or threatened by an evil man and then rescued by a valiant one. • Subgenres include historical, contemporary, fantasy romance, and romantic suspense. First-class romance writers include Jude Deveraux, Victoria Holt, Judith McNaught, Daphne Du Maurier, Jennifer Greene, and Nora Roberts.
  23. 23. Science fiction/fantasy • Science fiction/fantasy novels depict distant worlds and futuristic technologies that whirl readers far away from the here and now yet provoke contemplation of contemporary issues. • Leading science fiction and fantasy writers include Ray Bradbury, Arthur Clarke, Isaac Asimov, C.S. Lewis, and J.R.R. Tolkien, as well as the current, multi-best-selling, young adult author J.K. Rowling.
  24. 24. Suspense/thriller • Suspense novels and thrillers are tense, exciting, often sensational works with ingenious plotting, swift action, and continuous suspense. In this genre, a writer's objective is to deliver a story with sustained tension, surprise, and a constant sense of impending doom that propels the reader forward. Unlike mysteries, thrillers are dominated by action in which physical threat is a constant companion, and a hero (James Bond, for example) is pitted against a nefarious villain. • This genre includes the great espionage writers, including John Le Carre, Len Deighton, Ian Fleming, Clive Cussler, and Frederick Forsythe. It also includes the police procedurals, courtroom bestsellers, and military thrillers.
  25. 25. Western • These stories about life on America's post Civil War western frontier involve conflicts between cowboys and outlaws, cowboys and Native Americans, or Easterners and Westerners. While this category still has a massmarket audience and a thriving regional market, it's not the popular genre it was 25 years ago. • Zane Grey and Louis Lamour, both deceased, are still among the popular western writers.
  26. 26. Horror • Filled with gut-wrenching fear, this popular genre keeps readers turning the blood-filled pages. From a writer's perspective, the defining characteristic is the intention to frighten readers by exploiting their fears, both conscious and subconscious: fears of supernatural forces, alien visitations, madness, death, dismemberment, and other terrifying notions. • Tracing its roots back to the classic tales of Edgar Allan Poe, the horror genre today is dominated by Stephen King, whose vast output of bestsellers under his name as well as his alterego Richard Bachman has dominated the bestseller lists for nearly 25 years. Other major horror writers include Mary Shelley, Roald Dahl, Clive Barker, Peter Straub, Dean Koontz, and Anne Rice.
  27. 27. Young adult • This genre includes any type of novel with a protagonist in the 12 to 16 age range that speaks to the concerns of teenagers. Currently, J.K. Rowling and her amazing Harry Potter books dominate the field. • Success stories in this genre share many of the qualities evident in the Harry Potter books: a memorable voice (J.D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye, Little Brown, 1951), believable characters (Golding's Lord of the Flies, Perigee, 1959), and a willingness to write about the disturbing subjects that preoccupy teens and preteens (Are You There God, It's Me, Margaret by Judy Blume, Dell Yearling, 1972, or Holes by Louis Sachar, FSG, 1998).
  28. 28. Guided Writing
  29. 29. Pick a genre and pick two or three nouns to include in your story! • Mystery • Romance • Science Fiction/Fanta sy • Suspense/Thri ller • Western • Horror • Young Adult • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A car with a broken tail light A cigarette machine A mysterious coin A crystal ball A religious figure (monk, priest, nun, pastor, rabbi) A time traveler A church recreation building An amulet A saloon A teenaged genius with red hair A three-legged dog A blind cow A stubborn mule A gold miner
  30. 30. Choose words from the appropriate list • Mystery: alibi - an excuse; deduce- to infer by logical reasoning; hunch - a guess or feeling not based on known facts • Romance: Alluring: Powerfully attractive; Charming: Power of pleasing; Elegant: Tastefully fine or luxurious; • Science Fiction/Fantasy: Cryonics-low-temperature preservation; Scry-the practice of looking into a translucent ball or other material with the belief that things can be seen; Technopathy- the ability to control and manipulate electronics with the mind. • Suspense/Thriller: Shadowy; furtive-secret; pulsate-throb. • Western: all-fired-Very, great, immensely; used for emphasis; Bellyache – Complain; Pack Iron - To carry a gun. • Horror: Claustrophobia; Doppelgänger- literally a “doublegoer.” A dopplegänger is often the ghostly counterpart of a living person; Necromancy-the black art of communicating with the dead. • Young Adult: Photobomb; epic fail; noob; sick; hater.
  31. 31. More Words Use Four of These • • • • • • • Fiasco Pestilent Variform Zealous Culpable Histrionic Moonshine Avoid These Is Are Am Was Were Has been, have been, had been, will have been, • Be, will be, • Being • • • • • •
  32. 32. Homework • Post 13: two paragraphs (without the “to be” verb) from your in-class writing. • Work on your fiction 2 project • Read Science Fiction: Heinlein: Stranger in a Strange Land: Sections IIII, ending on page 19.