Class 40


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Class 40

  1. 1. Class 40 EWRT 1A
  2. 2. Agenda • Integrating quotations (continued) • Works Cited Page • Editing Strategies • Open Discussion: Essay 4
  3. 3. Integrating Quotations
  4. 4. Avoiding Grammatical Tangles when you incorporate quotations • When you incorporate quotations into your writing, and especially when you omit words from quotations, you run the risk of creating ungrammatical sentences. Three common errors you should try to avoid are verb incompatibility, ungrammatical omissions, and sentence fragments.
  5. 5. Verb Incompatibility. • When this error occurs, the verb form in the introductory statement is grammatically incompatible with the verb form in the quotation. When your quotation has a verb form that does not fit in with your text, it is usually possible to use just part of the quotation, thus avoiding verb incompatibility. As this sentence illustrates, use the present tense when you refer to events in a literary work.
  6. 6. Ungrammatical Omission. • Sometimes omitting text from a quotation leaves you with an ungrammatical sentence. Two ways of correcting the grammar are (1) adapting the quotation (with brackets) so that its parts fit together grammatically and (2) using only one part of the quotation.
  7. 7. Sentence Fragment. • Sometimes when a quotation is a complete sentence, writers neglect the sentence that introduces the quote — for example, by forgetting to include a verb. Make sure that the quotation is introduced by a complete sentence.
  8. 8. Works Cited How to make your page
  9. 9. Alphabetical Order Title Centered Five spaces
  10. 10. Check your works cited page
  11. 11. Editing Strategies
  12. 12. Avoiding Ambiguous Use of This and That • The Problem. Because you must frequently refer to the problem and the solution in a proposal, you will often use pronouns to avoid the monotony or wordiness of repeatedly referring to them by name. Using this and that vaguely to refer to other words or ideas, however, can confuse readers.
  13. 13. How to Correct It. • Add a specific noun after this or that. For example, in his essay in this chapter, Patrick O’Malley writes: • Another possible solution would be to help students prepare for midterm and final exams by providing sets of questions from which the exam questions will be selected. . . . This solution would have the advantage of reducing students’ anxiety about learning every fact in the textbook. . . . (par. 12) • O’Malley avoids an ambiguous this in the second sentence by repeating the noun “solution.” • (He might just as well have used preparation or action or approach.)
  14. 14. Revising Sentences that Lack an Agent The Problem: A writer proposing a solution to a problem usually needs to indicate who exactly should take action to solve it. Such actors— those who are in a position to take action—are called “agents.” Look, for example, at this sentence from O’Malley’s proposal: • To get students to complete the questions in a timely way, professors would have to collect and check the answers. (par. 11) • In this sentence, professors are the agents. They have the authority to assign and collect study questions, and they would need to take this action in order for this solution to be successfully implemented. • Had O’Malley instead written “the answers would have to be collected and checked,” the sentence would lack an agent. Failing to name an agent would have made his argument less convincing, because it would have left unclear one of the key parts of any proposal: Who is going to take action.
  15. 15. How to Correct It • When you revise your work, ask yourself who or what performed the action in any given sentence. If there is no clear answer, rewrite the sentence to give it an agent. Watch in particular for forms of the verb to be (the balls were dropped, exams should be given, etc.), which often signal agentless sentences.
  16. 16. Examples
  17. 17. Homework • Revise: Essay #4 • Integrating citations: slides 4-7 • Works Cited page: slides 9-11 • Ambiguous use of “this” and “that”: slides 14-16 • Revising sentences that lack an agent: slides 17-19 • Bring: • One complete, clean, revised copy of Essay #4