Class 12


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Class 12

  1. 1. * EWRT 2
  2. 2. *Vocabulary Exam #4: 15 minutes*Discussion Lao Tzu/Machiavelli: Examples and preparation*Group Preparation for discussion of Philosophy and A Game of Thrones.*Class Discussion*Essay #2 writing tips*Group Preparation for Cicero*Homework *AGENDA
  3. 3. *You play or you die*
  4. 4. * A strategy of textual evidence
  5. 5. * “He must, therefore, never * “Do you recall your history raise his thought from this Bran” exercise of war, and in * “And that‟s Torrhen Stark, the peacetime he must train King Who Knelt. He was the himself more than in time of last King in the North and the war; this can be done in two first Lord of Winterfell, after ways: one by action, the he yielded to Aegon the Conqueror. Oh, there, he‟s other by the mind,” says Cregan Stark. He fought with Machiavelli. Prince Aemon once, and the Dragonknight said he‟d never faced a finer swordsman.
  6. 6. * TEAMS Eddard StarkDiscuss your ideas about Robert Baratheonapplying Lao-Tzu and Cersei Lannister Jaime LannisterMachiavelli to A Game of Joffrey Baratheon Tyrion LannisterThrones. The Night‟s Watch Khal DrogoYou have about 10 minutes! Daenerys Targaryen Viserys TargaryenMake sure you have textualsupport for your assertions!
  7. 7. *Eddard Stark
  8. 8. “The man was an oathbreaker, a deserter from the Night‟sWatch. No man is more dangerous. The deserter knows hislife is forfeit if he is taken, so he will not flinch from anycrime, no matter how vile. [. . .] If you would take a man‟slife, you owe it to him to look into his eyes and hear his finalwords. And if you cannot bear to do that, then perhaps theman does not deserve to die” (Eddard Stark to his son, Bran) * (Lao-Tzu 25)
  9. 9. * Machiavelli says “that every * “His father took off the prince must desire to be man‟s head with a single considered merciful and not sure stroke. Blood sprayed cruel; nevertheless, he must out across the snow, as red take care not to misuse this mercy” (43). as summerwine” (15). Basically, Machiavelli states that * “„If you would take a man‟s it‟s good to be merciful but too life, you owe it to him to much mercy can also lead a look into his eyes and hear ruler to their ruin. his final words. And if you “Therefore, a prince must not cannot bear to do that, then worry about the reproach of cruelty when it is a matter of perhaps the man does not keeping his subjects united and deserve to die‟” (16). loyal” (43).*
  10. 10. *“I have just three things to teach: simplicity, patience, compassion. *“I will not be part of These three are your greatest murder, Robert. Do as treasures. Simple in actions and in thoughts, you will, but do not you return to the source of being. ask me to fix my seal Patient with both friends and to it” (354). Eddard enemies, Stark to Robert you accord with the way things are. Baratheon about the Compassionate toward yourself, plot to kill Daenerys you reconcile all beings in the and her unborn child world.”
  11. 11. *RobertBaratheon
  12. 12. “‟I swear to you, sitting a throne is a thousand times harderthan winning one.‟” (King Robert to Eddard Stark)
  13. 13. “And you ought to see the towns, Ned! Flowerseverywhere, the markets bursting with food, thesummerwines so cheap and so good that you can getdrunk just breathing the air. Everyone is fat and drunkand rich.” He laughed and slapped his own amplestomach a thump. “And the girls, Ned!” heexclaimed, his eyes sparkling. “ I swear, women lose allmodesty in the heat [ . . .] they might as well benaked. Robert Baratheon had always been a man of hugeappetites, a man who knew how to take his pleasures.[. . .] Yet Ned could not help but notice those pleasureswere taking a toll on the king. Robert was breathingheavily by the time they reached the bottom of thestairs. (King Robert and Eddard Stark at Winterfell)
  14. 14. * The war had raged for close to a year. Lords great and small had flocked to Robert‟s banners; others had remained loyal to Targaryen. The mighty Lannisters of Casterly Rock, the Wardens of the West, had remained aloof from the struggle, ignoring calls to arms from both rebels and royalists. Aerys Targaryen must have thought that his gods had answered his prayers when Lord Tywin Lannister appeared before the gates of King‟s Landing with an army twelve thousand strong, professing loyalty. So the mad king had ordered his last mad act. He had opened his city to the lions at the gate. “Treachery was a coin the Targaryens knew well,” Robert said. The anger was building in him again. “Lannister paid them back in kind. It was no less than they deserved. I shall not trouble my sleep over it.” * Tywin Lannister is almost the archetypal Machiavellian “prince.”
  15. 15. *In the section “How a Prince Should Keep His Word,” Machiavelli says “how praiseworthy it is for a prince to keep his word and to live by integrity and not by deceit everyone knows.” (45) This directly relates to the Lannister family‟s slogan, “a Lannister always pays his debts.”* Do the Lannisters Keep their Word?
  16. 16. *CerseiLannister
  17. 17. “One sees from experience of our times that theprinces who have accomplished great deeds are thosewho have cared little for keeping their promises andwho have known how to manipulate the minds of menby shrewdness; and in the end they have surpassedthose who laid their foundations upon honesty”(Machiavelli 47-48) When Ned confronts Cersei about Jon Arryns murder Cersei responds, “„When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die‟”(452).
  18. 18. *Machiavelli says to Cersei [lays] a soft be, “careful never to let hand on her wrist anything slip from his lips “Such a beautiful which is not full of the five child. I do hope you qualities mentioned above: know how much he should appear, upon Joffrey and I love seeing and hearing him, to you”(457). Cersei to be all mercy, all Sansa faithfulness, all integrity, all kindness, all religion”(49).
