Me versus Myself
• Me is an object pronoun, which
means that it refers to the
person that the action of a verb
is being done to, or to which a
• They want me to study more.
• Tell me a story.
• Between you and me, he's right.
• Carol wants to meet with John
and me tomorrow.
• The book was written entirely by
• Please call Hillary or me with
• Myself is a reflexive or stressed
pronoun, which means
that, generally speaking, it
should be used in conjunction
with the subject pronoun I, not
instead of the object pronoun
• I bought myself a car.
• I myself started the company.
• I did the laundry by myself.
• I feel like myself again.
• Tired of waiting, I just did it
I versus Me
• John and me/I went to the store
• Me went to the store
• I went to the store
• John and I went to the store
• Maria went to the store with Chase and I/me.
• Maria went to the store with I
• Maria went to the store with me.
• Maria went to the store with Chase and me.
• Presentation: Essay #2 Review and questions
• Group Work/Discussion: Bragg: “Analyzing Writing
Strategies #1 p 36: Comparing
• In-Class Writing:
• Similes and Metaphors
• Time Transitions and Verb Tenses
• Integrating quotations MLA style
• Preparing the complete draft: SMG 52-53
• Introduction/Long quotation
• Intro to event
• Description of places
• Description of people
• Climax (with sentence strategy)
• Dialogue (or 2)
• Concluding strategy
Metaphor: a literary figure of speech that describes a subject by
asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as
another otherwise unrelated object.
All the world‟s a stage
Simile: a figure of speech that directly compares two different
things, usually by employing the words “like” or “as.”
I‟ve been working like a dog
Bragg: “Analyzing Writing Strategies #1 p 36
• In your groups, review “Analyzing Writing
• Locate the comparisons in paragraphs 1, 3,
7, 9, 13, and 16.
• Discuss the strength of metaphors and
similes and how you might use them in
your own writing.
• Formulate 5-7 metaphors or similes
appropriate to your essay.
A WELL-TOLD STORY
A Sentence Strategy:
Time Transitions and Verb Tenses
As you draft a remembered
event essay, you will be trying
to help readers follow the
sequence of actions in time.
To prevent readers from
becoming confused about the
chronology, writers use a
combination of time
transitions and verb tenses to
help readers understand
when the event occurred and
when particular actions
occurred in relation to other
occurred when she went to the mall for “a
day of last-minute Christmas sopping.” Early in her
essay, Dillard identifies when the event took place:
“On one weekday morning after Christmas . . .”
(par. 3). You can also use calendar time to
establish the time the event began; if your narrative
Covers several days, you might readers a series of time cues
throughout the essay so we can easily follow the progression:
“A year before his death”; “That August, I had turned 22”; and
Cite calendar or clock time to establish when the
event took place and to help readers follow the
action over time. Writers often situate the event in
terms of the date or time. Brandt, for example,
establishes in the opening paragraph that the
Use temporal transitions combined with appropriate verb
tenses to help readers follow a sequence of actions.
Writers can employ temporal transitions such as after,
before, in the meantime, and simultaneously to help
readers keep track of the sequence of actions:
When I got back to the Snoopy
section, I took one look at the
lines. . . . (Brandt, par. 3)
In this example, when signals
that one action followed another
in time: Brandt did not take a
look at the lines until she got
back to the Snoopy section.
• Here‟s another example of
a simple one-thing-and-
• We all spread out, banged
together some regular
snowballs, took aim, and,
when the Buick drew nigh,
fired. (Dillard, par. 7)
In this example, the word
when together with a series of
simple past-tense verbs
indicates that a sequence of
actions took place in a
order: they took their
positions, made snowballs,
aimed, the Buick came near,
they threw their snowballs.
Look for a paragraph (or paragraphs) in your essay that tells a
part of the story that relies on order. Add temporal words to help
the reader understand when events happened.
After, afterward, before, then, once, next,
last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at
first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally,
soon, meanwhile, at the same time, for a
minute, hour, day, etc., during the morning,
day, week, etc., most important, later,
ordinarily, to begin with, afterwards,
generally, in order to, subsequently,
previously, in the meantime, immediately,
eventually, concurrently, simultaneously
make sure you have integrated your quotations
According to the St. Martin's Guide, there are three
main ways to set up a signaling phrase:
1. With a complete sentence followed by a colon.
• The effects of Auld's prohibition against teaching Douglass to read were
quite profound for Douglass: "It was a new and special revelation" (29).
