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  1. 1. + Class 26 EWRT 1A
  2. 2. + AGENDA  Appositives  How and When to cite  Plagiarism  Quoting and Summarizing  Integrating Quotations  Writing the draft  Tips for writing your essay
  3. 3. + Sentence Strategy Appositives
  4. 4. +A Sentence Strategy: Appositives SMG 177-79  As you draft an essay explaining a concept, you have a lot of information to present, such as definitions of terms and credentials of experts. Appositives provide an efficient, clear way to integrate these kinds of information into your sentences. An appositive is a noun or pronoun that, along with modifiers, gives more information about another noun or pronoun. Here is an example from Ngo’s concept essay (the appositive is in italics and the noun it refers to is underlined):  Cannibalism, the act of human beings eating human flesh(Sagan 2), has a long history and continues to hold interest and create controversy. (Ngo paragraph 5)
  5. 5. +By placing the definition in an appositive phrase right after the word it defines, this sentence locates the definition exactly where readers need it.Writers explaining concepts rely on appositives because they serve many different purposes needed in concept essays, as the following examples demonstrate. (Again, the appositive is in italics and the noun it refers to is underlined.) Defining a New Term  Some researchers believe hyperthymics may be at increased risk of depression or hypomania, a mild variant of mania (Friedman, Paragraph 5).  Cannibalism can be broken down into two main categories: exocannibalism, the eating of outsiders of foreigners, and endocannibalism, the eating of members of one’s own social group (Shipman 70). (Ngo paragraph, 6)
  6. 6. + Each person carries in his or her mind a unique subliminal guide to the ideal partner, a “love map.” (Toufexis, paragraph 17) Introducing a New Term “Love is a natural high,” observes Anthony Walsh, author of The Science of Love: Understanding Love and Its Effects on Mind and Body. (Toufexis, paragraph 10) Giving Credentials of Experts
  7. 7. Identifying People and Things When I was in high school I read the Robert Browning Poem ‘My Last Duchess.’ In it, the narrator said he killed is wife, the duchess, because . . .(Friedman, Paragraph 2). Giving Examples or Specifics Some 2,400 years ago, Hippocrates proposed that a mixture of four basic humors—blood,phlegm, yellow bile,and black bile—determined human temperament…(Friedman, paragraph 6)
  8. 8. + Try it! Try writing several appositive phrases.  Defining a term  Introducing a new term  Giving the credentials of experts  Identifying people and things  Giving examples or specifics Use the examples as models.
  9. 9. + How and When to Cite Sources Avoiding Plagiarism
  10. 10.  Avoiding Plagiarism: Writers — students and professionals alike — occasionally fail to acknowledge sources properly.The word plagiarism, which derives from the Latin word for “kidnapping, ”refers to the unacknowledged use of another’s words, ideas, or information. Students sometimes mistakenly assume that plagiarizing occurs only when another writer’s exact words are used without acknowledgment. In fact, plagiarism also applies to such diverse forms of expression as musical compositions and visual images as well as ideas and statistics.Therefore, keep in mind that you must indicate the source of any borrowed information or ideas you use in your essay, whether you have paraphrased, summarized, or quoted directly from the source or have reproduced it or referred to it in some other way. Remember especially the need to document electronic sources fully and accurately. Information, ideas, and images from electronic sources require acknowledgment in even more detail than those from print sources (and are often easier to detect as plagiarism if they are not acknowledged). Some people plagiarize simply because they do not know the conventions for using and acknowledging sources. Others plagiarize because they keep sloppy notes and thus fail to distinguish between their own and their sources’ ideas. If you keep careful notes, you will not make this serious mistake. Another reason some people plagiarize is that they feel intimidated by the writing task or the deadline. If you experience this anxiety about your work, speak to me. Do not run the risk of failing the course or being expelled from school because of plagiarism. If you are confused about what is and what is not plagiarism, be sure to ask me.
  11. 11. Quoting and Summarizing: Writers use sources by quoting directly and by summarizing. DecidingWhether to Quote or Summarize As a general rule, quote only in these situations: (1) when the wording of the source is particularly memorable or vivid or expresses a point so well that you cannot improve it. (2) when the words of reliable and respected authorities would lend support to your position. (3) when you wish to cite an author whose opinions challenge or vary greatly from those of other experts. (4) when you are going to discuss the source’s choice of words. • Summarize any long passages whose main points you wish to record as support for a point you are making.
  12. 12. +Integrating Quotations Depending on its length, a quotation may be incorporated into your text by being enclosed in quotation marks or set off from your text in a block without quotation marks. In either case, be sure to integrate the quotation into the language of your essay. In-Text Quotations: Incorporate brief quotations (no more than four typed lines of prose or three lines of poetry) into your text.You may place the quotation virtually anywhere in your sentence:  At the Beginning:  “To live a life is not to cross a field,” Sutherland writes at the beginning of her narrative (11).  In the Middle  Woolf begins and ends by speaking of the need of the woman writer to have “money and a room of her own” (4)--an idea that certainly spoke to Plath’s condition.  At the End  In The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir describes such an experience as one in which the girl “becomes an object, and she sees herself as object” (378).
  13. 13. +Integrating Quotations Divided byYour Own Words  “Science usually prefers the literal to the nonliteral term,” Kinneavy writes,“--that is, figures of speech are often out of place in science” (177). When you quote poetry within your text, use a slash ( / ) with spaces before and after to signal the end of each line of verse:  Alluding to St. Augustine’s distinction between the City of God and the Earthly City, Lowell writes that “much against my will / I left the City of God where it belongs” (4-5)
  14. 14. + Tips for writing your essay  Begin with a long anecdote to draw the reader into your essay.  Write a thesis that includes all of the categories you will discuss.  Use examples and definitions to make your point.  Use appositives to describe nouns and eliminate wordiness.  Introduce and cite your in-text quotations.  Enter your sources on your Works Cited list.
  15. 15. + Homework  Read: HG through chapter 24  Post #30: Post a list of five appositive phrases you have included in your essay.  Post #31: Draft of your complete concept essay  Study: Vocab (1-24)  Bring: Working draft of Concept essay