Essay due in 72 hours?
Prefer to volunteer as a tribute?
ELIT
48C
Class
29
Make an
appointment
to see me in
my office.
Use the
appointment
button on
the website!
Poetry is “a verbal
artifact which must
be as skillfully and
solidly constructed
as a table or a
motorcycle”
-W. H. Auden
AGENDA
Postmodernism
Postmodern Manifestos
Olson
O’Hara
Bishop
Ammons
Lorde
Author Introduction:
Ralph Ellison
Brief Lecture
Postmodernism
• What is postmodernism?
– the experimental aesthetic movements of the
post–World War II era
– a multi-faceted engagement ...
• Rejects 19th-century sociological realism
and 20th-century psychological realism
• Considers history and fiction both as...
Linda Hutcheon has named ‘historiographic
metafiction’: a case in which the novelist treats
actual events and fantasized m...
• A shift from the poem as artifact to the
poem as open-ended process
• An increasing emphasis on the
unconscious, acciden...
“After several decades in which
impersonality and objectivity were the key
values in poetry criticism, poets shifted the
f...
Charles Olson
1910-1979
A. R.
Ammons
(1926-2001)
Audre Lorde
1934- 1992
Group Discussion: Postmodern manifestos
Frank
O'Ha...
“On the upstairs balconies, the customers are
being hustled by every conceivable kind of
bizarre shuck. All kinds of funho...
QHQ: Thompson
1. Q: Thompson’s writing seems to be very fictional
and new compared to other stories that we have
read.
2. ...
“(1) the kinetics of the thing. A poem is energy
transferred from where the poet got it” (409).
“(2) the principle, the la...
QHQ Olson
1. Q: After reading Mary Klages’s
“Postmodernism,” [what] could the quote
“ONE PERCEPTION MUST
IMMEDIATELY AND D...
FRANK O’HARAFRANK O’HARA
• In “Personism,” O’Hara defines the poem
as an intimate link connecting two people.
– “I went ba...
QHQ O’Hara
1. Question: How does Frank O’Hara’s
movement “Personism” reflect the
postmodernist movement of the time?
ELIZABETH BISHOPELIZABETH BISHOP
• “In general, I deplore the ‘confessional.’ ”
• “But now—ye gods—anything goes, and I
am...
QHQ Bishop
1. Q: Isn’t Bishop’s “manifesto” (letter to Robert Lowell) a
critique of post-modern notions of truth, rather t...
A. R. AMMONSA. R. AMMONS
• “How does a poem resemble a walk?”
– “each makes use of the whole body”
– “every walk is unrepr...
QHQ Ammons
• Q: In A.R Ammons Manifesto, do the
walks interpret our lives and identity?
• Q: Why does Ammons state “[the m...
AUDRE LORDEAUDRE LORDE
• “Poetry is the way we help give name to
the nameless so it can be thought.”
• “We can train ourse...
QHQ Lorde
1. Q: What does Lorde mean when she
says that “poetry is not only dream or
vision, but a skeleton architecture o...
Author Introduction
Ralph Ellison
Ralph Waldo Ellison was
named after the celebrated
poet Ralph Waldo Emerson,
by his father who wanted his
son to become a ...
HOMEWORK
 Read Ralph Ellison, “The Prologue,” and “Battle Royal” from
Invisible Man. 206-224
 Post #29 Choose one:
 Wha...
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  • A good place to start a discussion of postmodernism is by wrestling with the term itself. Have any of your students ever encountered the term? Do any of them know what it means? Even if they don’t know, what does the term suggest? If “modern” suggests “the present,” how can you be “post-” the present? What ironies or contradictions are implied by the term? Help your students to see that the contradiction implied by the term is part of its appeal, and that debating the term is as important as defining it. Let your students know that “postmodernism” means different things to different people, and that the lack of consensus over how to define the term itself is what has made postmodernism such a vibrant literary and philosophical movement.
  • “After several decades in which impersonality and objectivity were the key values in poetry criticism, poets shifted the focus from the poem as artifact . . . to the poem as open-ended process. The unconscious began to take up a larger place in poetry, and accident and chance became, at times, structuring principles . . . For some poets a focus on the body brought attention to issues of gender and the ways in which the particularity of a woman’s embodied experiences had been silenced in poetry . . . A poetry open to the unconscious and centered in the body became more personal, inviting into the poem the particulars of a poet’s life” (NAAL 400).
  • Elit 48 c class 29 post qhq

    1. 1. Essay due in 72 hours? Prefer to volunteer as a tribute? ELIT 48C Class 29
    2. 2. Make an appointment to see me in my office. Use the appointment button on the website!
