Integrating Short Quotations
To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed
lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text,
enclose the quotation within double quotation
marks. Provide the author and specific page citation
(in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the
text, and include a complete reference on the
Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as
periods, commas, and semicolons should appear
after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and
exclamation points should appear within the
quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted
passage but after the parenthetical citation if they
are a part of your text.
Depending on its length, a quotation may be incorporated into your text by
being enclosed in quotation marks or set off from your text in a block without
quotation marks. In either case, be sure to integrate the quotation into the
language of your essay.
In-Text Quotations: Incorporate brief quotations (no more than four typed lines
of prose or three lines of poetry) into your text. You may place the quotation
virtually anywhere in your sentence:
At the Beginning:
“To live a life is not to cross a field,” Sutherland writes at the beginning of her
In the Middle
Woolf begins and ends by speaking of the need of the woman writer to have
“money and a room of her own” (4)--an idea that certainly spoke to Plath’s
At the End
In The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir describes such an experience as one
in which the girl “becomes an object, and she sees herself as object” (378).
Remembering just a few simple rules can help you use the correct
punctuation as you introduce quotations.
oRule 1: Complete sentence: "quotation." (If you use a
complete sentence to introduce a quotation, use a colon (:) just
before the quotation.)
o Rule 2: Someone says, "quotation." (If the word just before
the quotation is a verb indicating someone uttering the quoted
words, use a comma. Examples include the words "says," "said,"
"states," "asks," and "yells."
oRule 3: Ending with that “quotation.” (There is no
punctuation if the word "that" comes just before the quotation,
as in "the narrator says that.")
oAnd remember that a semicolon (;) never is used to
For quotations that extend to more than four lines of
verse or prose, place quotations in a free-standing
block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the
quotation on a new line, with the entire quote
indented one inch (10 spaces) from the left
margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the
first line of the quotation by an additional quarter
inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your
parenthetical citation should come after the closing
punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain
original line breaks. (You should maintain double-
spacing throughout your essay.)
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him
throughout her narration:
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in
their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the
landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the
morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it
crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on
quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got
there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my
cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house.
For example, when citing more than
four lines of prose, use the following
Period goes before
Avoiding Grammatical Tangles
When you incorporate quotations into
your writing, and especially when you
omit words from quotations, you run
the risk of creating ungrammatical
sentences. Three common errors you
should try to avoid are verb
incompatibility and ungrammatical
When this error occurs, the verb form in the introductory
statement is grammatically incompatible with the verb form in
the quotation. When your quotation has a verb form that does
not fit in with your text, it is usually possible to use just part of
the quotation, thus avoiding verb incompatibility.
As this sentence illustrates, use the present tense when you refer to events in a
Sometimes omitting text from a quotation leaves you with an ungrammatical
sentence. Two ways of correcting the grammar are (1) adapting the
quotation (with brackets) so that its parts fit together grammatically and (2)
using only one part of the quotation.
Using Summarized Material.
Summarizing involves putting an idea into your own words.
Summaries are significantly shorter than an original text. It
is a good idea to summarize material when you want to
briefly discuss the main idea(s) of a longer piece.
Summarizing allows you to discuss central points without
reproducing multiple quotation from a single source.
Remember, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to
the original source; that is, you must cite even summarized
Not a choice:
A way of life!
video on the
Write about literature in present tense
Avoid using “thing,” “something,” “everything,” and
Avoid writing in second person.
Avoid using contractions.
Cut Wordy Sentences
Avoid run-on sentences and fragments.
Check for misused words
Put commas and periods inside of quotation marks
Exam #2 50 points
“Araby” by James Joyce
“The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin
“A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings” by Gabriel
“Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption” by
The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka
Class Presentations: 22-29
Name the work and the author
Section 1: : 2x5 points =10
Use complete titles for works and complete names for
And hardly had the women left the room with the chest,
squeezing against it and groaning, than Gregor stuck
his head out from under the couch to see how he could
feel his way into the situation as considerately as
Identify the writer
Section 2: 2x5 points =10
This writer’s fiction did not attract significant
attention outside literary circles until the
publication of his masterpiece, Cien años de
soledad (1967; One Hundred Years of Solitude,
Identify the character
Section 3: 2x5 points=10
"Some distant lamp or lighted window gleamed
below me. I was thankful that I could see so little.
All my senses seemed to desire to veil
themselves and, feeling that I was about to slip
from them, I pressed the palms of my hands
together until they trembled, murmuring: "O love!
O love!" many times."
Section 4: 2x5 points = 10
_____________ refers to the
perspective from which the story is
Section 5 :
role of setting
in any one of
the works we
read in this
Draft Paper #2
Study for exam #2
Post #25: Your best
body paragraph and