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Class 16 online 1 a

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class 16 1A presidential

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Class 16 online 1 a

  1. 1. AGENDA  Problem Solution Essays - Patrick O Malley, More Testing, More Learning - Karen Kornbluh, Win-Win Flexibility  Introduction to Essay #4  Generating a topic for your essay.
  2. 2. Basic Features The essays you read for today propose a solution to a problem. Here we will see how different authors incorporate the basic features of the genre. A Well-Defined Problem
  3. 3. A Well-Argued Solution
  4. 4. An Effective Counterargument
  5. 5. An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
  6. 6. A Readable Plan An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions •The writer arguing for a proposal must anticipate objections or reservations that readers may have about the proposed solution. • This works in much the same way as a counterargument. Identify other ways to solve the problem. Then show why or how your solution is superior.
  7. 7. Look for these basic features in Patrick O’Malley’s Essay “More Testing, More Learning” A Well-Defined Problem A Clearly Described Solution A Convincing Argument An Effective Counterargument An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
  8. 8. What is this essay about? What is O’Malley’s Problem? Where does he tell the reader? A Well-Defined Problem
  9. 9. A Well-Defined Problem Although this last-minute anxiety about midterm and final exams is only too familiar to most college students, many professors may not realize how such major, infrequent, high-stakes exams work against the best interests of students both psychologically and intellectually. A Clearly Described Solution
  10. 10. A Clearly Described Solution: The Thesis If professors gave additional brief exams at frequent intervals, students would be spurred to study more regularly, learn more, worry less, and perform better on midterms, finals, and other papers and projects. If professors gave additional brief exams at frequent intervals, students would be spurred to study more regularly, learn more, worry less, and perform better on midterms, finals, and other papers and projects. A Convincing Argument
  11. 11. A Convincing Argument: Support for the Thesis  A 2006 study reported in Psychological Science journal concluded that “taking repeated tests on material leads to better long- term retention than repeated studying,” according to the study’s coauthors, Henry L. Roediger and Jeff Karpicke.  A Harvard study notes students’ “strong preference for frequent evaluation in a course.”  In a review of a number of studies of student learning, Frederiksen (1984) reports that students who take weekly quizzes achieve higher scores on final exams than students who take only a midterm exam and that testing increases retention of material tested.  Researchers at the University of Vermont found a strong relationship among procrastination, anxiety, and achievement. An Effective Counterargument
  12. 12. An Effective Counterargument: An Anticipation of Readers’ Objections and Questions Some believe that such exams take up too much of the limited class time available to cover the material in the course. Another objection professors have to frequent exams is that they take too much time to read and grade. An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
  13. 13. An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions  It is reasonable to consider alternative ways to achieve the same goals. One alternative solution is to implement a program that would improve study skills.  Still another solution might be to provide frequent study questions for students to answer.  Another possible solution would be to help students prepare for midterm and final exams by providing sets of questions from which the exam questions will be selected or announcing possible exam topics at the beginning of the course.
  14. 14. Consider Kornbluh’s “Win Win Flexibility” in terms of the Basic Features. A Well-Defined Problem A Clearly Described Solution A Convincing Argument An Effective Counterargument An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions What is Kornbluh‘s Issue?
  15. 15. What is Kornbluh’s Essay about? What is the problem? Which of these strategies does Kornbluh use to define her problem? 1. giving examples to make the problem specific 2. using scenarios or anecdotes to dramatize the problem 3. quoting testimony from those affected by the problem 4. citing statistics to show the severity of the problem 5. vividly describing the problem’s negative consequences 1. giving examples to make the problem specific 2. using scenarios or anecdotes to dramatize the problem 3. quoting testimony from those affected by the problem 4. citing statistics to show the severity of the problem 5. vividly describing the problem’s negative consequences Offering a solution
  16. 16. What is Kornbluh’s Solution? Which Strategies does Kornbluh use to Describe or Demonstrate her Solution? 1. the proposed solution would reduce or eliminate a major cause of the problem. 2. a similar solution has worked elsewhere. 3. the necessary steps to put the solution into practice can be taken without excessive cost or inconvenience. 4. stakeholders could come together behind the proposal. 1. the proposed solution would reduce or eliminate a major cause of the problem. 2. a similar solution has worked elsewhere. 3. the necessary steps to put the solution into practice can be taken without excessive cost or inconvenience. 4. stakeholders could come together behind the proposal. An Effective Counterargument: Addressing Questions and Concerns
  17. 17. Which Questions or Concerns does Kornbluh Address? How Does Kornbluh Address Questions and Concerns? 1. by acknowledging an objection 2. by conceding the point and modifying the proposal to accommodate it 3. by refuting criticism—for example, by arguing that an alternative solution would be more costly or less likely to solve the problem than the proposed solution. 1. by acknowledging an objection 2. by conceding the point and modifying the proposal to accommodate it 3. by refuting criticism—for example, by arguing that an alternative solution would be more costly or less likely to solve the problem than the proposed solution. Alternative Solutions