    3. 3. Poetry is “a verbal artifact which must be as skillfully and solidly constructed as a table or a motorcycle” -W. H. Auden
    4. 4. AGENDA Postmodernism Postmodern Manifestos Olson O’Hara Bishop Ammons Lorde Author Introduction: Ralph Ellison
    5. 5. Brief Lecture Postmodernism
    6. 6. • What is postmodernism? – the experimental aesthetic movements of the post–World War II era – a multi-faceted engagement with modernist aesthetics and philosophy • a rejection of modernism • a continuation of the “unfinished project” of modernism • a self-critical reflection on modernism From Modernism to Postmodernism
    7. 7. • Rejects 19th-century sociological realism and 20th-century psychological realism • Considers history and fiction both as products of the imagination • Questions whether literature can represent reality • Focuses self-reflexively on language itself Postmodern Fiction
    8. 8. Linda Hutcheon has named ‘historiographic metafiction’: a case in which the novelist treats actual events and fantasized material on an equal basis, with an emphasis on how history and fiction are events created by the imagination . . . Other writers chose to question the very presumption of representational literary art . . . Literary journalism, as always influenced by its fictive cousin, now centered less on presumed objectivity than on the experience of the journalist encountering that object” (NAAL 400–401).
    9. 9. • A shift from the poem as artifact to the poem as open-ended process • An increasing emphasis on the unconscious, accident, and chance • A growing focus on the body, gender, and women’s experiences • A greater sense of the poet’s personal life reflected in the poetry itself Postmodern Poetry
    10. 10. “After several decades in which impersonality and objectivity were the key values in poetry criticism, poets shifted the focus from the poem as artifact . . . to the poem as open-ended process. The unconscious began to take up a larger place in poetry, and accident and chance became, at times, structuring principles . . . For some poets a focus on the body brought attention to issues of gender and the ways in which the particularity of a woman’s embodied experiences had been silenced in poetry . . . A poetry open to the unconscious and centered in the body became more personal, inviting into the poem the particulars of a poet’s life” (NAAL 400).
    11. 11. Charles Olson 1910-1979 A. R. Ammons (1926-2001) Audre Lorde 1934- 1992 Group Discussion: Postmodern manifestos Frank O'Hara (1926-1966) Elizabeth Bishop 1911 –1979
    12. 12. “On the upstairs balconies, the customers are being hustled by every conceivable kind of bizarre shuck. All kinds of funhouse-type booths. Shoot the pasties off the nipples of a ten-foot bull- dyke and win a cotton-candy goat. Stand in front of this fantastic machine, my friend, and for just 99¢ your likeness will appear, two hundred feet tall, on a screen above downtown Las Vegas. Ninety-nine cents more for a voice message. “Say whatever you want, fella. They’ll hear you, don’t worry about that. Remember you’ll be two hundred feet tall.” (408). Hunter S. Thompson “Hallucinations are bad enough. But after a while you learn to cope with things like seeing your dead grandmother crawling up your leg with a knife in her teeth. Most acid fanciers can handle this sort of thing” “But nobody can handle that other trip—” (408).
    13. 13. QHQ: Thompson 1. Q: Thompson’s writing seems to be very fictional and new compared to other stories that we have read. 2. Q. Was Hunter S. Thompson disturbed? 3. Q: What does acid have to do with the post modernist manifestos? 4. Q. In terms of literary criticism, is there a school of drug/psychedelic criticism? 5. Q. Has our reality become something akin to what Thompson describes in his manifesto? 6. Q: How does one’s perception of reality form one’s opinion of it?
    14. 14. “(1) the kinetics of the thing. A poem is energy transferred from where the poet got it” (409). “(2) the principle, the law which presides conspicuously over such composition” – “FORM IS NEVER MORE THAN AN EXTENSION OF CONTENT” (410). (3) the process of the thing, how the principle can be made so to shape the energies that the form is accomplished – “ONE PERCEPTION MUST IMMEDIATELY AND DIRECTLY LEAD TO A FURTHER PERCEPTION” (410). Charles OlsonCharles Olson
    15. 15. QHQ Olson 1. Q: After reading Mary Klages’s “Postmodernism,” [what] could the quote “ONE PERCEPTION MUST IMMEDIATELY AND DIRECTLY LEAD TO A FURTHER PERCEPTION” (410) mean in Charles Olson’s “From Projective Verse”?
