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Bio gas plant


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..Biogas Plant ... simple but everything is touched

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Bio gas plant

  1. 1. Bio-gas plant .Introduction: . Biogas is formed by the natural degradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. .Microbially controlled production of biogas is an important part of the global carbon cycle. .Every year 590-800 million tons of methane are released into the atmosphere. .Biogas contains 50-70% methane and 30% carbon dioxide.
  2. 2. .Methane has a calorific value of 21-24Mj/m3 or around 6KW/m3. .Biogas is often used for cooking, heating, lighting or electricity generation. .Biogas is produced in three steps : >Hydrolysis: where enzymes degrade complex carbohyderates , proteins and lipids into their constituent units.
  3. 3. >Acidogenesis: where hydrolysis products are converted to acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. >Methanogegesis: where obligate anaerobic bacteria control methane production from acidogenesis products. .Sludge produced from the anaerobic digestion of liquid biomass is often used as a fertilizer. .Biogas technologies have been failures in many developing countries.
  4. 4. History: .Biogas was used for heating bath water in Assyria as long as 10 th century B.C. .Well documented attempts to harness biogas dates from mid 19th century in New-Zealand and India. .In 2007 , the no of biogas plants in china was 26.5 million. .In 1999, the no of biogas plants in india was 3 million.
  5. 5. .The national project on biogas development has run since 1981-1982 and promotes its own digester designs. .Subsidies from state govt and central govt to install house hold bioreactors ranged from 30% to 100% in the 1980’s -1990’s.
  6. 6. .Design And Working: .The two types of biogas plants in usage for biogas production are: .>the fixed dome type of biogas plant. .>the floating gas holder type biogas plant.
  7. 7. Fixed Dome Biogas Plant Floating Dome Biogas Plant
  8. 8. .Raw materials required for a biogas plant: >Animal dung. >Poultry wastes. >Plant wastes(Husk, grass, weeds)etc. >Human excreta. >Industrial wastes(saw dust,food processing wastes). >Domestic wastes(vegetable peels,waste food) etc.
  9. 9. .Principle: .Biogas is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation of biomass in the presence of water. .Fixed dome type biogas plants are much more commonly found than Floating gas holder type biogas plant because: >requires only locally and easily available materials for construction. >inexpensive and easy to construct.
  10. 10. .Advantages of a biogas plant: .Dramatically improves the health of users. .Rapid fall in diseases like schistosomiasis and tapeworm. .Reduces burden on forests and fossil fuel. .Produces a clean fuel.Helps in controlling air pollution.
  11. 11. .Provides nutrient rich manure for plants ( in nitroren and phosphorus). .Controls water pollution by decomposing sewage , animal dung and human excreta.
  12. 12. .Limitations: .The construction costs of biogas plants vary between different countries, they are often high relative to the income of the farmers and other potential users. Poor farmers are still lacking behind for adopting this technology because: >Initial cost of installation of the plant is high. >Number of cattle owned by an average family of farmers is inadequate to feed a biogas plant.
  13. 13. .Advantages of biogas as a fuel: >High calorific value. >Clean fuel. >No residue produced. >No smoke produced. >Non Polluting. >Economical.
  14. 14. >Can be supplied through pipe lines. >Burns readily-has a convenient ignition temperature.
  15. 15. .Potential for spread : .Even in those countries with an established record in installing small scale biogas plants, there remains potential for continued spread of these systems. .The potential maximum number of household livestock digesters in india has been estimated as 1217 million, based on the availability of cow manure, compared to the current levels of around 4 million.
  16. 16. .In Bangladesh since it is thought 80% of the manure from 22 million cattle in the country could be made available for biogas production. .It has been calculated that only 19% of biogas potential has been utilized in rural china and 1023 million tones of biogas can be extracted.
  17. 17. .Conclusions: .Biogas technology offers a vast set of benefits. .Except India and China, in other developing countries, the proportion of functional plants is often 50% or less. .Considerable govt. involvement is requested for these support networks to be continued over time. .Its a challenge to develop designs of biogas plants which
  18. 18. Deliver lower cost, improved robustness, functionality, ease of construction, operation and maintenance would aid the market penetration of biogas plants. ---End--Roll no: a12 Sec:e3203 Name : Jahanzaib bhat.