  19. 19. *JaimeLannister
  20. 20. Machiavelli‟s excerpt “On Robert, I askAvoiding being Despisedand Hated” states, “that a you, what did we riseprince must be little against Targaryenconcerned with for, if not to put anconspiracies when thepeople are well disposed end to the murder oftoward him; but when the children? (Ned Starkpopulace is hostile and to Robert Baratheon)regards him withhatred, he must feareverything and everyone” King Aerys had ben(50). murdered by [. . .] the handsome boy they now called the Kingslayer.
  21. 21. *JoffreyBaratheon
  22. 22. A prince must not worry about the reproach of cruelty when it isa matter of keeping his subjects united and loyal; for with a veryfew examples of cruelty he will be more compassionate thanthose who, out of excessive mercy, permit disorders tocontinue, from which arise murders and plundering; for theseusually harm the community at large, while the executions thatcome from the prince harm one individual in particular. And thenew prince, above all other princes, cannot escape thereputation of being called cruel since new states are full ofdangers. (Machiavelli 43)
  23. 23. *TyrionLannister
  24. 24. Lao-Tzu andTyrion Lannister
  25. 25. *The Night’s Watch
  26. 26. If a nation is centered in the Tao, andit nourishes its own people anddoesn’t meddle in the affairs ofothers, it will be a light to all nationsof the world” (Lao-Tzu 29). In A Game of Thrones, Maester Aemon says, “the Night’s Watch would take no part in the battles of the realms it guarded” (553).
  27. 27. *KhalDrogo
  28. 28. * The Dothraki agree in that they “follow only the strong” (MartinMachiavelli writes that “a 519). In that spirit, Drogo was anprince, therefore, must ideal Khal: “Khal Drogo was a headnot have any other object taller than the tallest man in thenor any other thought, nor room, yet somehow light on hismust he take anything as feet, as graceful as the panther inhis profession but war, its Illyrio‟s menagerie” (27). Drogoinstitutions, and its had the stature and physicaldiscipline; . . . A prince strength to prove himself, and hewho does not understand put it to use; Viserys comments onmilitary matters . . . his braid and the fact that it hascannot be esteemed by his never been cut, meaning thatown soldiers, nor can he “Drogo had never lost a fight”trust them” (38). (Martin 27).
  29. 29. *
  30. 30. “A prince either spends his own money andthat of his subjects or that of others; inthe first case he must be economical; inthe second he must not restrain any partof his generosity. And for that prince whogoes out with his soldiers and lives bylooting, sacking, and ransoms, whocontrols the property of others, suchgenerosity is necessary; otherwise hewould not be followed by his troops”(Machiavelli 44).
  31. 31. *ViserysTargaryen
  32. 32. *“I‟d let his whole khalasar fuck you if *“a prince, therefore, must need be, sweet not have any other object sister, all forty thousand nor any other thought, nor men, and their horses must he take anything as too if that was what it his profession but war, its institutions, and its took to get my army. discipline [. . .] not only (Viserys to Daenerys does it maintain those who about wedding Khal were born to that Drogo) position, but many times it enables men of private station to rise to that position” (Machiavelli 40).
  33. 33. *All streams flow to the sea *“You will not fail me Because it is lower than they tonight. If you do, it will go are. hard for you. You don‟t Humility gives it is power want to wake the*If you want to govern the dragon, do you?” His finger people, twisted her, the pinch You must place yourself below cruelly hard through the them rough fabric of her tunic.” If you want to lead the people Once again, Viserys violates You must learn to follow them Lao-tzu‟s ideas because he is not putting himself below*The Master is above the the people; instead, he its people, putting himself above of and no one feels oppressed, them and using violence. and no one feels manipulated. (Viserys to his sister about The whole world is grateful to her first meeting with Khal her. Drogo).
  34. 34. *Machiavelli argues that *“My brother will never “a prince who does not take back the Seven understand military Kingdoms… He could matters… cannot be not lead an army even esteemed by his own if my lord husband soldiers, nor can he gave him one” (Martin trust them”(Machiavelli 233). 40).
  35. 35. * Do you agree with Machiavelli’s thesis that stability and power are the only qualities that matter in the evaluation of governments? If not, what else matters?* Can we have Lao-Tzu’s peace, even though there is ambition, materialism, war, and famine on earth? How is it possible? *
  36. 36. *
  37. 37. * Write about literature in the present For But tense. And Or* Write in third person (avoid “I” and Nor Yet “you”) So* Be specific: Avoid “thing” and words with “thing” in them: something, anything, everything. Coordinating ConjunctionsRemember, you need a comma and a coordinating conjunction toconnect two complete sentences: Machiavelli holds that the skill of war making is what a prince must *necessarily* make his career on, for war making is the primary means by which he can advance his state.Use a comma after an introductory clause: As the Lord of Winterfell, he carries out the execution of the deserter himself rather than assigning the dreadful task to one of his subordinates.
  38. 38. Form new teams for this unit. Remember, 50% ofyour team must be new to you!DISCUSS THE DIVISION OF LABOR FOR CICERO Questions for Critical Reading (page 129) Then we will come back together to go over the homework before we leave!
  39. 39.  Read A World of Ideas: Marcus Tullius Cicero "The Defense of Injustice" (119-129) Post #23 Questions for Critical Reading: (page 129) Post #24 QHQ Cicero Essay #2 is due by noon on Saturday: *HOMEWORK