Allegory• A form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning.
Example of Allegory Animal Farm• In an allegory, characters and events stand for something else. In this case, the characters in the novel stand for significant figures in twentieth-century Russian history. Orwell makes the characters easily identifiable for those who know the historic parallels, because he gives each one a trait, or has them perform certain tasks, that are like that of a historical figure. Old Major is identified with Karl Marx because, just as Old Major develops the teachings that fuel the Animal Rebellion, Marx formulated the ideas that spawned the Russian revolution. Napoleon and Snowball, both pigs, stand for Russian leaders Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Stalin and Trotsky had a falling out much like Napoleon and Snowball do. Events from history— the revolution itself and the Moscow purge trials of the 1930s— also appear in allegorical form in the novel.
Scenario1. An outline or synopsis of a play.2. A sequence of events especially when imagined; especially, an account or synopsis of a possible course of action or events.
Scenario Example• You are walking the halls of the school when you hear shouting coming from the main office. As you get closer, you see a man arguing with a staff member. Just as you are getting ready to intervene, the man turns and walks away from the office, toward the classrooms. You try to find out what he needs, but he ignores you and keeps walking.
Allusion• A diction-based rhetorical strategy in which a writer briefly refers to an event, book, myth, place or work of art that the reader is expected to recognize so the writer can evoke a vivid impression
Example of Allusion• “I was surprised his nose was not growing.”• “When she lost her job, she acted like a Scrooge.• “He was a real Romeo with the ladies.”• “Chocolate was her Achilles’ heel.”• "She was breathtakingly beautiful, but he knew that she was forbidden fruit.”• "I was not born in a manger. I was actually born on Krypton and sent here by my father, Jor-el, to save the Planet Earth.”• “ask not just what our government can do for us, but what we can do for ourselves.”
Evidence• In order to help a reader see your argument , you have to provide, explain, and analyze evidence that supports your thesis.• In this type of essay, evidence (examples) acts as supporting material to explain or clarify the your thesis.• The key to a good essay is to use enough detailed and specific examples to get your points across. Examples should be carefully chosen so that they will appeal to readers and help them understand your argument.• Effective examples should enhance your writing, giving your essay vitality and intensity.
• Your essay may contain both brief and comprehensive examples.• Brief examples may occur relatively frequently within the essay, with just enough concise details to illustrate clear-cut ideas.• Comprehensive examples are used to illustrate complex ideas that can not be adequately explained using brief examples. For instance, if you are trying to show nuanced characteristics, you might have to group multiple examples to make your point.• Be choosey about what you include, using the strongest examples. Make every example work in your favor.
The examples used in your essay must also berepresentative. Unless you are specifically discussingexceptions to a rule, your examples must reflect themajority (i.e., what is usually the case, or what is “onaverage” true). You might, for example, hear a drinkertry to deny the risks of heavy drinking because heknew someone who drank every day until he wasninety. This is not a valid example since most peoplecould not drink a lot over an extended period withoutsuccumbing to some ill effects. The example does notrepresent what would usually happen to most people.
Organization• A fundamental skill in writing this essay is that of organization.• Consider the order in which sub-claims are presented in the essay that supports the thesis statement.• Writers call this the order of importance, and multiple methods exist: 1. Chronological 2. Ascending order of significance 3. Descending order of significance 4. By attribute: emotional characteristics, physical characteristics, public or private characteristics, or another organized strategy.
Chronological order• This system of organization is often used in narrative/descriptive essays because events have to be told from beginning to end, process-analysis essays because the sequence of steps is crucial to the understanding of the topic, and cause and effect essays since one thing leads to another. There is cause to use this strategy in some argument essays. For example, you might use this method if you are showing that your character is dynamic. Development of your character throughout the novel will be germane to your argument.
With ascending and descending order ofimportance, chronology or time sequence doesnot matter. Whats more important is the degreeof the sub-claims. In the ascending order of importance organizational method, arrange the paragraphs from least significant to most significant so that the reader is left with the strongest point that has to be made. The points gradually build up to a powerful, loud crescendo at the end of the essay. On the other hand, descending order of importance organization works in the opposite direction. The main body paragraphs begin with the most compelling reason or point and gradually work down to the least important point.
By Attribute (or another schema)• If you assert in your thesis one main attribute of your character, you might then break that attribute down into smaller characteristics that support your point. • For example, if you assert a character is honorable, you might use categories like honesty, courtesy, respect, responsibility, and trustworthiness to demonstrate his or her honor. • If you assert a character is a victim of society, you might use categories like race, class, sex, ability/disability, and others to demonstrate how society has marginalized him or her.