  18. 18. Alternative Solutions How does Kornbluh present her solution as preferable to other possible solutions? How does Kornbluh present her solution as preferable to other possible solutions? A Readable Plan
  19. 19. Which of the following does Kornbluh include to make her essay easy to read: 1. a forecast of the argument 2. key words introduced in the thesis and forecasting statement 3. topic sentences introducing paragraphs or groups of paragraphs 4. repeated use of key words and synonyms throughout the essay, particularly in topic sentences 5. clear transitional words and phrases 6. headings that explicitly identify different sections of the essay 7. visuals, including charts that present information in an easy-to- read format 1. a forecast of the argument 2. key words introduced in the thesis and forecasting statement 3. topic sentences introducing paragraphs or groups of paragraphs 4. repeated use of key words and synonyms throughout the essay, particularly in topic sentences 5. clear transitional words and phrases 6. headings that explicitly identify different sections of the essay 7. visuals, including charts that present information in an easy-to- read format Essay #4
  20. 20. Essay #4: Proposing a Solution: This essay is due at the end of the quarter. Essay #4 Assignment: (200 points) Write an essay from 4-6 pages in length, that addresses the topic below. Use a minimum of three credible secondary sources to support your argument. These are in addition to The Hunger Games or other primary texts you might use. Prompt : Write an essay proposing a solution to a well-defined problem faced by a community or group to which you may belong. Alternatively, you may address a well-defined problem faced by one of the districts or communities in The Hunger Games. Address your proposal to your audience: one or more members of the group, its leadership, or to outsiders who may be able to contribute to solving the problem. In Class Writing
  21. 21. Here comes your footer  Page 23 The problem: In the wake of the surprise outcome on Election Day, nearly half of the American voters feel despondent, disgusted, betrayed, or afraid. All across the country there are citizen-led efforts underway to heal the divides created by the presidential election, to repair the social fabric, to restore trust and civility. Others are rioting, planning protests, endeavoring to change the political process, or talk of seceding from The United States. Write a problem solution essay that defines the problem Americans face in the aftermath of a deeply contentious and bitter race to the presidency; then, offer a specific solution to solve at least one problem apparent in our current situation. For example, you might discuss what the nation’s next leader can do to help knit America back together and restore confidence in the office. Or you could approach the solution by focusing on how anxious liberals might manage their post-election anger, sadness, and fear? How should conservatives and Trump supporters move forward? There are many ways to approach solving this problem, so feel free to be creative, but it might be more manageable for you address how to solve one of the issues born of the election results rather than all of them. Optional Prompt
  22. 22. Choosing a Topic for your Essay! My Community, Club, or Group My Community, Club, or Group
  23. 23. Begin by making a chart like the one below. Identify a problem for each of the groups or organizations listed below: Groups and organizations 1.The Hunger Games 2.De Anza College 3.Your Neighborhood 4.Your Club 5.Community Problems 1. Problem 2. Problem 3. Problem 4. Problem 5. Problem
  24. 24. Here is an example of a finished chart. Yours should look like this: Groups and organizations 1.The Hunger Games 2.De Anza College 3.Willow Glen 4.Karate Club 5.Community Recreation Centers Problems 1. Not enough food 2. Not enough parking 3. Employee parking on our street 4. Lack of commitment 5. Not enough safe places for kids to play
  25. 25. Now, fill in your chart with possible solutions for each problem. Groups and organizations 1. The Hunger Games 2. De Anza College 3. Your Neighborhood 4. Karate Club 5. Community Recreation Center Problems 1. Not Enough Food 2. Lack of Parking 3. Commercial parking problem 4. No commitment 5. Not enough safe places for kids to play Solutions 1. ? 2. Reorganize lots 3. ? 4. ? 5. Start a volunteer parents group to offer after school activities at local schools.
  26. 26. Problem  Not enough parking at De Anza College  Not enough safe place for kids to play Solution  Redesign the current lots to increase capacity.  Start a volunteer parents group to offer after school activities at local schools.
  27. 27. How do I find out how much will this cost? Who will know how much time will it take to do this? Who has tried this solution in the past? Ask yourself: What do I still need to know and how can I find the information? Are there statistics that support this as a good idea? Should I ask the librarian for help? How can I prove that my solution will eliminate one or more causes?
  28. 28. Plan Follow-Up Research.  Add notes about the kinds of information you think would help make an argument convincing for your readers and where you think you can find this information. Consider both of your topics carefully before narrowing your choice. You may want to do a bit of research on each one to see which is the more promising.
  29. 29. Homework  Read: Finish The Hunger Games  Post #20: Answer the questions about the Kornbluh essay: slides 17-21  Finish your Chart  Post #21 Use your Chart to begin to brainstorm ideas for your essay. Choose at least two problems to explore further. Write one paragraph explaining each problem in detail. Write another explaining a tentative solution for each problem.  Bring: Your chart and paragraphs with you to our next face to face class.  Due: Essay #3: Wednesday Week 9 at Noon

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