2. With an incomplete sentence, followed by a comma.
• Douglass argues that Auld's prohibition against literacy for him was a
profound experience, saying, "It was a new and special revelation" (29).
3. With a statement that ends in that.
• The importance of Auld's prohibition to Douglass is clear when he states
that "It was a new and special revelation" (29).
Using Signal Phrases:
• One common error a lot of people make when they include a
quotation is that they tend to put the quotation in a sentence
by itself. Unfortunately, we cannot do this. We need to use
what Diana Hacker calls a signal phrase to introduce the
quote and give our readers a context for the quote that
explains why we are taking the time to include it in our
Take, for example, this section from a paperon Narrative
of the Life of Frederick Douglass,AnAmerican Slave,
Written by Himself:
Incorrect: We can see Douglass’s marriage as an assertion of his
ownership of himself. “What Douglass's certificate of marriage,
which is transcribed in full in chapter 11, signifies is that the black
man has repossessed himself” (Baker 170).
Correct: We can see Douglass’s marriage as an assertion of his
ownership of himself, as Houston A. Baker, Jr. argues in his essay
“The Economic of Douglass's Narrative”: "What Douglass’s
certificate of marriage, which is transcribed in full in chapter 11,
signifies is that the black man has repossessed himself" (170).
• For quotations that are more than four lines of
prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text
and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new
line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left
margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line
of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are
citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation
should come after the closing punctuation mark. When
quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should
maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
For example, when citing more than four lines
of prose, use the following example:
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in
their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the
landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow.
By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to
Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his
chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was
obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and
inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if
the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. Indent the first
line of each quoted paragraph an extra quarter inch.
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement,"
David Russell argues:
Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher
education since papers and examinations came into wide use in
the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral
examination. . . .
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive
education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society
between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and
of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and
pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widening number of
citizens into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society
(promoting social equity). (3)
Katniss thinks about how difficult it would be to get a meal like this in
What must it be like, I wonder, to live in a world where
food appears at the press of a button? How would I spend
the hours I now commit to combing the woods for
sustenance if it were so easy to come by? What do they do
all day, these people in the Capitol, besides decorating their
bodies and waiting around for a new shipment of tributes to
roll in and die for their entertainment?
I look up and find Cinna‟s eyes trained on mine. „How
despicable we must seem to you,‟ he says. (65)
Katniss doesn‟t respond to Cinna‟s statement, but she agrees in her
head: “He‟s right, though. The whole rotten lot of them is despicable”
Although our world does not really…..
The Essay: The Beginning
• Do I have my quotation?
• Have I explained it?
• Do I have a transition to my own story?
• Have I aroused readers‟ curiosity?
• Can my readers identify with me? Should I tell
them a few things about myself?
• Should I do something unusual, such as
beginning in the middle of the action or with a
funny bit of dialogue?
• Should I follow strict chronological order? Or
would flashback or flashforward make the
narrative more interesting?
• Do I have narrative action and dialogue that
intensify the drama?
• Can I add description to detail or dramatize the
• Do I have a climax that builds appropriately?
• In my effort to conclude with some reflections on meaning,
have I tagged on a moral? Do I sound too sentimental?
• If I want readers to think well of me, should I conclude
with a philosophical statement, as Wolff does? Should I
end with a paradoxical statement like Dillard? Should I be
self-critical to avoid seeming smug?
• Have I emphasized the events continuing significance in
my life? Have I contrasted my remembered and current
• Have I framed the essay by echoing back to my long
quotation? Do I give readers a sense of closure?
• Read: Catch up on HG (You should be through
• Write: Complete Draft of Essay #2
• Endeavor to format it MLA style
• Make a works cited page for your essay.
• Blog Prompt #6: Post two dialogues from your
• Study: Vocabulary (1-7)
• Bring: Two clean, complete copies of your draft;