Traps to Avoid• Do not just randomly toss reasons or examples into the main body section. Careful readers will detect that this is a sloppy arrangement and give up reading if they have to struggle with the lack of organization.
A Counterargument• Address opinions your readers might have regarding your character.• Think about instances when your character appears to act in a way that could be perceived as contrary to your thesis. Explain why you don’t see the behavior as contrary.• Consider the arguing exercises we have done in class. How might you address your peers’ questions and comments without the obvious question/answer format?• Explain behaviors that are out of the ordinary or out of line with your thesis by analyzing text to show extenuating circumstances.
The ConclusionYou could discuss how this character fits into the work as a whole.You could address how the work would be changed if your character were gone.You could apply insights about this character to a real-world situation. Do we grow as readers from interacting with your character?You might SUBTLY remind the reader of your central idea and thesis.
Integrating quotations Citing summarized material MLA formatting Works Cited pageSKILL REVIEW:
Integrating Short Quotations• To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short passages ofprose, use the following examples:• According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.• According to Foulkess study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).• Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?
Long Quotations• For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch (10 spaces) from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
MLA style: Integrating quotationsAccording to the St. Martins 3. With a statement that ends in that.Guide, there are three main ways to The importance of Aulds prohibition toset up a signaling phrase: Douglass is clear when he states that "It1. With a complete sentence was a new and special revelation" (29).followed by a colon.The effects of Aulds prohibition You can, however, build your ownagainst teaching Douglass to read signal phrases by mixing these threewere quite profound for Douglass: basic styles with different verbs"It was a new and special admits agrees argues assertsrevelation" (29). believes2. With an incomplete claims compares confirms contendsentence, followed by a comma. s declares deniesDouglass argues that Aulds emphasizes insists notes observprohibition against literacy for him es pointswas a profound out reasons refutes rejects resexperience, saying, "It was a new ponds replies suggests thinksand special revelation" (29). writes
Periods & Commas Colons & Semi-colons Periods and Commas• They go inside the quotation marks even if there is no period or comma at the end of the quoted material in the original text.• Exception: If there is a parenthetical citation immediately after the quote, the period or comma goes after the parenthetical citation.Colons & Semi-colons• Colons and semi-colons always go outside the quotation, even if the original quoted material ends with either form of punctuation.
Question Marks & Exclamation Points• If the original quote ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark, we must include it inside the quotation marks.• ORIGINAL TEXT: Will not a righteous God visit for these things?• QUOTED TEXT: When Douglass asks, "Will not a righteous God visit for these things?" he raises the question of doubt about the future salvation of the "Christian" slaveholders.• Notice that we dont put a comma after the question mark, even though normally we would if there was not a question mark. We omit the comma to avoid double punctuation.• If we want to use a quoted statement in a question or exclamation we create, then the question mark or the exclamation mark goes outside the quotation marks.• ORIGINAL TEXT: The grave is at the door. (FD 38)• QUOTED TEXT: How can we take Douglass seriously when he indulges in excessively romanticized language such as "The grave is at the door"?
MLA format: on our website: “Writing Support” :“MLA Formatting Video”MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to writepapers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the Englishlanguage in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system forreferencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays andWorks Cited pages.Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstratingaccountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA stylecan protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful oraccidental uncredited use of source material by other writers.http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
Margins and Formatting Header: Last Name 1 • 1” all around • Double Click in Header • Go to “Layout” and Area adjust margins or use • Type your last name custom settings • Justify right • Times New Roman 12 • Go to “insert” and • Indent body click on “page paragraphs ½ inch number” from the margin
Heading:Double Spaced Title Your Name • Original Title (not the title of the text we Dr. Kim Palmore read) • No italics, bold, EWRT 2 underline, or quotation marks 20 October 2012 • Centered on the page • No extra spaces (just double spaced after your heading and before the body of your text)
• Note that the works cited page is in alpha order and that there are no numbers next to the entries. The new MLA requires you to italicize titles, This, like all of your pages should be done in Times New Roman 12.
HOMEWORK• Read A Game of Thrones through the End Post #14: Write a sentence that might fit into your essay that alludes to an event, character, or piece of literature.• Post #15: Rough Draft Essay #1 Bring three clean copies to our next class