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  1. 1. + Class 45 EWRT 1A
  2. 2. + Agenda Vocab Exam 5 Discussion Rhetorical Strategies Monroe‟s Motivated Sequence
  3. 3. + Vocabulary Exam #5  You have 20 minutes to take the quiz.  May the odds be ever in your favor!
  4. 4. + Rhetorical Strategies Antithesis
  5. 5. + Antithesis  “joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity” [paragraph 2]  “the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity” [3]  “rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice” [6]  “This sweltering summer of the Negro’s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality.” [7]  “sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.” [19] Metaphor and simile
  6. 6. +  “battered by the storms of persecution”  “staggered by the winds of police brutality."  "The whirlwinds of revolt”  “beautiful symphony of brotherhood.”  “signing a promissory note”  “bad check”  "No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until 'justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mighty stream.'"  the Emancipation Proclamation came “as a joyous daybreak” Metaphor Simile Examples
  7. 7. +  Mississippi, New York [paragraph 13]  Mississippi, Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana [14]  Georgia [18]  Mississippi [19]  Alabama [22]  New Hampshire [32], New York [33], Pennsylvania [34], Colorado [35], California [36], Georgia [37], Tennessee [38], Mississippi [39]  “slums and ghettos of our northern cities” [paragraph 14]  “the South” [25]  “From every mountainside” [40]  “from every village and every hamlet” [41] Specific Examples General Examples Anaphora
  8. 8. + ANAPHORA  “One hundred years later…” [paragraph 3]  “Now is the time…” [paragraph 6]  “We must…” [paragraph 8]  “We can never (cannot) be satisfied…” [paragraph 13]  “Go back to…” [paragraph 14]  “I Have a Dream…” [paragraphs 16 through 24]  “With this faith, …” [paragraph 26]  “Let freedom ring (from) …” [paragraphs 27 through 41] Repeated Words
  9. 9. + Commonly Repeated Words  freedom (20 times)  we (30 times), our (17 times), you (8 times)  nation (10 times), America (5 times), American (4 times)  justice (8 times) and injustice (3 times)  dream (11 times) Parallelism
  10. 10. + “Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana.” “from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city” “all of God‟s children,” no matter if they are “black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics” Parallelism Allusion
  11. 11. + ALLUSION  “Five score years ago…” [paragraph 2] refers to Lincoln‟s famous Gettysburg Address speech which began “Four score and seven years ago…” This allusion is particularly poignant given that King was speaking in front of the Lincoln Memorial.  “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” [and the rest of paragraph 4] is a reference to the United States Declaration of Independence.  Numerous Biblical allusions provide the moral basis for King‟s arguments: “It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity.” [paragraph 2] alludes to Psalms 30:5 “For his anger is but for a moment; his favor is for a lifetime. Weeping may linger for the night, but joy comes with the morning.“  “Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” [paragraph 8] evokes Jeremiah 2:13 “for my people have committed two evils: they have forsaken me, the fountain of living water, and dug out cisterns for themselves, cracked cisterns that can hold no water.“
  12. 12. + Monroe‟s Motivated Sequence Steps one and two!
  13. 13. + The Attention Step  In the attention step, speakers call attention to the situation. King, speaking from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, calls attention to Lincoln‟s signing of the Emancipation Proclamation, the situation of the Negro today (“One hundred years later, the Negro still is not free.”), and the fact that the words of the Constitution and Declaration of Independence granting all people the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness have not been fulfilled.
  14. 14. + The Need Step  For the need step, speakers describe the difficulty, trouble, distress, crisis, emergency, or urgency. King says, “Instead of honoring this sacred obligation [what the Constitution and Declaration of Independence promise], America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check that has come back marked „insufficient funds.‟” And why have they come to Washington, D.C.? — to “remind America of the fierce urgency of now.”
  15. 15. + Homework  Post #48: Refine and develop the "Attention step" in your speech. Use the techniques we practiced in class to make it grab the readers attention. Introduce your problem!  Post #49: Refine and develop the "Need step" in your speech. Describe the difficulty, trouble, distress, crisis, emergency, or urgency. (Its Seriousness)  Speeches begin Wednesday, Week 11, Class 50. Everyone should be prepared to go first.