    16. 16. FRANK O’HARAFRANK O’HARA • In “Personism,” O’Hara defines the poem as an intimate link connecting two people. – “I went back to work and wrote a poem for [a person I was in love with]. While I was writing it I was realizing that if I wanted to I could use the telephone instead of writing the poem, and so Personism was born. It’s a very exciting movement . . . which puts the poem squarely between the poet and the person.” • In “Personism,” O’Hara defines the poem as an intimate link connecting two people. – “I went back to work and wrote a poem for [a person I was in love with]. While I was writing it I was realizing that if I wanted to I could use the telephone instead of writing the poem, and so Personism was born. It’s a very exciting movement . . . which puts the poem squarely between the poet and the person.”
    17. 17. QHQ O’Hara 1. Question: How does Frank O’Hara’s movement “Personism” reflect the postmodernist movement of the time?
    18. 18. ELIZABETH BISHOPELIZABETH BISHOP • “In general, I deplore the ‘confessional.’ ” • “But now—ye gods—anything goes, and I am so sick of poems about the students’ mothers & father and sex lives and so on.” • “I can’t bear to have anything you write tell —perhaps—what we’re really like in 1972 —perhaps it’s as simple as that.” • “In general, I deplore the ‘confessional.’ ” • “But now—ye gods—anything goes, and I am so sick of poems about the students’ mothers & father and sex lives and so on.” • “I can’t bear to have anything you write tell —perhaps—what we’re really like in 1972 —perhaps it’s as simple as that.”
    19. 19. QHQ Bishop 1. Q: Isn’t Bishop’s “manifesto” (letter to Robert Lowell) a critique of post-modern notions of truth, rather than a post- modern manifesto? 2. Q: Is it considered unacceptable to incorporate and alter aspects of one’s life into a work of fiction or poetry, as Robert Lowell did in Dolphin? 3. Q: Why do postmodernist view worldly things as secondary? 4. Is it important for authors to write about their society in realistic terms or do exaggerated/idealized worlds have more impact on the reader? 5. Q: Is Bishop covering [up] something [that makes] her [afraid]?
    20. 20. A. R. AMMONSA. R. AMMONS • “How does a poem resemble a walk?” – “each makes use of the whole body” – “every walk is unreproducible, as is every poem” – “each turns, one or more times, and eventually returns” – “the motion occurs only in the body of the walker or in the body of the words” • “How does a poem resemble a walk?” – “each makes use of the whole body” – “every walk is unreproducible, as is every poem” – “each turns, one or more times, and eventually returns” – “the motion occurs only in the body of the walker or in the body of the words”
    21. 21. QHQ Ammons • Q: In A.R Ammons Manifesto, do the walks interpret our lives and identity? • Q: Why does Ammons state “[the motion occurring in the body] is nonreproducible and nonlogical”? (Ammons 416) • Q: If the “walk,” used as a metaphor for poetic discovery, confirms a “previous intuition,” how can it be “nonlogical”?
    22. 22. AUDRE LORDEAUDRE LORDE • “Poetry is the way we help give name to the nameless so it can be thought.” • “We can train ourselves to respect our feelings and to discipline (transpose) them into language that catches those feelings so that they can be shared.” • “Poetry is not only dream or vision, it is the skeleton architecture of our lives.” • “Poetry is the way we help give name to the nameless so it can be thought.” • “We can train ourselves to respect our feelings and to discipline (transpose) them into language that catches those feelings so that they can be shared.” • “Poetry is not only dream or vision, it is the skeleton architecture of our lives.”
    23. 23. QHQ Lorde 1. Q: What does Lorde mean when she says that “poetry is not only dream or vision, but a skeleton architecture of our lives”? 2. Q: Why does Lorde believe that poetry is necessary for women? 3. Q: [Is] poetry “a vital necessity of our existence”?
    24. 24. Author Introduction Ralph Ellison
    25. 25. Ralph Waldo Ellison was named after the celebrated poet Ralph Waldo Emerson, by his father who wanted his son to become a poet. Today Ellison is mostly remembered as the mastermind who wrote the emotive and gripping novel “Invisible Man” (along with many others) which met with much critical success, winning the National Book Award in 1953. Ellison was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on 1st March 1914. He was born to Ida Millsap and Lewis Alfred Ellison and had a brother Herbert Millsap Ellison. In his initial years Ellison and his family had to deal with difficult times. In 1965, Ellison received the honor of his book “Invisible Man” being declared the most important novel since the end of WW11 by survey of 200 prominent literary figures.
    26. 26. HOMEWORK  Read Ralph Ellison, “The Prologue,” and “Battle Royal” from Invisible Man. 206-224  Post #29 Choose one:  What does the reader know about the narrator solely on the basis of the Prologue? Explain both what he reveals about himself explicitly and what inferences can be drawn, justifying your findings as you go along.  Why would the audience listening to the narrator’s speech have reacted so strongly to the narrator’s mistake? Discuss the implications of his slip of the tongue.  QHQ

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