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Dna sequencing


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Dna sequencing

  1. 1. DNA Sequencing Jordan Fuller
  2. 2. What is DNA sequencing? <ul><li>= procedure of determining the order of base pairs in a section of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>started in the 1970s </li></ul>
  3. 3. Maxam-Gilbert sequencing <ul><li>1976-1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a DNA sequencing method based on chemical modification of DNA at the time </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chain Termination <ul><li>= is any chemical reaction that ceases the formation of reactive intermediates in a chain propagation step in the course of a polymerization, effectively bringing it to a halt. </li></ul><ul><li>Single-stranded DNA, primers, polymerase, and nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Split into four different reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation is terminated </li></ul><ul><li>Different sizes of DNA fragments remain </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chemical Degradation <ul><li>= The act or process of simplifying or breaking down a molecule into smaller parts, either naturally or artificially </li></ul><ul><li>Double-stranded </li></ul><ul><li>Treated by chemicals that cut DNA at different positions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dye-Terminator <ul><li>= utilizes labelling of the chain terminator ddNTPs, which permits sequencing in a single reaction, rather than four reactions as in the labelled-primer method </li></ul><ul><li>Each chain terminator has a fluorescent dye, which gives off light at different wavelenghts </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cancer Treatment <ul><li>New ways to detect a cancer patients progress of the patients treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the presence of cancer cells through the patients blood </li></ul><ul><li>Based markers could eventually become better diagnostic treatments than the ones we have now </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Improved diagnosis of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Bio pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying crime suspects </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Whole genome cannot be sequenced at once </li></ul><ul><li>Very slow and time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Can be very hard to put together </li></ul>
  9. 9. Human Genome Project <ul><li>= is an international scientific research project with a primary goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up DNA, and of identifying and mapping the approximately 20,000–25,000 genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint </li></ul>