Class 20


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Class 20

  1. 1. + Class 20 EWRT 1A
  2. 2. + Agenda  Review:  Monroe’s Motivated Sequence  Presentation:  The Motivational Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos  Discussion: "I have a Dream.”  Ethos, Pathos, and Logos  Rhetorical Strategies  In Class Writing  Rhetorical Strategies
  3. 3. + Have you reorganized your essay into the five steps of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence ? I. In the attention step, speakers call attention to the situation. (The Problem) II. For the need step, speakers describe the difficulty, trouble, distress, crisis, emergency, or urgency. (Its Seriousness) III. In the satisfaction step, speakers tell listeners how to satisfy the need they establish. (The Solution) IV. For visualization, speakers offer listeners a vision of what life can be once their solution (offered in the satisfaction step) is adopted. (The Promise) V. The final stage is the action step when speakers offer listeners a specific course of action to follow. (Call to Action: Conclusion)
  4. 4. + Motivational Appeals Aristotle
  5. 5. + Introduction to Speech Writing: The Art of (Ethical)Persuasion Three Crucial Motivational Appeals: Ethos: Establishing credibility; convincing through your character, credentials, or knowledge. Pathos: Appealing to emotions, values, and beliefs. Logos: Appealing to reason or logic.
  6. 6. + Ethos (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Ethos is often conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views. It can also be affected by the writer's reputation as it exists independently from the message--his or her expertise in the field, his or her previous record or integrity, and so forth.
  7. 7. + Ethos King was born into a well-educated, successful family, graduated from Morehouse College, and, as the outstanding member of his senior class, from Crozer Theological Seminary. He received his Ph.D. in philosophy in 1955, and served as minister of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church from 1955 to 1968. His Nobel Peace Prize was received one year after this speech was given. He is dressed well and is well-spoken. His demeanor produces trust.
  8. 8. + Pathos (Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') is often associated with emotional appeal. But a better equivalent might be 'appeal to the audience's sympathies and imagination.' An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels.
  9. 9. + Pathos: King depends on his use of language to draw emotion from his listeners. Figures of speech predominate. Antithesis, or the setting of one clause or other member of a sentence against another to which it is opposed, is heavily used. “It came as a joyous daybreak to end their long night of captivity,” is the first of many examples of antithesis used in the speech. Simile is the comparison of two unlike things, connected with the words “like” or “as” such as “justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” Metaphor is a compressed simile (the “like” or “as” is eliminated) and they are abundant: “manacles of segregation,” “symphony of brotherhood.”
  10. 10. Allusions, or references to literary, historical, and biblical events, occur often. One obvious example is “Five score years ago,” which refers to the Gettysburg Address. Personification: the attribution of a personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions: “It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citizens of color are concerned.” Hyperbole: obvious and intentional exaggeration: "I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight.”
  11. 11. Colloquialisms: a word, phrase, or expression characteristic of ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing: For example, King uses both "cooling off” and "blow off steam.” Repetition: repeated word aimed at stimulating thought on a recurring theme; used to create an 'auditory' stimulus: “freedom” and “dream” are oft repeated by King. Anaphora: a poetic device and a repetition device where the same expression is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences: “One hundred years later” Parallelism: occurs when a writer or speaker expresses ideas of equal worth with the same grammatical form: “With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.”
  12. 12. + Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal.
  13. 13. + Logos In his “I Have a Dream” speech, King often uses his own personal experience and observations of racism and injustice to support his major arguments.  He also uses logos in his analogies. When he states, “America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked „insufficient funds.‟” (King) His analogy is using logic as a form of reasoning. He reasons is that everyone understands money and that the listener is able to relate to being handed a bad check.
  14. 14. + In Groups, look for examples of rhetorical strategies in King’s Speech  Antithesis: the setting of one clause against another to which it is opposed.  Simile is the comparison of two unlike things, connected with the words “like” or “as.”  Metaphor is a compressed simile (the “like” or “as” is eliminated).  Examples: Both general and specific references that people will understand.  Anaphora: a repetition device where the same expression is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences.  Repetition: repeated word aimed at stimulating thought on a recurring theme.  Parallelism: a writer or speaker expresses ideas of equal worth with the same grammatical form  Allusions: references to literary, historical, and biblical events
  15. 15. + Rhetorical Strategies Antithesis
  16. 16. + Antithesis  “joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity” [paragraph 2]  “the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity” [3]  “rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice” [6]  “This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.” [7]  “sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.” [19] Metaphor and simile
  17. 17. +  “battered by the storms of persecution”  “staggered by the winds of police brutality."  "The whirlwinds of revolt”  “beautiful symphony of brotherhood.”  “signing a promissory note”  “bad check”  "No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until 'justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.'"  the Emancipation Proclamation came “as a joyous daybreak” Metaphor Simile Examples
  18. 18. +  Mississippi, New York [paragraph 13]  Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana [14]  Georgia [18]  Mississippi [19]  Alabama [22]  New Hampshire [32], New York [33], Pennsylvania [34], Colorado [35], California [36], Georgia [37], Tennessee [38], Mississippi [39]  “slums and ghettos of our northern cities” [paragraph 14]  “the South” [25]  “From every mountainside” [40]  “from every village and every hamlet” [41] Specific Examples General Examples Anaphora
  19. 19. + ANAPHORA  “One hundred years later…” [paragraph 3]  “Now is the time…” [paragraph 6]  “We must…” [paragraph 8]  “We can never (cannot) be satisfied…” [paragraph 13]  “Go back to…” [paragraph 14]  “I Have a Dream…” [paragraphs 16 through 24]  “With this faith, …” [paragraph 26]  “Let freedom ring (from) …” [paragraphs 27 through 41] Repetition
  20. 20. + Repetition  freedom (20 times)  we (30 times), our (17 times), you (8 times)  nation (10 times), America (5 times), American (4 times)  justice (8 times) and injustice (3 times)  dream (11 times) Parallelism
  21. 21. + “Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana.” “from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city” “all of God’s children,” no matter if they are “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics” Parallelism Allusion
  22. 22. + ALLUSION  “Five score years ago…” [paragraph 2] refers to Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg Address speech which began “Four score and seven years ago…” This allusion is particularly poignant given that King was speaking in front of the Lincoln Memorial.  “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” [and the rest of paragraph 4] is a reference to the United States Declaration of Independence.  Numerous Biblical allusions provide the moral basis for King’s arguments: “It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.” [paragraph 2] alludes to Psalms 30:5 “For his anger is but for a moment; his favor is for a lifetime. Weeping may linger for the night, but joy comes with the morning.“  “Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” [paragraph 8] evokes Jeremiah 2:13 “for my people have committed two evils: they have forsaken me, the fountain of living water, and dug out cisterns for themselves, cracked cisterns that can hold no water.“
  23. 23. + In-Class Writing  Work to integrate these multiple rhetorical strategies into your speech.  Antithesis  Metaphor/Simile  Examples  Anaphora  Repetition  Parallelism  Allusion
  24. 24. + Speeches Speeches begin class 22 and end class 23. Everyone should be prepared to go first. Everyone must show up on both Wednesday and Thursday to get full credit for a speech. Failing to show up on one day will result in a full grade penalty.
  25. 25. + Homework  Write, revise, or refine your speech.  Use the list of strategies to generate several ideas for your own speech.  Read: SMG "Oral Presentations” 835-39  Bring a clean copy of essay #4, or bring it on your device.